ruption of this ancient custom.

ter be a cor- speak more properly when he says, their lustral water rather succeeded in its room. For the washing of the Ancients had nothing of expiation in it, but was only an indifferent ceremony of corporal decency; or, at most, but an admonishing emblem of that purity of soul with which men ought to enter the courts of the most holy God. And therefore any one that compares these matters nicely together, must conclude, that the latter custom is but a fond imitation, or mere corruption, of the former; if it owe not rather its original to a worse fountain, the epippavτýpia, or sprinkling with holy water, so often spoken of among the Heathen. The things are so like one another, that some modern transcribers of Sozomen have mistaken them for one another. For, whereas, Sozomen 65, speaking of Julian's going into a temple to sacrifice, in Gaul, with Valentinian to attend him, says, the priest sprinkled them with water as they went in, according to the heathen. custom.' Valesius 69 has observed, that in some copies it is read, according to ecclesiastical custom, instead of heathen custom, which he imputes to some modern transcribers, who were minded to make church-holy-water of it; whom he ingenuously chastises for their ignorance or impudence in corrupting good authors, as they justly deserved.



and porti



8. But to return to the business of the ancient churches. Whilst we are speaking of the ante-temple it will not be coes in the improper to observe, that for many years after buryingple, only places were allowed in cities, they were still kept out of made use of that which was strictly and properly called the church, and for burying the dead. only allowed in those parts of the ante-temple, the atrium and porticoes which we have been describing; as appears from a canon of the Council of Nantes 7o, anno 658, which

successere, præsertim apud Latinos,
quæ in templorum valvis exponi
solent lustrales undæ, uti, qui de
ritibus ecclesiasticis scripsere, pri-
dem docuerunt.

68 L. 6. c. 6. (v. 2. p. 226. 16.)...
Ὁ ἱερεὺς νόμῳ Ελληνικῷ περιέρραινε
τοὺς εἰσιόντας.

69 [In loc. supr. citat. (ibid. n. 1.) Quod idcirca hic retuli, non quod scripturam eam probem, sed ut studiosus lector perspiciat, quam peri

culosum sit conjecturæ suæ indulgere. Etenim antiquarius, qui codicem illum descripsit, cum aspersionis aquæ mentionem fieri videret hoc loco, id more ecclesiastico factum esse credidit. Quasi non et Pagani hujusmodi aspersionibus aquæ lustralis usi fuerint diu ante Christianiæ religionis exordium. Nota sunt veterum Græcorum Teρippavrηpia. Grischov.]

70 C. 6. (t. 9. p. 470 a.) Ut in ec

prohibits any to be buried in the church, but allows of it in the atrium, or porticus, or exedra, of the church. Which I note, only to shew what use these parts of the ante-temple were put to. But of this more when we come to treat of cemetries and the funeral rites of the ancient Church.


Of the interior narthex, and the parts and uses of it.

before the

1. HAVING taken a view of the exterior narthex, or outward Of the lesser πρόante-temple, we are next led by Eusebius into the interior narπυλα, οι thex, or ante-temple within the church. For in such stately porches structures as that of Paulinus was, the narthex, or проváоs, doors of which I English ante-temple, was a name common to more the church. parts than one. And in some of the most magnificent churches, as that of Sancta Sophia, as Du Fresne has observed, out of Procopius and Paulus Silentiarius, there were no less than four distinct nartheces. The entrance into the interior narthex, in the church of Paulinus, was out of the porticoes, or cloisters, before the church, by three inner porches, (тà èvdотáтw пρоTuλa, Eusebius calls them,) and as many gates, opening out of them, the middle one being the greatest and highest of the three, as we commonly see in our modern cathedrals, only with this difference, that those fronted to the east, and ours to the west. It had also porticoes adjoining on the north and south71, and as many porches and doors to enter out of them. These porches, in such churches as had no other ante-temple, served to receive the first class of penitents, called the mourners, which otherwise were remitted to the atrium and porticus before the church, as I have shewed already 72, in the temple of Paulinus. And these things are accurately to be observed by those who would not mistake the Ancients, when they seem to speak differently of the place of mourners. Du Fresne has also

clesia nullatenus sepeliantur, sed in atrio, aut [in] porticu, aut exedris ecclesiæ. [al. extra ecclesiam.]

