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that favourable interpretation, which in justice ought to be allowed to all ancient Catholic writers.

We may further observe, that though this Creed be the same in substance with the Roman Creed, which is commonly called the Apostles' Creed, yet it differs from it very much in phrase and expression, and comes nearer the Creeds of the Eastern Church; and though it be as perfect as any of that age, yet it has neither the article of the descent into hell,' nor « the communion of saints' expressly mentioned in it; which shows, that these articles were not totidem verbis inserted into

the first Creeds of the Church. The Creed 8. Thus far I have collected the scattered remains of the of Jerusa- ancient Creeds, which were composed, before the Nicene lem.

Creed, for the use of several Churches; as they are still upon record in private writers. But we have some more perfect forms also remaining, as those of Jerusalem, Cæsarea, Antioch, Alexandria, and Rome, by comparing which together, the reader may easily perceive, how the unity of faith was exactly agreed upon, and preserved with some variety of expression. The Creed of the Church of Jerusalem we have imperfectly in St. James's Liturgy, and more perfectly in the Catechetical Discourses of Cyril, bishop of Jerusalem, which are an exposition upon it. In St. James's Liturgy 52 we have only the beginning of the Creed; “I believe in one God the Father Almighty, Maker of heaven and earth, and in one Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God.' But the remaining articles are not inserted, as being vulgarly known without reciting. However, in Cyril's Catechisms 53 the articles are rehearsed

52 Ap. Bibl. Patr. Gr. Lat. (t. 2. αναστάντα εκ νεκρών τη τρίτη ημέρα, p. 7.) Πιστεύω εις ένα θεόν, Πατέρα και ανελθόντα εις τους ουρανούς, και παντοκράτορα, ποιητήν ουρανού και καθίσαντα εκ δεξιών του Πατρός και γης και εις ένα Κύριον Ιησούν Χρι- έρχόμενον κρίναι ζώντας και νεκρούς στόν τον Υιόν του θεού.

ου της βασιλείας ουκ έσται τέλος. Και 53 Catech. 6. (p. 84.) Πιστεύω εις εις έν άγιον Πνεύμα, το παράκλητον, ένα θεόν, Πατέρα παντοκράτορα, ποι- το λαλήσαν διά των προφητών. Εις ητήν ουρανού και γης, ορατών τε πάν- έν βάπτισμα μετανοίας εις άφεσιν των και αοράτων ποιητήν. Και εις αμαρτιών εις μίαν αγίαν καθολικήν ένα Κύριον Ιησούν Χριστόν, τον Υιόν εκκλησίαν" και είς σαρκός ανάστασιν του θεού τον μονογενή, τον εκ του και εις ζωήν αιώνιον. [The BeneΠατρός γεννηθέντα προ πάντων των dictine edition of this Creed comαιώνων, θεόν αληθινόν, δί ου τα πάντα mences Πιστεύομεν, and slightly vaεγένετο σαρκωθέντα και ενανθρωπή- ries in some other readings which σαντα, σταυρωθέντα, και ταφέντα, και do not affect the sense. ED.]

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at full length, and when collected together they run in this form :

• I believe in one God, the Father Almighty, Maker of heaven and earth, and of all things visible and invisible. And in one Lord Jesus Christ, the only-begotten Son of God, begotten of the Father before all ages, the true God, by whom all things were made, who was incarnate and made man, who was crucified and buried, and the third day he rose again from the dead, and ascended into heaven, and sitteth on the right hand of the Father, and shall come to judge the quick and dead, of whose kingdom there shall be no end. And in the Holy Ghost, the Comforter, who spake by the prophets. In one baptism of repentance, in the remission of sins, in one Catholic Church, in the resurrection of the flesh, and in life everlasting.'

That this Creed was neither the Nicene Creed nor the Constantinopolitan, is evident, because it wants the word consubstantial and other titles, which are given to the Son in the Nicene Creed; nor has it the full explication of the character of the Holy Ghost, which was afterward made in the Constantinopolitan Creed; which is not to be wondered at, because Cyril's Catechisms were written some years before the Council of Constantinople was held. Therefore it must be the ancient Creed of Jerusalem, as learned men 54 have rightly concluded, and hence also observed, that the Oriental Creeds had originally the articles that follow the Holy Ghost, viz., the Catholic Church, the remission of sins, the resurrection of the flesh, and

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54 Bull, Judic. Eccles. Cathol. &c. Sanctum, ex symbolo Constantinoc. 6. n. 5. (p.48.) Hoc symbolum politano minime desumpta, sed in annon ipsum esse Nicænum, et Con- tiquissimis Orientis symbolis, diu stantinopolitani quoque symboli ad- ante synodumConstantinopolitanam, ditionibus de Spiritu Sancto carere, adeoque Nicænam, posita fuisse, vapalam est. Quod posterius nemini lidissimis argumentis confirmabo. mirum videri potest, qui meminerit, Certum est symbola, quæ ante ConCatecheses Cyrilli

