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mean time the Church reject or neglect them. Therefore it is plain the Nicene Creed was only one part of the ancient Creed, that was used at full length in baptism, though not here so recited. And what has been observed before out of Cyril's

Catechisms is a manifest proof of it. The Creeds

15. This is further evident from the two Creeds, a shorter of Epipha. and a longer, recited in Epiphanius, who wrote his Anchorate

some years before the Council of Constantinople. The shorter Creed, which he says every catechumen repeated at his baptism, from the time of the Council of Nice to the tenth

year Valentinian and Valens, anno 373, was in these words 76: We believe in one God, the Father, Almighty, Maker of heaven and earth, and of all things visible and invisible. And in one Lord Jesus Christ, the only begotten Son of God, begotten of the Father before all ages, that is, of the substance of his Father, Light of Light, very God of very God, begotten not made, of one substance with the Father; by whom all things were made which are in heaven and in earth; who for us men and our salvation came down from heaven, and was incarnate of the Holy Ghost and the Virgin Mary, and was made man, and was crucified for us under Pontius Pilate, and suffered and was buried, and the third day rose again according to the Scriptures, and ascended into heaven, and sitteth on the right hand of the Father; and shall come again with glory to judge

76 Anchorat. n. 120. (t. 2. p. 122 ανελθόντα εις τους ουρανούς, και καθεc, d.) Πιστεύομεν εις ένα θεόν, Πα- ζόμενον εκ δεξιών του Πατρός, και τέρα παντοκράτορα, ποιητήν ουρα- πάλιν ερχόμενον μετά δόξης, κρίναι νού τε και γης, ορατών τε πάντων και ζώντας και νεκρούς ου της βασιλείας αοράτων. Και εις ένα Κύριον Ιησούν ουκ έσται τέλος. Και εις το Πνεύμα το Χριστόν, τον Υιόν του θεού τον μονο- άγιον, Κύριον, και ζωοποιόν, το εκ του γενή, τον εκ του Πατρός γεννηθέντα Πατρός εκπορευόμενον, το συν Πατρί προ πάντων των αιώνων τουτέστιν εκ και Υιώ συνπροσκυνούμενον, και συντης ουσίας του Πατρός: Φώς εκ Φωτός, δοξαζόμενον, το λαλήσαν δια των προθεόν αληθινόν εκ θεου αληθινού γεν- φητών. Εις μίαν καθολικήν και απονηθέντα, ου ποιηθέντα ομοούσιον το στολικήν εκκλησίαν. Ομολογούμεν έν Πατρί δι' ου τα πάντα εγένοντο, τά τε βάπτισμα εις άφεσιν αμαρτιών προσεν τοις ουρανοίς, και τα εν τη γη τον δοκώμεν ανάστασιν νεκρών, και ζωήν δι' ημάς τους ανθρώπους και διά την του μέλλοντος αιώνος, Αμήν. Τους ημετέραν σωτηρίαν κατελθόντα εκ των δε λέγοντας, ήν ποτέ, ότε ουκ ήν, και ουρανών, και σαρκωθέντα εκ Πνεύμα- πρίν γεννηθήναι ουκ ήν ή ότι εξ ουκ τος αγίου, και Μαρίας της παρθένου όντων εγένετο, ή εξ ετέρας υποστάκαι ενανθρωπήσαντα, σταυρωθέντα τε σεως, ή ουσίας, φάσκοντας είναι ρευυπέρ ημών επί Ποντίου Πιλάτου, και στον, ή αλλοιωτόν τον του θεού Υιόν, παθόντα, και ταφέντα, και αναστάντα τούτους αναθεματίζει η καθολική και τη τρίτη ημέρα, κατά τας γραφάς, και αποστολική εκκλησία.

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both the quick and the dead; of whose kingdom there shall be no end. And in the Holy Ghost, the Lord and Giver of life, who proceedeth from the Father, who with the Father and the Son together is worshipped and glorified, who spake by the prophets. And in one Catholic. and Apostolic Church. We confess one baptism for the remission of sins; and we look for the resurrection of the dead, and the life of the world to come. But they who say,

there was a time when the Son of God was not, or that he was not before he was begotten, or that he was made out of nothing, or of any other substance or essence, or that he is mutable or changeable, those the Catholic and Apostolic Church anathematizes.'

