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were not so very strict in this discipline of concealing their served in
sacred mysteries from the knowledge of the catechumens. For first ages of
he thus argues against the antiquity of the book called the the Church.
Apostolical Constitutions : • The last words,' says he 25, ' which
forbid the publication of those eight books, do plainly show,
that they were not written in the first age; for the Christians
of the first age did never make any scruple of publishing their
mysteries, as appears from the writings of Justin Martyr.'
Mr. Aubertine 26 observes the same out of Athenagoras and
Tatian; and Daille 27 joins in opinion with Albaspinæus, and

25 Observat. 1. 1. c. 13. P. 38. (ad vit; nullo dissimulato, aut obscu-
calc. Optat. p. 28 d.).... Postrema ris vocibus adumbrato hujus sacra-
verba, quibus cavetur, Ne octo libri menti ritu. Sed neque vel in Ire-
Constitutionum Apostolicarum pub- næo, Clemente Alexandrino, Ori-
licentur, aperte indicant, eas primis gene, aliisque Græcis, vel in Cypri-
sæculis factas non esse, cum primi ano, et Latinis anno Domini 260.
sæculi Christiani sua lubentes mys- anterioribus, ullum uspiam depre-
teria, ut vel ex Justino constat, henditur illius arcani vestigium.
enuntiarent.

Unde certo ac necessario concludi26 De Eucharist. 1. 2. (p. 709 ad mus, totam hanc illius arcani, quardextr.) Incertissimum enim est, u. to adulto, et toto quinto sæculo, trum Justini temporibus jam de solennem et notissimam disciplinam more fuisset, sacramentalia signa primis et Apostolorum proximis sæhaud initiatis occultare. Nec enim, culis nondum apud nostros fuisse vel ipse, vel Tatianus ejus discipu- cognitam ; quam scilicet, si jam tum lus, vel Athenagoras, vel Theophi- obtinuisset, plane est incredibile vel lus, vel Irenæus, hujusce occulta- violaturos fuisse Justinum et Tertionis ullibi, quod equidem sciam, tullianum, homines religiosissimos, meminerunt.

vel cæteros eorundem temporum 27 De Script. Ignat. 1. 1. c. 22. scriptores, qui satis multi sunt, pe(p. 142.) Nullæ enim usquam in ho- nitus tacituros, indictamque prærum sæculorum, ac ne in tertii qui- termissuros fuisse. Albaspinæus, dem, veris certisque auctoribus, cum Aurelianensis non ita pridem epiverba de sacramentis faciunt, hujus- scopus, antiquitatis ecclesiasticæ somodi reperiuntur aposiopeses, sive lertissimus indagator, assentitur, reticentiæ; quod ego quidem me- scribens, Primi sæculi Christianos minerim. Hi et baptismi aquam, sua lubentes mysteria, ut vel ex Juset lotionem, et oleum, postquam in tino constat, enuntiasse. Atque hinc usu esse cæpit, et unctionem, et eu- ille probat Constitutiones, quæ vulcharistiæ panem ac vinum, esum et go dicuntur Apostolicæ, primis sepotum liberrime, quoties fert occa- culis factas non esse, quia scilicet sio, sine ullis ambagibus efferunt, postremis harum verbis cautum est, neque quicquam auditoribus vel lec- ne octo earum libri publicentur. Ertoribus suis de iis rebus divinandum go, inquam, qui hoc sacramentorum relinquunt; ut ex Justini in Apolo- arcanum tam diligenter, et aliis prægia locis videre est, in quibus utrum- cipit et ipse servat hierarchiæ scripque sacramentum totum apud ho- tor, non modo non Areopagitici, id mines non modo non initiatos, sed est, Apostolici, sed ne tertii quidem etiam profanos et Gentiles, Augus- sæculi homo fuit ; vel hoc uno intos scilicet et senatores Romanos, dicio satis prodit, se vel quarto exeplanissime exposuit. Neque Ter- unte, vel quinto sæculo, vixisse; quo tullianus aliter baptismum in libro, maxime illa viguit sacramentalis arqui totus hujus tituli est, explica- cani religio.

he

and

cites his authority with approbation : and Basnage 28 is so far from thinking that the Apostles concealed their mysteries from the catechumens, that he rather supposes they administered the sacraments in their presence. Upon which supposition the whole fabric, which Schelstrate builds upon the Disciplina Arcani, is ruined at once: for then it is certain the Apostles had no such fear or caution upon them, lest the catechumens should come to the knowledge of the Christian rites or doctrines, as is pretended. And indeed any one that looks into the writings of the Apostles, may perceive with half an eye that they were far enough from concealing their opinion about the worship of angels, saints, and images : for they expressly write against it. And when they speak of the mysteries of baptism and the eucharist, they do it with the greatest freedom, without any fear or apprehension of giving offence to the

catechumens. But intro- 3. Nay, and when this discipline was first introduced into duced about the time of the Christian Church, it is very evident it was done for difTertullian, ferent reasons than those which the Romanists pretend. The for other

first beginning of it seems to have been about the time of Terthan what tullian; for he is the first writer that makes any mention of it. the Roman.

