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eucharist, Give us this day our daily bread !-ăptov éTLOÚOlov, our super-substantial, or super-celestial bread, as many of the Ancients render it. For these reasons they never taught the Lord's Prayer to any of the catechumens but the highest rank of them, the competentes, a few days before their baptism: as we learn from those words of St. Austin 67, Now learn the Lord's Prayer, which ye must repeat eight days hence, when ye are to be baptized.' So they received it only on Saturday before Palm Sunday, in order to repeat it on Saturday before Easter, which was the day of their baptism.

They observed the same discipline in reference to the Creed, which they taught to the catechumens at the same time only, as they did the Lord's Prayer, a little before their baptism. This they did not always commit to writing, but kept it, as St. Jerom 68 words it, 'in tables of the heart, and delivered it by word of mouth, that it might not come to the knowledge of the uninitiated and unbelievers. Which is the reason that Sozomen 69 gives, why he did not insert the words of the Nicene Creed into his History, because probably many uninitiated persons might read his book, who ought not to read or hear the Creed. They were as careful not to communicate to new beginners the profound mysteries of the Trinity and Incarnation, till they had first prepared them by proper preceding instructions for the reception of them. Therefore, as St. Jerom 70 observes, it was the custom of the Church to put off this part of the instruction of catechumens to the last, and not acquaint them with these doctrines till about forty days before they were to be baptized, though the catechetical

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67 Ηom. 42. ex. 50. t. Io. p. 195. και δήλον τοίς εσομένοις υπάρχη το [al. Serm. 58.] (t. 5. p. 337 e.) Te- ouußodov tñs Tóre ovvapecáons Trionete ergo et hanc orationem, quam τεως, αναγκαίον ώήθην είς απόδειξιν reddituri estis ad octo dies... Ad octo της αληθείας, αυτήν την περί τούτων dies autem ab hodierno die reddituri γραφήν παραθέσθαι ευσεβών δε και estis hanc orationein, quam hodie φίλων και τα τοιαύτα επιστημόνων, accepistis.

οία δε μύσταις και μυσταγωγούς μόνοις 68 Ep. 61. ad Pammach. c. 9. p. δέοντα λέγειν και ακούειν υφηγουμέ173. [al. Lib. cont. Ioan. Hierosol.

νων, επήνεσα την βουλήν ου γάρ c. 28.] (t. 2. p. 435 e.) In symbolo απεικός και των αμυήτων τινάς τηδε τη filei et spei nostre, quod, ab Apo- βίβλω έντυχείν, ώς ένι δε των απορstolis traditum, non scribitur in ρήτων, α χρή σιωπάν αποκρυψάμενον

å cliarta et afraimento, sed in tabulis ως μη πάμπαν άγνοείν τα δόξαντα τη cordis carnalibus, &c.

συνόδω. 69 L. I. C. 20. (v. 2. p. 38. 47.) 70 See before, ch. 1, s.5. p. 445. "Ινα δε και εις τον εξης χρόνον βέβαιον

n. 27.

instruction had continued perhaps for two or three years before.

This was the whole of that discipline, we read so much of among the Ancients, of concealing the sacred mysteries from the catechumens. Among all which we have never the least intimation given that the practice of image-worship, or the adoration of saints and angels, or the doctrine of seven sacraments, were the mysteries they intended to conceal from them. For in those days there were no such mysteries in the Christian Church, and therefore the late invention of Schelstrate is a mere fiction and sophism to cover the nakedness of the present Roman Church. And the pretence of Bonail, concerning the prohibition of images in churches, made by the Council of Eliberis, that it was only to conceal the secrets of religion from the knowledge of the heathen, is an absurd supposition, which neither Albaspinæus nor Petavius could digest, as I have showed more fully in another place72, where I speak of the ornaments

of the ancient churches, Reasons for 10. As to those things which they really concealed from the concealing, catechumens, the true reasons were, first that the plainness these things

and simplicity of the Christian rites might not be contemned catechu. mens. First, by them, or give any occasion of scandal or offence to them,

before they were thoroughly instructed about the nature of plainness and simpli- the mysteries. For both Jews and Gentiles, out of whom city of them Christian converts were made catechumens, were apt to deride might not be con- the nakedness and simplicity of the Christian religion, as void temned.