• This,' says Epiphanius 77, is the faith which was delivered by the holy Apostles, and received by the Church in the Council of Nice, where three hundred and eighteen fathers were present. By which he does not mean that these articles were delivered in this very form, either by the Apostles or the Council of Nice, but that the Church agreed upon this form to be used at baptism, in pursuance of the doctrine delivered by the Apostles and the Nicene Fathers. And afterwards, upon occasion of the Apollinarians and other heretics, which infested the Church about the tenth year of Valentinian and Valens, and the sixth of Gratian, and the ninetieth year of the Diocletian account, that is, anno 373, she enlarged her Creed with a more particular explication of some certain articles in opposition to those heresies ; and then the form appointed to be used in baptism was in these terms, as he informs us in the same place78 :

77 [Ibid. (p. 123b.) Και αύτη μεν η Πατρί δι' ου τα πάντα εγένετο, τα τε πίστις παρεδόθη από των αγίων Απο- εν τοις ουρανούς και τα εν τη γη, οραστόλων, και εν εκκλησία της αγία πόλει, τά τε και αόρατα τον δι' ημάς τους από πάντων ομού των αγίων επισκο- ανθρώπους και διά την ημετέραν σωτηπων υπέρ τριακοσίων δέκα τον αριθ- ρίαν κατελθόντα, καισαρκωθέντα' τουτμόν. ED.]

έστι, γεννηθέντα τελείως εκ της αγίας 78 [Ibid. n. 121. (p. 123 d.) Πι- Μαρίας της αεί παρθένου, διά Πνεύστεύομεν εις ένα θεόν, Πατέρα παν- ματος αγίου ενανθρωπήσαντα' τουττοκράτορα, πάντων αοράτων τε και έστι, τέλειον άνθρωπον λαβόντα, ψυόρατων ποιητών. Και εις ένα Κύριον χήν, και σώμα, και νούν, και πάντα, εϊ 'Ιησούν Χριστόν, τον Υιόν του θεού, τι εστίν άνθρωπος χωρίς αμαρτίας, γεννηθέντα εκ θεού Πατρός, μονογενή ουκ από σπέρματος ανδρός, ουδε εν τουτέστιν εκ της ουσίας του Πατρός ανθρώπω, αλλ' εις εαυτόν σάρκα αναθεόν εκ θεού, Φώς εκ Φωτός, θεόν πλάσαντα, εις μίαν αγίαν ενότητα ου αληθινόν εκ θεου αληθινού γεννη- καθάπερ εν προφήταις ενέπνευσε τε, θέντα, ου ποιηθέντα ομοούσιον τω και ελάλησε, και ενήργησεν, αλλά τε

a

«We believe in one God, the Father, Almighty, Maker of all things, visible and invisible. And in one Lord, Jesus Christ, the Son of God, begotten of God the Father, the only-begotten, that is, of the substance of the Father, God of God, Light of Light, very God of very God, begotten not made, being of one substance with the Father; by whom all things were made, as well in heaven as in earth, visible and invisible; who for us men and our salvation came down from heaven, and was incarnate, that is, was born in perfect manner of the holy Virgin Mary by the Holy Ghost; and was made man, that is, took upon him perfect man, soul and body and mind, and whatsoever is in man, sin only excepted; not by the seed of man, nor merely by existing in man, but by framing flesh to himself into one holy unity; not after the manner as he inspired the prophets, and spake and wrought in them, but by being perfectly made man : for the Word was made flesh, not by undergoing any change, or transforming the godhead into manhood, but by making one perfect and divine union : for there is but one Lord Jesus Christ, not two, the same God, the same Lord, the same King; who suffered in the flesh and rose again, and ascended with his body into heaven, and sitteth in glory at the right hand of the Father ; whence he shall come with glory in the same body to judge the quick and dead, of whose kingdom there shall be no end. We believe in the Holy Ghost, who

λείως ενανθρωπήσαντα ο γάρ Λόγος στον, έκ του Πατρός εκπορευόμενον, σαρξ εγένετο, ου τροπήν υποστάς και εκ του Υιού λαμβανόμενον (al. ουδε μεταβαλών την έαυτού θεότητα λαμβάνοντα), και πιστεύομενον.