Jerusalem. (v. I. p. 598. 30.) 'Aμpi indékáтepa тà пλevρà diтtŵv σTO@V ἀναγείων τε καὶ καταγείων δίδυμοι παραστάδες τῷ μήκει τοῦ νεὼ συνεξετεί

71 See also Euseb. de Vit. Constant. 1. 3. c. 37. of the Church of


72 See ch.3. s. 5. n. 57, preceding.

Of the narthex, πρόναος, οι ferula.

observed, out of Paulinus Nolanus 72, that these porches and
gates are sometimes called arcus, from the manner of their
structure, which was arch-work; and apsides for the same rea-
son, for apsis denotes any thing that is framed in the figure of
an arch or a convex, as the heavens; and therefore he thinks
the thirty-second canon of the third Council of Carthage 73 is
to be understood of this place, when it says, that such peni-
tents as had committed very notorious and scandalous crimes,
known to the whole Church, should have imposition of hands
before the apsis;' that is, before the porch or doors of the
church. Here it was also that the poor of the Church placed
themselves, both before and after divine service, to ask alms of
such as came from the altar. Which custom is mentioned by
Gregory Nazianzen 74 and St. Chrysostom 75, who elegantly,
after his manner, upon this account styles the poor and aged,
and the lame and the blind, the guards of the royal palace,'
meaning the church.

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2. Being entered by these gates into the church, the first place that occurs to our view is the póvaos, or ante-temple, within the walls. This in the modern Greek Rituals is always called the narthex, and is peculiarly allotted to the monks or women, and used to perform the offices of rogations, and sup

72 Ep. 12. ad Sever. (p. 152.) Alma domus triplici patet ingredientibus arcu. [See Du Fresne himself, Comment. in Paul. Silent. p. 537. (ap. Byzant. Hist. Scriptor. t. 13. p. 204.)


cunque autem poenitentis publicum
et vulgatissimum crimen est, quod
universa ecclesia noverit, ante apsi-
dem manus ei imponatur.

74 Orat. 16. de Amor. Pauper. (t.
1. p. 246 c.) Oi Todλoì dè avtov ovde
ὑπ ̓ αἰσχύνης τὰς πανηγύρεις φεύγου
σιν· αὐτὸ μὲν οὖν τοὐναντίον, εἰς ταύ-
τας ὠθοῦνται διὰ τὴν χρείαν, ταύτας
δὴ λέγω πανδήμους καὶ ἱερὰς, ἃς ἡμεῖς
ἐπὶ θεραπείᾳ τῶν ψυχῶν ἐξεύρομεν, ἢ
κατά τε μυστήριον συνιόντες, ἢ τοῖς
μάρτυσι τῆς ἀληθείας πανηγυρίζοντες.

Cum in Synodo 111 Carthagi-
nensi, c. 32, cavetur, ut iis, quorum
crimina publica sunt, ante absidem
manus imponatur, id videtur intelli-
gendum de abside narthecis, ubi
consistebant pœnitentes, non vero
de absida, seu concha altaris.It
would seem from this that, accord-
ing to Du Fresne, absis and absida 75 Hom. 10. [Corrige, Hom. 11.
are not exactly synonymous, as Sui- in 1 Thess. c. 5. (t. 11. p. 507 d.) Aià
cer seems to imply, where he states τοῦτο γὰρ καὶ ἐν ταῖς ἐκκλησίαις, καὶ
that the Latin fathers always used ἐν τοῖς μαρτυρίοις προκάθηνται τῶν
one or other of those forms. See
προπυλαίων οἱ πένητες, ὥστε ἡμᾶς ἐκ
Thes. Eccles. voce 'Avís. (t. I. p. τῆς τούτων θέας πολλὴν δέχεσθαι τὴν
612. n. 2.)—See also the Author's ὠφέλειαν. Εννόησον γὰρ, ὅτι, εἰς
remarks on the same subject in an- μὲν βασιλεία τὰ ἐπὶ γῆς εἰσερχομένων
other place, b. 19. ch. 2. s. 3., toge- ἡμῶν, οὐδὲν τοιουτόν ἐστιν ἰδεῖν ..
ther with the notes thereon. ED.] Εἰς δὲ τὰ ὄντως βασιλεία, τὴν ἐκκλη-
σίαν λέγω, κ. τ. λ. ED.]