of those pompous ceremonies and sacrifices, with which those other religions abounded. The Christian religion prescribed but one washing in water, and one oblation of bread and wine, instead of that multitude of bloody sacrifices, which the other religions commanded. Therefore, lest the plainness of these few ceremonies should offend the prejudiced minds of catechumens, before they were well instructed about them, the Christian teachers usually adorned these mysteries with great and magnificent titles, such as would convey noble ideas to the minds of men concerning their spiritual effects, but concealing their other names lest the simplicity of the things should offend

from the

that the

71 Rer. Liturg. 1. 1. c. 16. n. 2. 72 B. 8. ch.8, s. 6. p. 160. But See before, b. 8. ch. 8. 8.6. p. 159. yet this does not satisfy either Alba

spinæus, or Petavius, &c.

n. 9o.


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them. When they speak of the eucharist, they never mentioned bread and wine, but the sacrifice of the body and blood of Christ; and styled baptism, illumination, and life, the sacrament of faith and remission of sins, saying little in the mean time of the outward element of water. This was one plain reason, why they denied catechumens the sight of their sacraments, and always spake in mystical terms before them. We shut the doors,' says Chrysostom73, when we celebrate our mysteries, and keep off all uninitiated persons from them, not because we acknowledge any imperfection in the things themselves, but because many are weakly affected toward them.' And so St. Cyril 74, in the place mentioned above, “We speak not openly of our mysteries before the catechumens, but say many things mystically and obscurely, that they who know them may understand us, and they who know them not may receive no harm. In like manner the Synod of Alexandria 75, charging the Miletians for publishing the mystery of the eucharist before the catechumens, and what was worse, before the heathens, contrary to those rules of Scripture, “ It is good to conceal the secrets of a king;” and “Give not that which is holy unto dogs, neither cast ye your pearls before swine;" they add, that it is not lawful to bring mysteries upon the open stage before the uninitiated, lest the heathen through their ignorance should deride them, or the catechumens by their curiosity should be offended.' Therefore there was an ancient rule in the Church, that if any uninitiated person had by any mistake been admitted to partake of the eucharist, he should be immediately instructed and baptized, that he might not go forth a contemner or despiser, as the author of the Apostolical Constitutions 76 words it. And the fourth Council of Toledo 77 gives a like reason why such Jews, as had been baptized by force, should continue in the Christian profession, lest the

73 Hom. 23. in Matth. See n. 47, tel. vol. 1. p. 370.) Eï tis katà preceding.

άγνοιαν μεταλάβοι, τούτον τάχιον στοι74 Catech. 6. n. 16. See n. 34, χειώσαντες μυήσατε, όπως μη καταpreceding.

φρονητής εξελθοι. 75 Ap. Athanas. Apol. 2. t. I. P: 77 C. 56. [al. 57.] (t. 5. p. 1719c.) 131. (t. 1. part. 1. p. 105 b. n. 11.) Oportet ut fidem etiam, quam vi vel Oủ xpn uvotñpia kuvŕtous tpayo- necessitate susceperunt, tenere codeiv, iva un "EXinues mèv ayvooûvtes gantur, ne nomen Domini [al. nomen yedwo1, katnxoúmevoi Trepiepyou ye divinum] blasphemetur, et fides, νόμενοι σκανδαλίζωνται.

quam susceperunt, vilis ac 76 L. 7. c. 25. (Labb. c. 26.] (Co- temptibilis habeatur.


a reverence

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name of God should be blasphemed, and the faith which they
had received should be reputed vile and contemptible. Though
they made a severe decree against obliging any Jews to be

baptized by force or compulsion for the future.
Secondly, 11. Another reason assigned for this discipline of silence
to conciliate

was to conciliate a reverence in the minds of men for the mysfor them. teries which they kept so concealed from them. For, as St.

