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been since added, are noted by Bishop Usher 59, who also observes that this Creed is delivered by several ancient authors, with some variety of expression. For in some authors, which use this Creed,' life everlasting'is added after the resurrection of the flesh. As in the Homilies of Petrus Chrysologus 60, shop of Ravenna, where he expounds this Creed; and in the author of the book De Symbolo ad Catechumenos, in the ninth tome of St. Austin's works, which is the sixth of the Benedictine Editors;] and in the Creed which Marcellus, bishop of Ancyra, presented to Pope Julius, which is recorded in Epiphanius 61. But others conclude this Creed with the resurrection of the flesh,' and make no express mention of the life ever
59 [Ibid. p. 6. lin. penult. et 7. (p. ditur. Posterior et in Apologia ad305.) Atque hoc symbolum illud est, versus eumdem Hieronymum, Aquiquod ... tum a Maximo Taurinensi leienses suos in hujus carnis resurin Homilia de Traditione Symbolirectione finem symboli statuere conexplicatur; tum ab Augustino in li- firmat ; et in ipsius Symboli Exposibello de Fide et Symbolo (tomo ope- tione porro addit; Ultimus iste serrum sexto) Competentibus exponi- mo, qui resurrectionem pronuntiat, tur, et in fine fidelibus omnibus ita summam totius perfectionis succommendatur : Hæc est fides, quæ cincta brevitate concludit : quem in paucis verbis tenenda in symbolo sua Symboli Explicatione secutus est novellis Christianis datur. Quæ Venantius Fortunatus, Pictaviensis pauca verba fidelibus nota sunt: ut apud Gallos episcopus; eo capitulo credendo subjugentur, Deo subju- summam perfectionis concludi simigati recte vivant, recte vivendo cor liter repetens. Quod ipsum etiam mundent, corde mundo, quod cre- Maximus Taurinensis illis verbis dunt, intelligant. Idemque ipsum significatum voluit; .Hic religionis Græcum, a Marcello Ancyrano pro- nostræ finis, hæc summa credendi fessioni fidei suæ ad Julium Roma. est :' et author sermonis ducentenum antistitem insertum, apud Epi- simi decimi tertii (operum Augustini, phanium in Hæresi 72. legitur: tom. quinto) notatione illa, ‘Iste jam verbo latépa tantum initio, libra- finis est : sed finis sine fine erit reriorum ut videtur incuria, omisso; surrectio carnis.' [The references in et vitæ æternæ articulo in fine super- this citation are according to the addito. Quem et in Occidentis qui- Benedictine edition of Augustine's busdam partibus receptum fuisse, et Works, which Dr. Elrington, the ex Petro Ravennate, et ex Authore editor of the Dublin reprint, conlibri de Symbolo ad Catechumenos sulted. Usher himself cited tomes observo; symbolum eodem modo, 3. and 10. of the old edition by Froquo a Marcello est propositum, ex- benius. See Ed. Oxon. 1660, menplicantibus. Verum apud alios, o- tioned in the preceding note.
See missa vitæ æternæ mentione, in car- also n. 65, following: for Sermo 119 nis resurrectione (ut in nostris illis de Tempore, according to the Archsuperioribus) terminatum fuisse sym- bishop's original reference, is the bolum ex Hieronymo et Ruffino in- 213th sermon of the Benedictines, telligitur. Quorum prior in Epistola as given also by Dr. Elrington. Ed.] trigesima octava [al. Ep. 61.] ad 60 Sermones, 57-62. (pp. 88, seqq.) Pammachium, adversus errores lo- In Symbolum Apostolicum. annis Hierosolymitani, ita loquitur. 61 Hær. 72. Marcellian. n. 3. (t. 1. (Op. Hieron. t. 2. p.435 e.) In sym- p. 836 b.) Illoteúw oủv eis Ocòv tavbolo fidei et spei nostræ ....conclu- Tokpatópa, k. 7.d.
lasting :' not that they supposed it to be no article of faith, but because it was included in the other article of the resurrection,' as they rightly expound it. St. Jerom 62 says plainly, that the Creed was concluded with the resurrection of the flesh :' and Maximus Taurinensis 63, who expounds every article of it distinctly, says the same. And St. Austin also concludes the Creed with the resurrection of the flesh,' but then he includes 'eternal life' in the exposition of it. • For,' says he 64, when the resurrection of the body is effected, we shall be freed from the conditions of time, and enjoy eternal life, with ineffable charity and stability without corruption.' And so the author of the Sermons, De Tempore, under his name 65: The resurrection of the flesh is the end of all; but it is an end without end, for there is no death after that.' Therefore they made it the conclusion of the Creed, because it was the conclusion of
all things in this world. The Creed 13. And thus it was in the Creed of the Church of Aquileia, of Aquileia. which differed in other points both from the Roman and Ori
ental Creeds. For Ruffinus, who wrote an exposition upon it, concludes it with the article of the resurrection,' and neither mentions nor expounds the article of eternal life,' but only tacitly, as it is implied in the resurrection. In other articles some additions were made to this Creed, which were not in the Roman : for here the descent into hell’ is particularly mentioned; and not only the resurrection of the flesh' in general, but the resurrection of this flesh' in particular : and in the first article, after the word · Almighty,' were added ' impassible and invisible,' as peculiar appellations of God the Father. For it was thus conceived 66: 'I believe in God, the Father, Almighty, in
62 Ep. 61. ad Pammach. [al. Lib. liberati, æterna vita ineffabili caricont. Ioan. Hierosol.] (t. 2. p. 435 tate et [al. atque] stabilitate sine e.) In symbolo fidei ... post confes- corruptione perfruemur. sionem Trinitatis et unitatem ec- 65 Serm. 119. de Tempore, t. 10. clesiæ, omne Christiani dogmatis p. 306. [al. Serm. 213. c. 9.] (t. 5. sacramentum carnis resurrectione part. 1. p. 942 e.) Iste jam finis est. concluditur.