, in quibus symbo- cilium Constantinopolitanum, adeolum illud recitatur, multis annis ante que Nicænum, ecclesiæ Occidentis habitam synodum Constantinopoli- usurparunt, minime desiisse in verba tanam, quæ demum anno Christi illa Et in Spiritum Sanctum ; sed et 381. celebrata est, conscriptas fuisse. alia in ipsis fidei capita subjecta fuRestat igitur, ut sit revera vetus isse. Quis vero, qui ea, quæ supra symbolum ecclesiæ Hierosolymi- observavimus de origine omnium tanæ.-Ibid. n. 6. sub fin. (p. 49.) fere hæresium in Oriente, expendeQuæ in symbolo Hierosolymitano rit, facile credat, symbola Occidensubjiciuntur post ista, in Spiritum talia Orientalibus fuisse auctiora ? BINGHAM, VOL. III.

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eternal life. Only the communion of saints,' and the descent

into hell,' are wanting in it.
The Creed 9. And so we find in the Creed of Cæsarea in Palestine, in
of Cæsarea the profession of which Eusebius says he was baptized and

catechized; the 'descent into hell’ is not mentioned in it. But
it differs in expression from the Jerusalem Creed, and comes
up the nearest to the Nicene Creed of any other. The form,
as it was proposed by Eusebius himself to the Council of Nice 55,
is in these words: We believe in one God, the Father Almighty,
Maker of all things visible and invisible; and in one Lord
Jesus Christ, the Word of God, God of God, Light of Light,
Life of Life, his only begotten Son, the first-born of every
creature, begotten of the Father before all ages; by whom all
things were made ; who for our salvation was incarnate, and
conversed among men, and suffered, and rose again the third
day, and ascended unto the Father, and shall come again to
judge the quick and the dead. We believe also in one Holy
Spirit. Every one of these we believe to be and exist. We

confess the Father to be truly a Father, the Son truly a Son,
the Holy Ghost truly a Holy Ghost, according to what our
Lord, when he sent his disciples to preach, said, “Go teach all
nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the
Son, and of the Holy Ghost.”'

The articles that follow the Holy Ghost' are here omitted
only for the same reason for which, as I shall show hereafter,
they were omitted in the Nicene Creed,—because then no dis-
pute was made about them, and only so much of the Creed was
now produced, as was necessary to be mentioned in opposition
to the Arian heresy.

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55 Ep. ad Eccles. Cesar. ap. So- τρίτη ημέρα και ανελθόντα προς τον crat. 1. Ι. c. 8. (ν. 2, p. 23. 15.) Πι- Πατέρα, και ήξοντα πάλιν εν δόξη στεύομεν εις ένα θεόν, Πατέρα παντο- κρίναι ζώντας και νεκρούς. Πιστεύοκράτορα, τον των απάντων ορατών τε μεν και εις εν Πνεύμα άγιον. Τούτων και αοράτων ποιητήν. Και εις ένα Κύ- έκαστον είναι και υπάρχειν πιστεύονριον Ιησούν Χριστόν, τον του Θεού τες, Πατέρα αληθώς Πατέρα, και Υιόν Λόγον, θεόν εκ θεού, Φώς εκ Φωτός, αληθώς Υιον, και Πνεύμα άγιον αληΖωήν εκ Ζωής, Υιόν μονογενή, πρωτό- θώς άγιον Πνεύμα καθώς και ο Κύριος τοκον πάσης κτίσεως, προ πάντων των ημών, αποστέλλων εις το κήρυγμα τους αιώνων εκ του θεού Πατρός γεγεννη- εαυτού μαθητάς, είπε, Πορευθέντες μένον· δι' ου και εγένετο τα πάντα τον μαθητεύσατε πάντα τα έθνη, βαπτίδιά την ημετέραν σωτηρίαν σαρκω- ζοντες αυτούς εις το όνομα του Πατρός, θέντα, και εν ανθρώποις πολιτευσάμε- και του Υιού, και του αγίου Πνεύματος. νον" και παθόντα, και αναστάντα τη

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10. The Creed of Alexandria was somewhat shorter than The Creed this, and is supposed by learned men to be that which Arius of Alexanand Euzoius delivered in to Constantine, when they made a sort of feigned recantation before him. The form is recorded in Socrates 56 in these words: We believe in one God, the Father Almighty. And in Jesus Christ, his Son, our Lord, God the Word, begotten of him before all ages; by whom all things were made, that are in heaven and in earth; who came down from heaven, and was incarnate, and suffered, and rose again, and ascended into heaven, and shall come again to judge the quick and the dead. And in the Holy Ghost, and in the resurrection of the flesh, and in the life of the world to come, and in the kingdom of heaven, and in one Catholic Church of God extended from one end of the earth to the other.'