He says 29, there was a secrecy and silence observed in all mysteries ;' and he blames the heretics of his own times for not regarding something of this discipline. “They made no distinction,' he says 30, between believers and catechumens, they all met together, they all heard together, they all prayed together; and if heathens chanced to come in upon them, they gave that which was holy to dogs, and cast their pearls, such as they were, before swine.' Here it is plain the Church now made several distinctions between catechumens and believers, which heretics did not. The place of the catechumens was now in a separate part of the Church; they heard sermons, but not all that believers were allowed to hear ; they had

reasons

ists pre

tend.

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28 Exercit. in Baron. an. 44. (p. adhibetur]. 489.) Alta de mysteriis religionis 30 De Præscript. c. 41. (p. 217 b.) silentia non agebant Apostoli, nec In primis quis catechumenus, quis catechumenos arcebant sacramento- fidelis, incertum est : pariter adeunt, rum conspectu.

pariter audiunt, pariter orant: etiam 29 Apol. c. 7. (p. 8 a.) Ex forma ethnici, si supervenerint: sanctum omnibus mysteriis (al. omnium mys- canibus, et porcis margaritas, licet teriorum] silentii fides debeatur (al. non veras, jactabunt.

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prayers for themselves, but were not admitted to hear the prayers of the faithful, which were peculiar to the celebration of the eucharist, from which catechumens were excluded. But all this was, and might be done, without favouring in the least the vain pretences of the modern Arcanists : for in all this there was no design to conceal such mysteries as the worship of saints, and angels, and images, from the knowledge of the catechumens; but, on the contrary, Tertullian speaks openly of these kinds of worship, and with indignation condemns them as superstitious practices, belonging only to heathens or heretics, and not to the mysteries of the Church.

4. And in the following ages, no writer that mentions this This proved discipline, among all those that give us a more particular ac- from a parcount of what things were concealed from the knowledge or count of

the things inspection of the catechumens, ever so much as intimates that the

which they the worship of saints and images was in the number of the concealed mysteries of the Church which they concealed from them. But

techumens.

Which the mysteries which they were so careful in some measure to

were, first, hide from them were,—First, the manner of administering bap- the manner tism. Second, the unction of chrism, or confirmation. Third, of admi

nistering the ordination of priests. Fourth, the manner of celebrating baptism. the eucharist. Fifth, the liturgy or divine service of the Church. Sixth, for some time the mystery of the Trinity, the Creed, and the Lord's Prayer, till they became greater proficients, and were ready for baptism.

In the first place that they were careful to conceal from them the manner of administering baptism, appears from this, that catechumens were never so much as suffered to enter, or look into the baptistery, or place where baptism was administered, according to the order of the first Council of Orange 31 St. Basil 32 therefore says, ' Baptism, the eucharist, and the oil of chrism, were things that the uninitiated were not allowed to look upon.' And St. Austin 33, putting the question, · What things were kept secret, and not made public in the Church ?'

from the ca

31 C. 19. (t. 3. p. 1450 c.) Ad 33 In Ps. 103. [al. Serm. 1. in Ps. baptisterium catechumeni nunquam 103.] (t. 4. p. 1140 d.) Quid est admittendi.

quod occultum est, et non publicum 32 De Spir. Sanct. c. 27. t. 2. p. in ecclesia ? Sacramentum baptismi, 352. (t. 3. part. 1. p. 76 b. n. 66.) sacramentum eucharistiæ. Opera “Α ουδε εποπτεύειν έξεστι τοις αμυ- enim nostra bona vident et pagani, ήτοις.

sacramenta vero occultantur illis, &c.

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answers, “ The sacrament of baptism, and the sacrament of the eucharist ; for even Pagans may see our good works, but the sacraments are kept hidden from them.' And as they did not admit catechumens to see baptism administered, so neither did they ordinarily discourse of it before them in plain terms, but in a mystical way, or else wholly excluded them from such discourses as incompetent hearers. “We do not speak openly,'

• says St. Cyril 34, ' of the sacraments before the catechumens, but deliver many things covertly, that the faithful who know them, may understand us, and they who know them not, may receive no harm.' So Theodoret 35 : ‘We discourse of mysteries obscurely because of the unbaptized; but when they are gone we speak plainly before the initiated.' In like manner Nazianzen speaking of baptism : You have heard,' says he 36, “so much of the mystery as we are allowed to speak publicly in the ears of all, and the rest you shall hear privately, which you must retain secret within yourself, and keep under the seal of baptism. A great many other passages may be read

' in Chrysostom 37, Theodoret 38, Cyril of Alexandria 39, the author under the name of Dionysius the Areopagite 40, and the Apostolical Canons 41, with many others to the same purpose. From all which we learn, that though the Ancients acquainted the catechumens with the doctrine of baptism so far as to make

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84 Catech. 6. n. 16. [al. 29.] (P. 5. Και βούλομαι μεν σαφώς αυτό

34 p το6 c.) Ουδε των μυστηρίων επί κα- είπείν, ου τολμώ δε διά τούς άμυήτηχουμένων λευκώς λαλούμεν, αλλά τους ούτοι γάρ δυσκολωτέραν ημίν πολλά πολλάκις λέγομεν επικεκαλυμ- ποιούσι την εξήγησιν, αναγκάζοντες ή μένως, ίνα οι ειδότες πιστοί νοήσωσι, μη λέγειν σαφώς η εις αυτούς έκφέκαι οι μη ειδότες μη βλαβώσι. ρειν τα απόρρητα, κ.τ.λ. ED.] 35 Quest. 15. in Νum. t. Ι. p. 149.