Sed finis sine fine erit resurrectio 63 Hom. 1. de Diversis, [al. Hom. carnis, &c. in Traditione Symboli, &c.] p. 239: Expos. Symbol. ad calc. Cypr. (ap. Bibl. Max. t. 6. p. 43 e. 11.) p. 19. (append. pp. 155, seqq.) Credo Hic religionis nostræ finis, hæc sum- in Deum Patrem, Omnipotentem, ma credendi est.
[Invisibilem et Impassibisem.] Et 64 De Fid. et Symbol. t. 3. p. 66. in Christum Jesum, unicum Filium
t (t. 6. p. 164 b.) Qua corporis resur- ejus, Dominum nostrum, qui natus rectione facta a temporis conditione est de Spiritu Sancto ex Maria Vir
visible and impassible. And in Jesus Christ, his only Son, our Lord, who was born by the Holy Ghost of the Virgin Mary, was crucified under Pontius Pilate, and buried; he descended into hell, and the third day rose again from the dead, and ascended into heaven, and sitteth on the right hand of the Father, whence he shall come to judge the quick and the dead. And in the Holy Ghost, the holy Catholic Church, the remission of sins, and the resurrection of this flesh.'
The reason of adding the words invisible and impassible to this Creed, which were not in the Roman, was to obviate the Sabellian or Patripassian heresy, which asserted that God the Father was born of the Virgin, and so made visible and passible in the flesh. In opposition to which impiety, Ruffinus says 67, their forefathers seem to have added those words, professing the Father to be invisible and impassible ;' that is, that he never was incarnate, as the Son only was and not the Father. The · descent into hell’ is also almost peculiar to this Creed; for excepting this and the Creed of the Council of Sirmium or Ariminum, mentioned by Socrates 68, this article was not expressly mentioned in any other Creed of this age; though Ruffinus thinks it was always implied in the word buried, which he reckons of the same importance. When it first came into the Roman Creed, the reader may find a particular account in Bishop Pearson, who speaks of it as done about the
14. I have hitherto given an account of all such Creeds as The Nicene
Creed, as might be reckoned of use in the Church before the time of the first pubNicene Council. I shall now give the like account of the first lished by
the Council forming of the Nicene Creed, and how it was afterward com- of Nice. pleted and put into a new form by the Council of Constantinople. The Creed as first published by the Council of Nice, was in these words 69 : “We believe in one God, Almighty, Maker of gine, crucifixus sub Pontio Pilato, Romanæ symbolo non habentur ; et sepultus, descendit ad inferna. Constat autem apud nos additos hæTertia die resurrexit a mortuis, as- reseos causa Sabellii, illius profecto, cendit in cælos, sedet ad dexteram quæ a nostris Patripassiana appelPatris; inde venturus est judicare latur; id est, quæ Patrem ipsum vel vivos et mortuos. Et in Spiritum ex Virgine natum dicit, et visibiSanctum, Sanctam Ecclesiam Ca- lem factum, vel passum affirmat in tholicam, remissionem peccatorum hujus carnis resurrectionem.
68 L. 2. c. 37. See before, ch.
1.3. 67 Ibid. p. 19. (p. 156.) Sciendum 8.5: P: 503. n. 15. quod duo isti sermones in ecclesiæ 69 Ap. Socrat. 1. 1. c. 8. (v. 2. p.
all things, visible and invisible. And in one Lord, Jesus Christ, the Son of God, begotten of the Father, the only-begotten, that is, of the substance of the Father, God of God, Light of Light, very God of very God, begotten not made, of one sub,
, , stance with the Father ; by whom all things both in heaven and earth were made; who for us men and our salvation came down from heaven, and was incarnate and made man, and suffered, and the third day rose again, and ascended into heaven, and shall come again to judge the quick and the dead. And in the Holy Ghost. And those who say, there was a time when the Son of God was not, or that he did not exist before he was made, because he was made out of nothing, or of another substance or essence, or
at he was created or mutable, the Catholic and Apostolic Church anathematizes them.'
