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of which an order was made that catechumens should be taught the Nicene Creed, and no other.' The like may be observed in the Edict of the Emperor Basiliscus, mentioned by Evagrius 87, who, speaking of the Nicene Creed, calls it the Creed in which both he and all his ancestors were baptized.' And it is remarked by Epiphanius 98, of the two Creeds which he recites,

that they were the Creeds which every catechumen repeated at his baptism ;' which were nothing but the Nicene Creed, with the addition of such articles as the Church supplied to make it a complete summary of the Faith. So that nothing can be more evident than that the Nicene was the Creed then generally made use of in all the Eastern Churches for the instruction of catechumens at their baptism.

But as yet it was not made a part of the common liturgy of the Church, to be repeated daily in divine service. St. Ambrose 99 indeed speaks of it as used in private devotion, and gives directions to the holy virgins so to use it in their morning retirements, and upon other proper occasions. And Habertus 90 thinks it was also required of bishops at their ordination; which is not improbable, because they were obliged to make a profession of their faith. But all this did not yet make it a part of the daily liturgy of the Church. For it is agreed

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πους της επισκοπής, και τους κληρι- από των αγίων Αποστόλων του Κυρίου κούς του κλήρου: ει δε λαϊκοί είεν, φυλάττειν και ούτως έκαστον των αναθεματίζεσθαι.

κατηχουμένων των μελλόντων των αγίω 86 Act. 2. (t. 4. p. 342 a.) Αύτη η λουτρό προσιέναι ου μόνον απαγγέλαληθινή πίστις αύτη ή αγία πίστις λειν οφείλετε το πιστεύειν τους εαυαύτη αιωνία πίστις εις ταύτην έβα- των υιοίς εν Κυρίω, αλλά και διδάπτίσθημεν εις ταύτην βαπτίζομεν. σκειν ρητώς, ως πάντων ή αυτή μητήρ

87 L. 3. c. 4. (ν. 3. p. 335. 44.)... υμών τε και ημών, το λέγειν· Πιστεύθεσπίζομεν την κρηπίδα και βεβαίω- ομεν εις ένα θεόν, κ.τ.λ. σιν της ανθρωπίνης ευζωίας, τουτέστι 89 De Virgin. 1. 3. [c. 4. p. 115. το σύμβολον των τιη' αγίων πατέρων (t. 2. p. 179 b. n. 20.) Symbolum των εν Νικαία πάλαι μετά του αγίου quoque specialiter debermus, tanΠνεύματος εκκλησιασθέντων, είς o quam nostri signaculum cordis, anημείς τε και πάντες οι προ ημών πι- telucanis horis quotidie recensere. στεύσαντες εβαπτίσθημεν, μόνον πο- Quo etiam, cum horremus aliquid, λιτεύεσθαι, και κρατείν εν πάσαις ταις animo recurrendum est. αγιωτάταις του θεού εκκλησίαις τον 90 Archierat. ad Profess. Fid. Obορθόδοξον λαόν.-Ιbid. c. 7. (p. 341. serv. Ι. (p. 499.) Professionem au13.).... Εις ήν και εβαπτίσθημεν και tem fidei ac symboli pronuntiatioπιστεύομεν.

nem non solum in baptismo, sed 88 Anchorat. n. 119. (t. 2. p. 122 b.) etiam in aliis mysteriis; in ordinaΜη διαλείπετε, οι πιστοί και ορθό- tione etiam, praesertim pontificia, δοξοι, ταύτην την αγίαν πίστιν της seu potius ad illam fieri, ut equissiκαθολικής εκκλησίας, ως παρέλαβεν τηum, sic solemnem semper in ecη αγία, και μόνη παρθένος του θεού clesia Latina fuisse arbitror.

among learned men, both of the Romish and Protestant communions, that the Creed was not used to be repeated in the daily service till about the middle of the fifth century in the Greek Church, and not till some time after in the Latin Church. So Valesius 91, Cardinal Bona 92, Schelstrate 93, Pagi 94, Christianus Lupus 95, Hamon L'Estrange 96, and Vossius 97. Theodorus Lector 98 observes, that Peter Fullo, who was bishop

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91 Not. in Theodor. Lect. 1. 2. p. receperunt, &c. 566. (v. 3. p. 582. n. 4.) Cum Pe- 33 C, Antioch. Restitut. c. 6. n. 6. trus Fullo instituisse dicitur, ut in de Can. 2. (p. 210.) ... Verissimum quavis synaxi symbolum recitare- est, quod Cardinalis Bona animadtur, de missarum solemnibus id in- vertit, recitationem symboli post telligendum est : in quibus etiam evangelium esse aliquid recentius nunc symbolum fidei recitatur. ... liturgiæ additum, &c. Sane ritus isti, qui a Fullone pri