73 C. 32. (t. 2. p. 1171e.) Cujus


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plications, and night-watches in. Here also they placed dead corpses, whilst their funeral rites are performing, as Suicerus 76 shews at large out of their Triodion Pentecostarium and Typicum, and other authors. Morinus 77 thinks the ancient churches for above five hundred years had no narthex, but were divided only into two parts, the sanctuarium and aula laicorum, the place of the clergy and the place of the laymen, and that the narthex was first introduced by the Eastern monks in the sixth century. But in this he is evidently mistaken, for though the name, perhaps, be not very ancient, yet the thing itself is; for this was always a distinct and separate part of the church, as any one will easily imagine that considers the ancient use of it.

it for the

3. For the Church, ever since she first divided her catechu- The use of mens and penitents into distinct orders and classes, had also catechudistinct places in the church for them. And this lower part of mens and penitents the church was the place of the energumens, and such of the of the secatechumens and penitents as were commonly called aкpowμe- cond order. vol, or audientes, that is, hearers; because they were allowed. to stand here to hear the Psalms and Scriptures read, and the sermon made by the preacher, after which they were dismissed without any prayers or solemn benediction; as may be seen in the author of the Constitutions 78, and the Canons of St. Basil 79, Gregory Nyssen 80, and several others.

76 Thes. Eccles. voce Nápong. (t. 2. p.391.) Nápong est locus in ecclesia, etsi alii extra ecclesiam ponant: cujus frequens mentio in libris ecclesiasticis Græcorum. Triodion in Sabbato sancto: Ἡ δὲ πρώτη ὥρα ψάλλεται ἐν τῷ νάρθηκι ὁμοίως, καὶ αἱ λοιπαὶ λιταὶ ψάλλονται ὁμοίως ἐν To váρoŋki. Pentecostarium in Dominica resurrectionis: Kai gepxóμεθα ἅπαντες ἐν τῷ νάρθηκι διὰ τοῦ βορείου μέρους, κρατοῦντες καὶ τὰ κηρία ἡμμένα. Τypicum, c. 25. Καὶ ποιοῦμεν ἐν τῷ νάρθηκι παννυχίδα εἰς τοὺς κοιμηθέντας.

77 De Penitent. 1. 6. c. I. s. 10. (p. 357 a. 3.) Secundum [est] nusquam apud antiquos auctores narthecis mentionem fieri. Antiqui enim Græci, ut et Latini, ecclesias in duas tantum partes distinxerunt, in au

lam sive atrium laicorum, et sanctu-
arium, in quo consistere episcopis,
presbyteris, et diaconis tantum lice-
bat. Sanctum non modo ieparéîov,
sed sæpissime Bua vocarunt, ut et
ἅγιον τῶν ἁγίων, quandoque etiam
ἄδυτα, ἀνάκτορον, εἰ ἱλαστήριον. -
et U-
surpari cœpit vápoŋg in Typicis et
Euchologiis post annos a Christo
nato quingentos. Tum enim orien-
tales monachi cœperunt ecclesias in
tres partes dividere, iepareîov, vaòv,
καὶ νάρθηκα.

78 L. 8. c. 5. (Cotel. v. 1. p. 392.)
Καὶ μετὰ τὴν ἀνάγνωσιν τοῦ Νόμου καὶ
τῶν Προφητῶν τῶν τε Επιστολῶν ἡμῶν
καὶ τῶν Πράξεων καὶ τῶν Εὐαγγελίων
ἀσπασάσθω ὁ χειροτονηθεὶς τὴν ἐκ-
κλησίαν . . . . καὶ μετὰ τὴν πρόσρησιν
προσλαλησάτω τῷ λαῷ λόγους παρα-
κλήσεως καὶ πληρώσαντος αὐτοῦ τὸν

Also for Jews, heathens, he



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4. Hither also both Jews and heathens, and heretics and schismatics were sometimes allowed to come, to hear the retics, and Scriptures read, and the sermon preached, because this part to hear in. of the service was for their edification and instruction. The Council of Laodicea 81, indeed, prohibits heretics to come within the church. But in Afric and other places it was allowed for in the fourth Council of Carthage 82 there is a canon express to this purpose, that the bishop shall not prohibit any, whether Heathen, Heretic, or Jew, to come into the church, and stay there to hear the word of God, till the time of the dismission of the catechumens.' And it appears further from several, both of St. Chrysostom's and St. Austin's Homilies, that this was the common practice. Now then it is reasonable to suppose, that all these had their station together in the lower part of the church, called the narthex, or whatever other name it went by.

