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the observation made by Socrates 46, upon the church of Antioch, that it stood in a different posture from other churches, for the altar did not look toward the east, but toward the west. Which observation is also made by Paulinus Nolanus 47, upon one of his own structures. And the temple of the other Paulinus, at Tyre, seems to have stood the same way; for Eusebius 48 describes the entrance to it, and not the altar-part, as fronting the rising sun. So that though the author of the Constitutions 49, among other rules of this nature, gives directions for building churches toward the east, yet it appears from these instances that the practice was not so universal but that it admitted of exceptions, as necessity or expediency required. Which observation has been made not only by Bishop Usher 50, and Cardinal Bona 51, but, long before them, by Walafridus Strabo 52, who says, the Ancients were not nicely curious
46 L. 5. c. 22. (v. 2. p. 297.10.)... Ἡ ἐκκλησία ἀντίστροφον ἔχει τὴν θέσιν, [al. θέασιν] οὐ γὰρ πρὸς ἀνατολὴν τὸ θυσιαστήριον ἀλλὰ πρὸς δύσιν ὁρᾷ. 47 Ep. 12. ad Sever. (p. 151.) Prospectus vero basilicæ non, ut usitatior mos est, Orientem spectat, sed ad domini mei Beati Felicis basilicam pertinet, memoriam ejus aspiciens.
48 [L. 10. c. 4. (v. I. p. 472. 50.) Πρόπυλον δὲ μέγα καὶ εἰς ὕψος ἐπηρμένον πρὸς αὐτὰς ἀνίσχοντος ἡλίου ἀκτῖνας ἀναπετάσας, κ. τ. λ. ED.] 49 L. 2. c. 57. See s. 1. p. 50.
50 Let.49, to Selden. (Works [let. 51.] v. 15. p. 175.) Touching that which you move concerning the situation of churches, &c.
51 Rer. Liturg. 1. 1. c. 20. n. 4. (p. 224.) Quod attinet ad situm, ita erant disposita, ut ad ortum solis æquinoctialem verterentur.... Paulinus tamen Nolanus, Ep. 12., asserit, se in basilica, quam ædificavit, hunc morem neglexisse. Prospectus, inquit, basilicæ, &c. (See n. 47, preceding.) Quod vero non omnia altaria, quæ in eadem ecclesia sunt, ad ortum respiciant, sic excusat Walfridus Strabo, c. 4. Cognoscimus, non errasse illos vel errare, qui templis vel noviter Deo constructis, vel ab idolorum squalore mundatis propter
aliquam locorum opportunitatem in diversas plagas altaria statuerunt, quia non est locus, ubi non sit Deus. Verissima enim relatione didicimus, in ecclesia, quam apud Æliam Constantinus Imperator cum matre Helena super sepulchrum Domini miræ magnitudinis in rotunditate constituit: itemque Romæ in templo, quod ab antiquis Pantheon dictum, a B. Bonifacio Papa, permittente Phoca Imperatore, in honorem omnium Sanctorum consecratum est. In ecclesia quoque B. Petri, principis Apostolorum, altaria non tantum ad orientem, sed etiam in alias partes esse distributa. Hæc cum secundum voluntatem vel necessitatem fuerint ita disposita, improbare non audemus. Sed tamen usus frequentior et rationi vicinior habet in orientem orantes converti, et pluralitatem maximam ecclesiarum eo tenore constitui. Narrat Procopius, (1. 1. de Bello Persico, c. 37.) Dianæ et Iphigeniæ templa in urbe Comana Deo a Christianis consecrata fuisse, nihil immutata structura: in quibus aliisque similibus necessarium fuit, ad veterem situm altaris constructionem accommodare.
52 C.4. (ap. Bibl. Max. t. 15. p. 183 b. 6. et e. 10.).... Non magnopere curabant illius temporis justi, &c. ... Sed tamen usus frequentior, &c.
Commonly divided into three parts,
which way their churches stood, but yet the most usual custom was for Christians to pray toward the east, and therefore the greatest part of the churches were built with a respect to that custom.' But St. Patrick in Ireland, as Bishop Usher 53 observes out of Jocelin, the writer of his Life, varied from all others; for he built a church in Sabul, hard by Down in Ulster, which fronted neither east nor west, but stood from north to south,-ab aquilonali parte versus meridianam plagam. So that ecclesiastical history affords us instances, if we make a curious inquiry, of churches standing in all postures.