94°Crit. in Baron. an. 325. n. 25. mum instituti esse dicuntur, non (t. 1. p. 409.) Ex iisdem rationibus illico ab omnibus ecclesiis usurpati aliæ ecclesiæ citius, aliæ serius cæsunt, sed progressu temporis paul. perunt symbolum publice in missalatim inoleverunt.

rum solenniis dicere aut cantare. E 92 Rer. Liturg. 1. 2. c. 8. n. 2. Latinis prima id æmulata est His(p. 294.) Quis omnium primus il- paniarum ecclesia ex consilio Richalud (symbolum] liturgiæ inseruerit, redis Regis, novellos suos Gothos aut cantari præceperit, incertum est. in fide Romana firmare cupiens, ut Radulfus Tungrensis, Prop. 23., a legitur in tertia Synodo Toletana, in Marco Papa, Sylvestri successore, qua statuitur: Ut per omnes ecclesancitum fuisse ait, ut Symbolum sias Hispaniæ et Galliciæ, secundum Nicænum in missa diceretur. At formam ecclesiarum Orientalium, Innocentus [III], 1. 2. de Mysteriis Concilii Cpolitani symbolum reciteMissæ, c. 49., et alii passim scribunt tur, &c. Imitatæ id postmodum S. Damasum id recitari jussisse ad sunt quædam sub Carolo Magno exemplum Græcorum. In hoc au- Gallicanæ ecclesiæ, aliæ tamen, ac tem conveniunt omnes, quod pub- ipsa Capella Regia, imitari non sunt lice cantari cæperit in ecclesiis Ori- ausæ; ideoque a Leone III. Pontifice entalibus adversus pravas hæretico- veniam impetrarunt. rum opiniones, a quibus postea ad

95 Schol. in Concil. t. 1. c.4. [al. Occidentales laudabilis usus trans- c. 5.] p. 13. (t. 1. p. 193. col. si. fusus est. Verum Græci, vivente nistr.) Morem prius laudare ceDamaso, hunc ritum nondum ad- pit, qui ad quinti decimi sæculi exmiserant. Ait enim Theodorus Lec- ordium Aoruit, sanctus Vincentius tor, l. 2. Collectaneorum, Timothe- Ferrerius, &c. um patriarcham, anno 510, Con- 96 Alliance of Divine Offices, ch. stantinopoli instituisse, ut symbo- 3. p. 79. (Reprint, p. 116.) Neither lum fidei per singulas synaxes dice- this, nor, &c.-Ibid. ch. 6. p. 170. retur, cum antea semel tantum in (Reprint, p. 252.) As for the public anno diceretur in magno die Para- use, &c. sceues, cum episcopus catechume- 97 De Symbol. dissert. 3. s. 17. nos instruebat. Eandem symboli et seqq. (t. 6. pp. 526, seqq.)—[The recitationem in omni conventu Pe- citation is indistinct: the exact autro Gnapheo tribuit Nicephorus Cal- thority I do not find. Ed.] listus, l. 5. (15.) c. 28. Sed hic for5

98 L. 2. p. 566. (v. 3. p. 582. 4.) tassis in Antiochena, ille in Con- Térpov onoi Tòv Kvapéa érivonoa... stantinopolitana ecclesia, hunc mo- .. εν πάση συνάξει το σύμβολον λέrem induxerunt; quem postea His- yeobai. pani primi inter laicos [leg. Latinos]

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of Antioch about the year 471, was the first that ordered the Creed to be repeated in that Church, ev trdon ouváfel, in every church-assembly. And the same author 99 reports, that Timotheus, bishop of Constantinople, anno 511, was the first that brought in this custom into that Church : which he did in hatred to his predecessor, Macedonius, and with an intent to represent him as disaffected to the Nicene Creed, which before that time was used to be rehearsed in the church only once a year, on the Parasceue, or great day of preparation before the Passover, now called Maunday-Thursday, when the bishop was wont to catechize such as were to be baptized at Easter. From the Oriental Churches the custom was brought into the West, first in Spain and Gallicia, at the petition of king Reccaredus, by the order of the third Council of Toledo !, about the year 589, when those Churches were newly recovered from the inundation of the Arian heresy. This practice was then thought a proper antidote to preserve them from relapsing into their ancient error. Lupus and Pagi say it was not brought into the French Churches till the time of Charles the Great, and then Pope Leo the Third advised them to lay it aside again, because it was not yet the custom of the Roman Church. They concluded yet further, that in the time of Pope John the Eighth, anno 870, it was not yet the practice of the Roman Church. But at last, in the days of Benedict the Eighth, anno 1014, as is collected from Berno Augiensis, the custom was admitted into the Roman Church; for this reason,' to give it in the words of Lupus, since the Roman Church could not bring over the French and Spanish Churches to her own way, she resolved at last to comply with their custom, that there might be no disagreement among them:' and so the Nicene Creed came to be universally read throughout the whole Church.