38 Heret. Fabul. 1. 5. c. 18. (t. 4. (t. Ι. part. Ι. p. 23ο.) Ασήμως γάρ part. Ι. p. 442.)...Αλλά γάρ μυστιδιά τους αμυήτους περί των θείων κωτέρων δεί λόγων ενταύθα. διαλεγόμεθα μυστηρίων, τούτων δε

39' Adv. Julian. 1. 7. (t. 6. p. 247 e.) χωριζομένων σαφώς τους μεμυημένους "Ινα τοίνυν μη εις τας των αμυήτων διδάσκομεν.

ακοάς εκφέρων τα κεκρυμμένα προσ36 Οrat. 40. de Bapt. (t. Ι. p. 672 κρούσαιμι λέγοντι τα Χριστο... των d.) "Έχεις του μυστηρίου τα έκφoρα, βαθυτέρων αφέμενος. και ταϊς των πολλών ακοαίς ουκ απόρ

40 Eccles. Hierarch. c. 2. part. Ι. ρητα τα δε άλλα είσω μαθήση, της n. 2. p. 25τ. (t. Ι. p. 167 c.) Εξης Τριάδος χαριζομένης, 4 και κρύψεις δε τα θεία της θεογενεσίας εποπτεύπαρά σεαυτώ σφραγίδι κρατουμένα. σαμεν σύμβολα και μοι μηδείς ατέ

37 [Hom. 46. in Act. Apost. (t. 9. λεστος επί την θεάν θέτω. p. 349 e.)...."Αλλο μεν ουδεν, τα δε 41 C. Apost. 85. (Cotel. [c. 76.] των μυστηρίων μόνον, ώς μηδε τοις V. Ι. p. 449.).... Και αί διαταγαί... άμυήτοις συγχωρείν παρείναι.-Conf. άς ου χρή δημοσιεύειν επί πάντων, Hom. 40. in 1 Cor. (t. 10. p. 379 a.) διά τα εν αυταίς μυστικά.

the manner of adminis

them understand the spiritual nature and design of it, yet they never admitted them to the sight of the outward ceremony, nor so much as to hear any plain discourse about the manner of its administration, till they were fitted and prepared for the actual reception of it.

5. And they observed the same discipline in reference to the Secondly, holy unction or chrism, which the Latins call imposition of hands, or confirmation. St. Basil 42, speaking of the oil which tering the was used to be consecrated and used in this ceremony, says, “it tion, or con

holy uncwas one of those things which the uninitiated were not allowed firmation. to look upon :' and Pope Innocent the First 43, writing to another bishop about confirmation, and the form of words used in the administration of it, says, 'he could not repeat the words, lest he should seem to disclose the mystery, rather than answer the question proposed.' 6. A third thing which they concealed from the catechumens Thirdly, the

ordination was the ordination of priests. The Council of Laodicea has a

of priests. canon 44 to this purpose, that 'ordinations shall not be performed in the presence of the hearers,' that is, the catechumens. And Chrysostom, speaking of this office and the solemn prayers used at the consecration, delivers himself in an obscure and covert way, because of the catechumens. He that ordains,' says he 45, ‘requires the prayers of the Church, and they then join their suffrage, and echo forth those words which the initiated know. For we may not speak them openly before the uninitiated catechumens.'

7. A fourth thing which they concealed from the catechu- Fourthly, mens was the public liturgy, or solemn prayers of the Church. the liturgy,

or public For one rank of the catechumens, the audientes, or hearers, prayers of

the Church, were only permitted to stay and hear the sermon, but not any such as the prayers of the Church. Another sort, called kneelers, or pros- prayers for

the energutrators, had the prayers of the Church particularly for them- mens, peniselves, but no others. And the competentes stayed only to tents and

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42 See n. 32, preceding.

ακροωμένων γίνεσθαι. 43 Ep. 1. ad Decent. Eugub. c. 3. '45 Hom. 18. in 2 Cor. p. 872. (t. (CC. t. 2. p. 1246 d.) Verba vero di- το. p. 568 a.)... ο μέλλων χειροτοcere non possum, ne magis prodere νείν και τας εκείνων ευχάς καλεί τότε, videar, quam ad consultationem re- και αυτοί επιψηφίζονται, και επιβοspondere.

ώσιν, άπερ ίσασιν οι μεμυημένοι" ου 44 C. 5. (t. Ι. p. 1497 a.) Περί του γαρ δή θέμις επί των αμυήτων εκκαμη δείν τας χειροτονίας επί παρουσία λύπτειν άπαντα.

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