Πιεις ανθρωπότητα εις μίαν συνενώ- στεύομεν εις μίαν καθολικήν και αποσαντα εαυτού αγίαν τελείοτητά τε και στολικήν εκκλησίαν, και εις έν βάπθεότητα είς γάρ έστιν Κύριος Ιησούς τισμα μετανοίας, και εις ανάστασιν Χριστός, και ου δύο: ο αυτός θεός, ο νεκρών, και κρίσιν δικαίαν ψυχών και αυτός Κύριος, και αυτος Βασιλεύς πα- σωμάτων, και εις βασιλείαν ουρανών, θόντα δε τον αυτόν εν σαρκί, και ανα- και εις ζωήν αιώνιον. Τους δε λέγοντας στάντα, και ανελθόντα εις τους ουρα- ότι ήν ποτέ, ότε ουκ ήν ο Υιός, ή το νούς εν αυτώ τω σώματι, ενδόξως Πνεύμα το άγιον, ή ότι εξ ουκ όντων καθίσαντα έν δεξιά του Πατρός, ερχό- εγένετο, ή εξ ετέρας υποστάσεως, η μενον εν αυτώ τω σώματι εν δόξη ουσίας, φάσκοντας είναι τρεπτόν, ή κρίναι ζώντας και νεκρούς ου της αλλοιωτόν τον Υιόν του θεού, ή το βασιλείας ουκ έσται τέλος. Και εις το άγιον Πνεύμα τούτους αναθεματίζει η άγιον Πνεύμα πιστεύομεν, το λαλήσαν καθολική και αποστολική εκκλησία, έν νόμω, και κηρύξαν εν τοις προφή- ή μήτηρ υμών τε και ημών. Και πάλιν ταις, και καταβάν επί τον Ιορδάνην, αναθεματίζομεν τους μη ομολογούντας λαλούν εν αποστόλοις, οικούν εν αγίοις. ανάστασιν νεκρών, και πάσας τας αιΟύτως δε πιστεύομεν εν αυτώ, ότι εστί ρέσεις, τας μη εκ ταύτης ορθής πίστεως Πνεύμα άγιον, Πνεύμα θεού, Πνεύμα ούσας. Grischου.] τέλειον, Πνεύμα παράκλητον, άκτι

spake in the Law, and preached by the Prophets, and descended at Jordan ; who spake by the Apostles, and dwells in the Saints : and thus we believe of him, that he is the Holy Spirit, the Spirit of God, the perfect Spirit, the Comforter, uncreated, proceeding from the Father, receiving from the Son, in whom we believe. We believe in one Catholic and Apostolic Church, in one baptism of repentance, in the resurrection of the dead, in the just judgment of body and soul, in the kingdom of heaven, and life everlasting. And those that say, there was a time when the Son or the Holy Ghost was not, or that they were made out of nothing, or of another substance or essence; that say, the Son of God, or the Holy Ghost are mutable or changeable; those the Catholic and Apostolic Church, the mother of us and you, anathematizes. And again, we anathematize those that confess not the resurrection of the dead, and all heresies which accord not to this holy faith.'