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99 Ibid. p. 563. (p. 578. 17.) T- 1 C. 2. (t. 5. p. 1009 e.).... Petiuóbeos râv Tpiakoo iwv deka kaì tione [al. consultu] Reccaredi Regis OKTÒ Tratépwv tộs Tiotews ouußodov, constituit Synodus, ut per omnes ka@'ékbotnv cúvativ Meyerba mape ecclesias Hispaniæ et (velj Galliciæ, σκεύασεν, επί διαβολή δήθεν Μακεδο- secundum formam Orientalium ecνίου, ως αυτου μη δεχομένου το σύμ- clesiarum, Concilii Constantinopoliβολον, άπαξ του έτους λεγόμενον tani..Symbolum Fidei recitetur: et, πρότερον εν τη αγία παρασκευή του priusquam Dominica dicatur Oratio, θείου πάθους, τω καιρώ των γινομένων νοce clara populo predicetur, [al. υπό του επισκόπου κατηχήσεων. decantetur], &c. BINGHAM, VOL. III.

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18. There is but one Creed more, which I need to stand to give any account of, and that is the Creed which is commonly received under the name of the Athanasian Creed. Baronius 2 is of opinion that it was composed by Athanasius, when he was at Rome, and offered to Pope Julius as a confession of his faith; which circumstance is not at all likely, for Julius never questioned the faith of Athanasius. However, a great many learned men have so far embraced the opinion of Baronius, as to believe this Creed to be of Athanasius's composing; as Cardinal Bona), and Petavius 4, and Bellarmin", and Rivet 6, with many others of both communions. Scultetus leaves the matter in doubt. But the best and latest critics, who have examined the thing most exactly, make no question but that it is to be ascribed to a Latin author, Vigilius Tapsensis, an African bishop, who lived in the latter end of the fifth century, in the time of the Vandalic Arian persecution. The learned Vossius 7 and Quesnels have written particular dissertations upon this subject. Their arguments are: First, because this Creed is wanting in almost all the manuscripts of Athanasius's Works. Secondly, because the style and contexture of it does not bespeak a Greek, but a Latin author. Thirdly, because neither

, Cyril of Alexandria, nor the Council of Ephesus, nor Pope Leo, nor the Council of Chalcedon, have ever so much as men

2 An. 340. n. 11. (t. 3. p. 528 c.) tur, exstat seorsim Vita Sancti An. ...Quum Romæ esset, illud quoque tonii, et Symbolum, quod incipit ; insigne fidei suæ reliquit Occidenta- Quicumque vult salvus esse ; quæ libus monumentum, nempe Symbo. Sancti Athanasii opera esse vera et lum, quod hactenus Athanasii no- germana, non dubitamus. mine in ecclesia Catholica publice 6 Critica Sacra, l. 3. c. 4. p. 240. recitatur.

(t. 2. p. 1103. col. sinistr.) Symbo3 De Psalmod. c. 16. n. 18. (p. lum Quicumque vult salvus esse, in 469.) Hic [Athanasius) teste Baro- multis codicibus MSS. non repernio, cum esset Romæ anno quarto tum est inter Athanasii opera : in Julii summi pontificis, symbolum uno legitur ; sed autoris nomine scripsit, suæ fidei memorabile docu- suppresso. Invenitur in Fragmentis mentum, quod Latino idiomate co- Hilarii Historicis. Est tamen orthoram pontifice recitavit.

doxum, et in ecclesia magnæ auto4 Animadvers. in Epiphan. Hær. ritatis. Athanasii esse, mihi per72. (pp. 304, 305.) Quin etiam A.

suasum est. ihanasii Symbolum, quum sit quæ

7 Dissert. 2. (t. 6. pp. 516, seqq.) dam fidei expositio ab eo edita, qui de Symbolo Athanasio. óuooúolov acerrime propugnaret, 8 Dissert. (12. S. 12.] de Variis ejusdem vocabuli mentionem omisit. Fidei Symbolis in antiquo Codice

5 De Scriptor. Eccles. p. 81. Romano. (ap. Oper. Leon. M. Lug(Oper. t. 7. p. 53 d.) Præter libros, dun. 1700. t. 2. p. 384.) De Symbolo qui in his quatuor tomis continen- Athanasio conjecturæ.