This Creed often occurs in the writings of the ancient Fathers and Councils in this very form : as in Athanasius, Ep. ad Jovianum.-Hilarius, de Synodis.—Leo, Ep. 95. ad Leonem Imperatorem.—The Council of Rome under Julius, anno 337.-The Council of Ephesus, Ep. ad Nestorium.—The Council of Chalcedon, Act. 2.—The Council of Hippo.—The sixth Council of Carthage.—The Preface to the African Code.—The third [or, according to Labbe, the fourth] Council of Bracara.—The third and thirteenth Councils of Toledo.—The fifth general Council of Constantinople, and many others.
. Now some learned persons have been of opinion, that the ancient Creeds before the Council of Nice had none of the articles which follow after the Holy Ghost, but all ended as that does, with those words, ' And in the Holy Ghost.' This was the opinion of Vossius and Erasmus; and Bishop Usher 71
24. ΙΙ.) Πιστεύομεν εις ένα θεόν, κωθέντα, ενανθρωπήσαντα, παθόντα, Πατέρα παντοκράτορα, πάντων ορατών και αναστάντα τη τρίτη ημέρα, ανελ. τε και αοράτων ποιητών. Και εις ένα θόντα εις τους ουρανούς, ερχόμενον Κύριον Ιησούν Χριστόν, τον Υιόν του κρίναι ζώντας και νεκρούς. Και εις το θεού, γεννηθέντα εκ του Πατρός μονο- Πνεύμα το άγιον. Τους δε λέγοντας ήν γενή, τουτέστιν εκ της ουσίας του Πα- ποτέ ότε ουκ ήν, και ουκ ήν πριν γεντρός θεόν εκ θεού, Φώς εκ Φωτός, νηθήναι, ή εξ ουκ όντων εγένετο, ή έξ θεόν αληθινόν εκ θεου αληθινού γεν- ετέρας υποστάσεως ή ουσίας φάσκοννηθέντα, ου ποιηθέντα, ομοούσιον τω τες είναι, ή κτιστον, ή τρεπτόν, ή αλΠατρί δι' ου τα πάντα εγένετο, τα τε λοιωτόν τον Υιόν του θεού, αναθεμαεν τω ουρανό και τα εν τη γη τον δι' τίζει η καθολική και αποστολική του ημάς τους ανθρώπους και διά την ημε- θεου εκκλησία. τέραν σωτηρίαν κατελθόντα, και σαρ- 71 De Symbol. p. 17. (Works, v.
says, he was once inclined to think so himself, but
better consideration, he professes he found it necessary to alter his judgment. For it plainly appears, from most of the forms before recited, that several of the articles which follow after the Holy Ghost,' were always a part of the Creed; and the reason why the Council of Nice repeated them not, was only because there was then no dispute about them, and they only rehearsed so much of the former Creeds as there was then occasion for, to oppose the heresy of the Arians, leaving the rest to be supplied from the former Creeds, then generally received in the Church. This is evident both from the Creeds used by the Arians, and those that were used by the Church, before the Council of Constantinople had settled and new modelled the form of the Nicene Creed that was afterward generally received in the Church. Thus in the Creed of the separating bishops, in the Council of Sardica, related by St. Hilary 72 and others, after the article of the Holy Ghost,' there follows, ' We believe in the holy Church, and in the remission of sins, and eternal life. Or, as it is more perfectly in his Fragments 73, ' The holy Church, the remission of sins, the resurrection of the flesh, and eternal life.' So again, the Eusebians in their first Creed, which they published in the Council of Antioch, mentioned both by Athanasius 74 and Socrates 75, after the article of the Holy Ghost,’ add, We believe the resurrection of the flesh, and eternal life. Now it were absurd to think the Arians should retain these articles in their Creeds, and in the
7. p. 316.) Sane in ea me aliquando their note (b.) on the place. —Quæ fuisse opinione non diffiteor, vete- verba inde [Ep. Pseudo-Synod. Sarrum Orientalium ecclesiarum sym- dic. Fragment. 3. See the next note.] bola in simplice personæ Spiritus huc revocata sunt editione Par., cum Sancti confessione fuisse terminata; neque in aliis editionibus exstent, neillius vero amplificationem capituli, que in manuscriptis, neque in Græcis et quæ de ecclesia et beneficiis ad formulis. Ed.] eam spectantibus sequebantur omnia, 73 Fragment. (3. n. 29.] p. 140. a patribus secundæ synodi æcume- (ibid. 664 c.) Credimus et in sancnicæ, Constantinopoli anno Christo tam ecclesiam, in remissionem pec381. habitæ, primum fuisse addita. catorum, in carnis resurrectionem, Sed ab ea me depulit sententia tem- in vitam æternam. poris, quo a Cyrillo Hierosolymitano 74 De Synod. t. 1. p. 892. See becatechetici sermones sunt habiti, et fore, s. 6. n. 44, preceding. ab Epiphanio Anchoratum fuit edi. 75 L. 2. c. 10. (v. 2. p. 87. 29.) tum, diligentior consideratio, &c. Πιστεύομεν και εις το άγιον Πνεύμα.
72 De Synodis, p. 108. (t. 2. p. Ei dè dei pooleival, mioteúojev kal 483 a. n. 34.) The words referred to περί σαρκός αναστάσεως, και ζωής are omitted by the Benedictines. See aiwviov.