3. Next to consider the several parts of the ancient churches, we are to observe, that as in the temple of God, at Jerusalem, and some- not only the Holy and the Most Holy were reckoned parts of the temple, but also the outward courts, and even the court of the Gentiles, which is expressly called the house of God and the house of prayer; so in Christian churches, which were built with some regard to the Jewish temple, the whole ambitus or circumference about them was esteemed in a large sense as part of the church; and accordingly when churches became asylums, or places of refuge, under Christian emperors, not only the inner buildings, but the outer courts and boundaries were reckoned a sufficient sanctuary, as we shall see in the latter part of this Book. Now hence arose a twofold division of churches, as taken in a stricter or a larger sense. In the strictest sense, including only the buildings within the walls, they were commonly divided into three parts: 1. The narthex, or ante-temple, where the penitents and catechumens stood; 2. The naos, or temple, where the communicants had their respective places; and 3. The bema, or sanctuary, where the clergy stood to officiate at the altar. But in a larger sense there was another ante-temple or narthex without the walls, under which was comprised the прóпνλov, or vestibulum, the outward porch; then the atrium, or area, the court leading from that to the temple, surrounded with porticoes or cloisters, as we shall presently see in the temple of Paulinus. There were also several exedra, such as the baptisterium, the diaconica, the pastophoria, and other adjacent buildings, which were
53 Let. 49, to Selden, (as at n. 50, preceding.) And particularly with us here in Ireland, &c.
reckoned to be either without or within the church, according as it was taken in a stricter or a larger acceptation.
4. Eusebius in describing the church of Paulinus takes it in And these the largest sense, and therefore he begins his description with subdivided the Tepißoλov, or wall that enclosed the whole circumference parts. The of the outward courts, which we may call the ante-temple, or narthex, or exterior narthex, to distinguish it from the narthex within the ante-temple church. In the front of this sacred enclosure toward the east, first the at some distance from the church, the first building that pre- πρόπυλον, sented itself was a great and lofty porch, which Eusebius and lum, the other Greek writers call the póvλov péya, and the Latins porch. vestibulum magnum, the great porch, to distinguish it from the lesser porches, which joined to the church. He calls it also прúτην εlσodov, the first entrance, to distinguish it from the second, which were the gates of the church.
5. Between this porch and the church was a large area Theatrium, or square plot of ground, which Eusebius 54 calls aieptov, or the area, and Paulus Silentiarius avλǹv in his Description of Sancta before the Sophia 55. The Latins term it atrium and impluvium, be- church, cause it was a court open to the air without any covering, with portisave only on each side of the square, which was surrounded with porticoes or cloisters, (σroaì, Eusebius calls them,) and these built upon columns; whence, as Du Fresne 56 observes, this place is called sometimes Terpáσtvλov, and quadriporticus in modern authors. In this place stood the first class of penitents according to Eusebius 57, who says expressly, it was the mansion of those, who were not allowed to enter
54 L. 10. c. 4. (v. 1. p. 473. 17.) .... Μέσον αἴθριον ἠφίει εἰς τὴν τοῦ οὐρανοῦ κάτοψιν, λαμπρὸν καὶ ταῖς τοῦ φωτὸς ἀκτῖσιν ἀνειμένον αέρα Taρéxov.-De Vit. Constant. 1. 3. c. 35. (ibid. p. 598. 3.) Aiéßaive d' égns ἐπὶ παμμεγέθη χῶρον, εἰς καθαρὸν αἴθριον ἀναπεπταμένον.
55 Part. 2. v. 174. (ap. Byzant. Hist. Scriptor. t. 13. p. 190 b. 4.) Τέτρασιν αἰθούσησι περίδρομον ὄψεαι αὐλὴν,
ἂν μία μὲν νάρθηκι συνάπτεται, αἴγε
56 In Paul. Silent. 1. c. p. 536. (ibid. p. 204. n. 20.) Ubi observan
dum, exteriorem vestibuli porticum
57 L. 10. c. 4. (v. 1. p. 473. 23.)
In the middle of which stood a fountain
tharus and phiala in
further into the church; that is, they stood either in the
6. It is further to be noted, that in the middle of the atrium there was commonly a fountain, or a cistern of water, for people to wash their hands and face before they went into as they en- the church. Eusebius expressly mentions this in the temple tered into of Paulinus. He says 59, In the court over against the church called can- he placed κpývas, fountains of water, as symbols of purification, for such to wash as entered into the church.' Paulinus, bishop of Nola, takes notice of the same thing, but gives it the name of cantharus 60, which signifies any capacious vessel that will hold much water, and sometimes a statue made to spout out water at its mouth: as Du Fresne has observed, that in some places the fountain was surrounded with lions thus spouting out water, whence this place has the name of leontarium in some modern Greek writers. It is also called by some nymphaum, ἐμβάτης, and κολυμβεῖον, which all signify a fountain. Paulus Silentiarius, in his description of Sancta Sophia, gives it the name of páλn, phiala, which we may English, the basin. And Socrates calls it opéap, the spring: for speaking of a skirmish that happened between the Catholics and Macedonian heretics in the church of Acacius, at
58 De Pudicit. c. 4. See before, ch. 1. s. 17. p. 37. n. 82.
59 [L. 1o. c. 4. (ibid. p. 473. 19.) Ἱερῶν δὲ ἐνταῦθα καθαρσίων ἐτίθει σύμβολα κρήνας ἄντικρυς εἰς πρόσωπον ἐπισκευάζων τοῦ νεὼ, πολλῷ τῷ χεύματι τοῦ νάματος, τοῖς περιβόλων