Now if these Creeds were in use in the Church at the time which Epiphanius mentions, then it is certain the Nicene Creed was completed by the Church for the use of her catechumens long before the general Council of Constantinople: and what was done by that Council was rather to contract the form than to augment or lengthen it, as any one may easily perceive that will compare the Constantinopolitan Creed with either of those that have now been recited out of Epiphanius. 16. For the Creed that was drawn up in the second general The Niceno

Creed, as Council of Constantinople, is no other but the Nicene Creed,

completed with the addition of such articles as were always used by the by the Church in the interrogatories of baptism, though not inserted Constantiin the particular form used by the Nicene Council. I need not nople, anno

381. here repeat the form, because it is the same with that which is commonly called the Nicene Creed in our Liturgy: only the word Filioque, expressing the procession of the Holy Ghost from the Father and Son together, was added afterward by the Latin Church. For the first copies of this Creed in the Council of Constantinople 79 and the Councils of Ephesus and Chalcedon so have it only, proceeding from the Father, ék Toù larpòs

Council of

79 Αp. Labb. (t. 2. p. 954 a.) Και προσκυνούμενον, κ. τ.λ. εις το Πνεύμα το άγιον, το Κύριον, το 80 Vid. C. Chalced. act. 2. (t. 4. p. ζωοποιόν, το εκ του Πατρός εκπορευό- 342 d.), ubi eadem verba leguntur. μενον, και συν Πατρί και Υιώ συν

munion

εκπορευόμενον,
&KTOPevóuevov, without any mention of the Son: but in the Latin
Councils the word Filioque is commonly added, as in the first
Council of Bracara 91, anno 411, and the third Council of To-
ledo 82, anno 589, where the Constantinopolitan Creed is re-

cited. Of the use

17. As to the use of the Nicene Creed, it is certain it was of the Nicene Creed used in the Greek Church much after the same manner as the in the an- Apostolical and other Creeds were used in the Latin Church : cient service of the first in the office of baptism; afterward it was taken in to be a Church.

part of the liturgy in the communion-service. Some learned And when first it was persons, I know, are of opinion that the Nicene Creed was taken in to never used in the administration of baptism, but only the Apobe a part of the liturgy stolical Creed, still throughout the whole Church. But this is in the com

a very plain mistake. First, because it does not appear that office.

the Apostolical Creed, which is the Roman Creed, was ever used in the Greek Church, even before the Nicene Creed was made: for they had several Creeds of their own, agreeing indeed with the Roman Creed in substance, but differing from it in words and expression; and those Creeds were used by the Greek or Eastern Church, in the administration of baptism. Secondly, when the Nicene Creed was formed, it is very evident that very form was used by many Churches in the East as the Creed of baptism: for the fathers of the Council of Constantinople, under Mennas, anno 536, do frequently s3 call it the Creed in which both they themselves were baptized, and also baptized others.' And so it is said in the Synodical Epistles of the Councils of Tyre and Jerusalem, which are related in the Acts 84 of the same Council. As also in the Acts of the general Councils of Ephesus 85 and Chalcedon 86, in the former

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81 Ap. Labb. (t. 2. p. 1508 d.) 85 Act. 6. (t. 3. p. 689 a.) "Ωρισεν Credo in Spiritum Sanctum, proce- η αγία σύνοδος, ετέραν πίστιν μηδενί dentem a Patre et Verbo, unicum εξειναι προσφέρειν, ήγουν, συγγράin Deitate cum ipsis, &c.

φειν ή συντιθέναι παρά την ορισθεί82 Ibid. (t. 5. p. 1000 e.) Credi- σαν παρά των αγίων πατέρων των εν mus et in Spiritum Sanctum, Do- τη Νικαέων συνελθόντων συν αγίω minum et vivificatorem, ex Patre et Πνεύματι τους δε τολμώντας ή συνFilio procedentem.

τιθέναι πίστιν ετέραν, ήγουν, προκο83 Vid. Act. 5. (ibid. p. 165 a.)... μίζειν, ή προσφέρειν τοις έθέλουσιν Το άγιον σύμβολον της πίστεως...είς επιστρέφειν εις επίγνωσιν της αληο και εβαστίσθημεν και βαπτίζομεν. θείας, ή εξ Ελληνισμού, ή εξ Ιουδα[See the same words at p. 172 c. ϊσμού, ή εξ αιρέσεως οιασδηποτούν and

p:
180 c. Ed.]

τούτους, ει μεν ειεν επίσκοποι ή κλη84 Ιbid. (p. 189 c. and p. 200 b.) ρικοί, αλλοτρίους είναι τους επισκό

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