Basil78 observes, “the veneration of mysteries is preserved by
silence;' and as things that are trite and obvious, are easily
contemned, so those that are uncommon and reserved are
naturally adapted to beget in men an esteem and veneration ;
and therefore, he thinks, the Apostles and Fathers of the
Church, who made laws about these matters, prescribed se-
cresy and silence, to preserve the dignity of the mysteries.
St. Austin 79 gives the same reason for this practice, when
he says, “it was the honour that was due to the mysteries,
which made him pass them over in silence, and not explain

12. St. Austin adds to this a third reason, which is, that
Thirdly, to
make the the mysteries of baptism and the eucharist were therefore
mens more chiefly concealed from the catechumens, to excite their curio-
desirous to sity, and inflame their zeal, and make them more earnest and
know them.

solicitous in hastening to partake of them, that they might
come to an experimental knowledge of them. Though the
sacraments,' says he 50, are not disclosed to the catechumens,
it is not always because they cannot bear them, but that they
may so much the more ardently desire them, by how much
they are the more honourably hidden from them.' And again 81,



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78 De Spir. Sanct. c. 27. (t. 3. honorem silentii. [The Benedictine
part. I. p. 76 b. n. 66.)... Kadós Editor informs us that Sirmondus
εκείνο δεδιδαγμένοι των μυστηρίων το judged both this as well as the other
σεμνόν σιωπή διασώζεσθαι.

two Sermons he published with it,
79 Serm. 1. inter [post] Quadra- to be spurious, though attributed to
ginta a Sirinondo editos. (juxt. Ed. Augustine by the Codex Floriacen-
Bened., Sermo de eo, quod Neophytis sis. Ed.]
et oleo sancto aures et nares a sacer- 80 Id. Hom.96. ap. [al. Tract. 96.]
dotibus illiniantur. (t. 6. append. p. in Ioan. (t. 3. part. 2. p. 735.) Quid
288 d.) juxt. Sirmond., Serm. 1. et si non eis (catechumenis) fidelium
append.] Non autem mirari debetis, sacramenta produntur? non ideo fit
fratres carissimi, quod inter ipsa quod ea ferre non possint, sed ut ab
mysteria de mysteriis nihil diximus, eis tanto ardentius concupiscantur,
quod non statim ea quæ tradidimus quanto eis honorabilius occultantur.
interpretati sumus. Adhibuimus 81 In Ps. 109. (t. 4. p. 1241 c.)
enim tam sanctis rebus atque divinis Hæc nec Judæi habent, Vident


• The Jews acknowledge not the priesthood according to the order of Melchisedek. I speak to the faithful : if the catechumens understand it not, let them cast away their slowness and hasten to the knowledge of it. They that do not yet eat of this banquet 82, let them hasten upon invitation. The feast of Easter is at hand. Give in your name to baptism. If the festival does not excite you, let curiosity draw you, that you may know that which is said, “ He that eateth my flesh and drinketh my blood, dwelleth in me, and I in him.”

I ' These were the reasons which engaged the Ancients to conceal their mysteries from the catechumens; which, we plainly see, have no relation to such doctrines as that of transubstantiation, or the number of seven sacraments, or such superstitious practices as the worship of images, and saints, and angels, which are mere novelties, and the modern inventions of the Romish Church.

I have now gone through all things relating to the discipline of the catechumens in their preparation for baptism. We are next to take a view of baptism itself, and inquire into the manner how the Church administered it, and what rites and customs were observed in the celebration of it.

periisse jam sacerdotium secundum bibunt ad tales epulas invitati festiordinem Aaron et non agnoscunt nent-Ibid. (p. 646 b.) Ecce Pascha sacerdotium secundum ordinem Mel- est, da nomen ad baptismum. Si chisedek. Fidelibus loquor : si quid non te excitat festivitas, ducat ipsa non intelligunt catechumeni, aufe- curiositas, ut scias quid dictum sit, rant pigritiam, festinent ad notitiam. 'Qui manducat carnem meam et

82 De Verb. Dom. Hom. 46. [al. bibit sanguinem meum, manet in me, Serm. 132.] (t. 5. p. 645 f.) Qui au- et ego in illo.' tem nondum manducant et nondum

The end of page 142 of the fourth volume of the original edition,

London, 1715, 8vo.

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