ἱερῶν ἐπὶ τὰ ἔσω προϊοῦσι τὴν ἀπόρ
60 Ep. 12. ad Sever. (p. 153.)
Cantharus, intrantumque manus la-
Constantinople, he says 61, such a slaughter was made, that the avλǹ (the atrium, or court of the church) was filled with blood, insomuch that the φρεὰρ (the fountain, that stood in it) was overflowed therewith, and ran through the adjoining στολ (the portico or cloisters) even into the street. St. Chrysostom 62 also speaks of these fountains, as of things of common use in the atria, or courts before the churches. And frequently in his popular discourses 63 alludes to the custom of washing their hands before they went into church. Which is also done by Tertullian 6+, who exposes the absurdity of going to prayers with washed hands, whilst men retained a filthy spirit and polluted soul. In like manner Synesius 65 speaks of the cisterns or vessels of water set for washing in their ante-temples.
7. The writers of the Church of Rome, Baronius 66 and whether the superothers, commonly derive and defend the use of their holy stitious use water from this ancient custom; but Du Fresne 67 seems to of holy wa
61 L. 2. c. 38. (v. 2. 148. 30.)... Καὶ γίνεται φόνος ἀνθρώπων πολλῶν ὥστε τὴν αὐλὴν τῆς ἐκκλησίας ἐκείνης αἵματος πλήρη γενέσθαι, καὶ τὸ ἐν αὐτῇ φρέαρ ὑπερβλύσαι τοῦ αἵματος, ἐκρεῖν δὲ τοῦτο καὶ εἰς τὴν ἐχομένην στοὰν, ἄχρι τῆς πλατείας αὐτῆς.
62 Hom. 57. t. 5. Edit. Savil. p. 390. 12. (t. 3. p. 298 d.) . . . Κρήνας εἶναι ἐν ταῖς αὐλαῖς τῶν εὐκτηρίων οἴκων νενόμισται, κ. τ. λ.
63 Hom. 52. [al. 51.] in Matth. (t. 7. p. 526 b.) Καὶ γὰρ ἐν [τῇ] ἐκκλησίᾳ τοιοῦτον ὁρῶμεν ἔθος κρατοῦν παρὰ τοῖς πολλοῖς, καὶ ὅπως μὲν καθαροῖς εἰσέλθοιεν ἱματίοις σπουδάζονται, καὶ ὅπως τὰς χεῖρας νίψαιντο, κ. τ. λ.—Hom. 72. [al. 73.] in Joan. (t. 8. p. 433 c.) Εἶτα χεῖρας μὲν νιπτόμεθα εἰς ἐκκλησίαν εἰσιόντες, τὴν δὲ καρδίαν οὐκέτι ; Εἰπέ μοι, ἆρα ἂν ἕλοιο χερσὶν ἀνίπτοις τῇ θυσίᾳ προσελθεῖν; οὐκ ἔγωγε οἶμαι· ἀλλ ̓ ἐθέλοις ἂν μηδὲ ὅλως προσελθεῖν, ἢ ῥυπαραῖς χερσίν.—Hom. 3. in Εph. (t. II. p. 22 d.) Εἰπέ μοι, ἆρα ἂν ἔλοιο χερσὶν ἀνίπτοις τῇ θυσίᾳ προσελθεῖν, κ. τ. λ. [Conf. ibid. p. 23 d. et f. ED.]-In Ps. 140. (t. 5. p. 431 d.) Κάθαιρε τοίνυν αὐτὰς χεῖρας] ἐλεημοσύνῃ, φιλανθρωπία, προστασία δεομένων, καὶ οὕτως αὐτὰς εἰς εὐχὰς
ἄγε. εἰ γὰρ ἀνίπτους αὐτὰς οὐκ ἐπι-
64 De Orat. c. 11. (p. 133 c.) Cæ-
65 Ep. 121. ad Anastas. (p. 258 b. 3.) .... Τὰ ἐν τοῖς προτεμινίσμασι χέρνιβα, κ. τ. λ. [Conf. Synes. Catastas. (p. 303 b.5.) ... Τὰς παναγεῖς προστήσομαι χέρνιβας. ED.]
66 An. 57. nn. 107-111. (t. I. 478 c.) Nec vero prætereundum, &c.
67 In Paul. Silent. p. 539. (ubi supr. t. 13. p. 205. n. 22. ad calc. col. dextr.)... Hæ fontium aquæ quotannis in pervigilio sacrorum Theophaniorum, interdum in ipso festo die, consecrabantur et benedicebantur, quarum benedictionis ordo habetur in Euchologio: unde νόσων ἀπελαστικαί δαιμόνων φυγαδευτικαί· apud Clement. in Constit. Apost. Ιαματικὸν ψυχῶν καὶ σωμάτων, alibi ἁμαρτημάτων λυτήριον, &c. in eodem Euchologio dicuntur. Harum loco