11. The Creed of the Church of Antioch seems to be that The Creed which is recorded in Cassian, who delivers it as it was probably received in that Church from the time of the Apostles, only with the addition of the word consubstantial, inserted from the time of the Council of Nice. The text and faith of the Creed of Antioch,' says he, 57, is this: I believe in one only true God, the Father, Almighty, Maker of all creatures visible and invisible: and in Jesus Christ our Lord, his only begotten Son, the first-born of every creature; born of him before all ages, and not made ; very God of very God, consubstantial with the Father; by whom the world was framed and all things made; who for our sakes came, and was born of the Virgin

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36 L. 1. C. 26. (v. 2. p. 61. 26.) tiocheni symboli hæc est. Credo in
Πιστεύομεν εις ένα θεόν, Πατέρα παν- unum et solum verum Deum Pa-
τοκράτορα. Και εις Κύριον Ιησούν trem Omnipotentem, Creatorem om-
Χριστόν τον Υιόν αυτού, τον εξ αυτού nium visibilium et invisibilium cre-
προ πάντων των αιώνων γεγεννημένον, aturarum. Et Dominum nostrum
Oxòv qóyov di' távra éyéveto, lesum Christum, Filium ejus unige-
τα τε εν τοις ουρανοίς, και τα επί της nitum, et primogenitum totius cre-
γής τον κατελθόντα, και σαρκωθέντα, ature, ex eo natum ante omnia se-
και παθόντα, και αναστάντα, και ανελ- cula, et non factum ; Deum verum
θόντα εις τους ουρανούς, και πάλιν έρ- ex Deo vero; homoousion Patri, per
χόμενον κρίναι ζώντας και νεκρούς. quem et secula compaginata sunt
Και εις το άγιον Πνεύμα, και είς σαρ- et omnia facta; qui propter nos ve-
κός ανάστασιν, και εις ζωής του μέλ. nit et natus est ex Maria Virgine,
λοντος αιώνος, και εις βασιλείαν ου- et crucifixus sub Pontio Pilato,
ρανών, και εις μίαν καθολικήν εκκλη- et sepultus, et tertia die resurrexit
σίαν του θεού, την από περάτων έως secundum Scripturas, et in celos

ascendit, et iterum veniet judicare
'57 De Incarnat. 1.6.c.3.] p. 1272. vivos et mortuos. Et reliqua.
(p.743.) Textus ergo ac fides An-


Mary, and was crucified under Pontius Pilate, and buried, and the third day rose according to the Scriptures, and ascended into heaven, and shall come again to judge the quick and the dead.'

Cassian here repeats not the whole Creed, but only those articles that were proper to be urged against Nestorius, who had been baptized into this faith, and by this Creed, at Antioch; from which he shews his prevarications, and how he had started from the profession which he himself had made in the words of this Creed, both at his baptism and ordination, leav

ing the remaining articles unrecited. The Roman 12. The reader may easily perceive, by comparing the foreCreed,

mentioned Creeds, that the articles of the communion of saints,' commonly called the and the descent into hell,' are not expressly mentioned in any Apostles' Creed.

of them. Nor were they originally in the Roman Creed, which is commonly called the Apostles' Creed, as appears not only from the testimony of Ruffin, but from some ancient copies of this Creed still remaining. Bishop Usher 58 met with two copies here in England, which wanted these additions, and also that of • life everlasting. The one was in Greek, though written in Saxon characters, at the end of King Athelstan's Psalter, about the year 703; and the other in Latin, but both exactly in the same form of words : ‘I believe in God, the Father, Almighty. And in Jesus Christ, his only begotten Son, our Lord, who was born of the Holy Ghost and the Virgin Mary, and was crucified under Pontius Pilate, and was buried, and the third day rose again from the dead, ascended into heaven, sitteth on the right hand of the Father, whence he shall come to judge the quick and the dead. And in the Holy Ghost, the holy Church, the remission of sins, and the resurrection of the flesh.'

The variations of these ancient forms from the present form of the Apostles' Creed in the want of several words that have

58 De Symbol. p. 6. (Works, v. 7. τη τρίτη ημέρα αναστάντα εκ νεκρών, p. 304.) In brevioris vero illius sym- αναβάντα εις τους ουρανούς, καθήμενον boli duo incidi exemplaria, quorum εν δεξιά του Πατρός, όθεν έρχεται alterum Greece, &c. .... Πιστεύω εις κρίναι ζώντας και νεκρούς. Και εις θεόν Πατέρα παντοκράτορα. Και είς Πνεύμα άγιον, αγίαν εκκλησίαν, άφετον Χριστόν Ιησούν Υιόν αυτού τον σιν αμαρτιών, σαρκός ανάστασιν. 'Αμονογέννητον, τον Κύριον ημών" τον μήν. [This passage abounds with γεννηθέντα εκ Πνεύματος αγίου, και typographical errors in the Dublin Mapías this map évov' tòvéti lov- Edition 1847, which I have at hand. riov Ichátov otavpwdévta, tapévra, See Ed. Oxon. 1660. 4to. Ed.]

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