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tioned it in all that they say against the Nestorian or Eutychian heresies. Fourthly, because this Vigilius Tapsensis is known to have published several others of his writings under the borrowed name of Athanasius, with which this Creed is commonly joined. These reasons have persuaded such men as Bp. Pearson !, Archbishop Usher 10, Hamon L'Estrangel, Dr. Cave!?, Schelstrate 13, Pagi!!, and Du Pin 15, critics of the best

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9 In Symbol. Artic. 8. Ed. Lat. dicandum credatur, et a Vigilio (p. 569. n. 50. col. dextr.) Ex qui- Tapsensi aliove Latino Patre edibus aliisque similibus testimoniis tum, negari tamen non potest, quin Patrum Latinorum satis conjicere fidei confessio Ursacii et Valentis licet, utra in ecclesia symbolum il- edita fuerit paucis post Concilium lud, Athanasio vulgo adscriptum, Antiochenum annis, &c. primitus fabricatum sit. Ut enim in 14 Crit. in Baron. ap. 340. n. 6. confesso est, illud primum Latina (t. 1. p. 440.) Joannes Vossius, lilingua scriptum fuisse, sic valde bello de Tribus Symbolis, dissert. 2., probabile est, illud compositum Quesnellus Dissert. de variis Fidei fuisse a quodam Latinæ ecclesiæ libellis in antiquo Romanæ Ecclesiæ membro propter eum loquendi ino- codice contentis, Usserius, aliique dum, qui in eo habetur: Spiritus tam ex Protestantibus, quam ex CaSanctus a Patre et Filio non factus, tholicis, Symbolum, quod vulgo dinec creatus, nec genitus, sed pro- citur S. Athanasii, et quod incipit, cedens.—[Engl. edit. 1741. (p. 324. Quicunque vult salvus esse, Sancto in the note.) By which testimonies, Athanasio abjudicant, quia in an&c.

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tiquis et probatæ fidei codicibus 10 De Symbol. Rom. [Præf. ad MSS. pene omnibus operum S. AGerard. Joh. Vossium,] p. 1. (Lond. thanasii hoc symbolum desideratur, 1647. p. 2. Works, v. 7. p. 299.) et quia stylus, sermonisque contexAd ea, quæ de Athanasiano Symbolo tus nequaquam Græci hominis est, erudite, ut soles, commentatus es, sed Latini. Quod si Divus Athanihil quod adjiciam habeo, &c. nasius Latine scripsisset, vix fieri

11 Alliance of Divine Offices, ch. potuisset, ut ipsi Græcismus aliquis 4: P. 99. (Reprint, p. 143.) The tra- non excideret, quum non nisi imdition is, &c.

perfecte linguam Latinam scire po12 Hist. Liter. (v. I. p. 146.) Sym- tuerit. Præterea, si symbolum istud bolum Athanasii genuinum Atha- Athanasii fuisset, illud laudassent nasii opus non esse, satis indicat, Cyrillus Alexandrinus, Ephesina quod nec ipse Athanasius, nec se- Synodus, Sanctus Leo, et Concilium quentium sæculorum scriptor ali- Chalcedonense, dum contra Nestoquis ante Theodulphum Aurelianen- rianam et Eutychianam hæresin losem (libro de Spiritu Sancto, p. 72.) quuntur. His adde Latinorum conejus meminerit, nec in ecclesiis ante tra Græcos silentium post schisma annum millesimum obtinuerit, ne- Photianum, usque ad Gregorii IX. que ubique inclarescere cæperit, do- tempora, de processione Spiritus nec a Gregorii IX. legatis, circa an. Sancti disputantium. Si enim tunc 1233, in disputatione Constantino- pro certo creditum fuisset, istud poli habita sub Athanasii nomine, symbolum esse Athanasii, illo usi testimonii loco, prolatum fuerit. fuissent contra Græcos schismaticos

13 C. Antioch. Restitut. dissert. Occidentales; quod non leve pondus 3. c. 2. n. 3. (p. 109.) Huc usque habuisset ob summam S. Athanasii Petavius de quatuor fidei professio- in utraque ecclesia auctoritatem. Et nibus, quorum ultima Symbolum tamen primi, quos hoc argumentum Athanasii vulgo dicitur, quod licet adhibuisse legimus, sunt apocrisarii ab aliquibus recentiori auctori vin- Gregorii IX., postquam hæc contro

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