This not

5. Dr. Beveridge and some others seem here also to place the place of the font, or baptistery, as in our modern churches. But there baptistery, is nothing more certain than that, for many ages, the bap

the font, or

τῆς διδασκαλίας λόγον . . . . ἀναστάν-
των ἁπάντων ὁ διάκονος ἐφ ̓ ὑψηλοῦ
τινος ἀνελθὼν κηρυττέτω· Μήτις τῶν
ἀκροωμένων· μήτις τῶν ἀπίστων.

79 C. 75. [Oper. Basil. Ep. 217.
Canonic. Tert.] (CC. t. 2. p. 1753 b.)
Ὁ ἀδελφῆ ἰδίᾳ ἐκ πατέρος ἢ ἐκ μη-
τέρος συμμιανθεὶς, εἰς οἶκον προσευχής
μὴ ἐπιτρεπέσθω παρεῖναι, ἕως ἂν ἀπο-
στῇ τῆς παρανόμου καὶ ἀθεμίτου πρά-
ξεως μετὰ δὲ τὸ ἐλθεῖν εἰς συναίσθης
σιν τῆς φοβερᾶς ἁμαρτίας [ἐκείνης,]
τριετίαν προσκλαιέτω, τῇ θύρᾳ τῶν
εὐκτηρίων οἴκων παρεστηκὼς, καὶ δεό-
μενος τοῦ λαοῦ εἰσιόντος ἐπὶ τὴν
προσευχὴν, ὥστε ἕκαστον μετὰ συμ-
παθείας ὑπὲρ αὐτοῦ ἐκτενεῖς ποιεῖσθαι
πρὸς τὸν Κύριον τὰς δεήσεις μετὰ
δὲ τοῦτο, ἄλλην τριετίαν εἰς ἀκρόασιν
μόνην παραδεχθήτω, καὶ ἀκούων τῶν
γραφῶν [al. τῆς γραφῆς] καὶ τῆς δι-
δασκαλίας ἐκβαλλέσθω, καὶ μὴ και
ταξιούσθω προσευχῆς· ἔπειτα εἴπερ
μετὰ δακρύων ἐξεζήτησεν αὐτὴν, καὶ
προσέπεσε τῷ Κυρίῳ μετὰ συντριμ-
μοῦ καρδίας καὶ ταπεινώσεως ἰσχυράς,
διδόσθω αὐτῷ ὑπόπτωσις ἐν ἄλλοις
τρισὶν ἔτεσι· καὶ οὕτως, ἐπειδὰν τοὺς

καρποὺς τῆς μετανοίας ἀξίους ἐπιδείξηται, τῷ δεκάτῳ ἔτει εἰς τὴν τῶν πιστῶν εὐχὴν δεχθήτω, χωρὶς προσφορᾶς· καὶ δύο ἔτη συστὰς εἰς τὴν εὐχὴν τοῖς πιστοῖς, οὕτω λοιπὸν καταξιούσθω τῆς τοῦ ἀγαθοῦ κοινωνίας.

80 Ep. ad Letoium, c. 5. (t. 2. p. 120 b.) Τρισεννέα γάρ εἰσιν ἐνιαυτοὶ, καθ ̓ ἕκαστον βαθμὸν τῆς ἐννάδος τῶν ἐτῶν ὁρισθείσης, ὥστε ἐν μὲν τῷ παντελεῖ ἀφορισμῷ ἐνναετῆ χρόνον διαγενέσθαι ἀπειργόμενον τῆς ἐκκλησίας ἄλλα δὲ τοσαῦτα ἔτη ἐν τῇ ἀκροάσει παραμεῖναι, μόνης τῶν διδασκάλων καὶ τῆς τῶν γραφῶν ἀκροάσεως, καὶ μετὰ τῆς τοῦ λαοῦ συστάσεως ἀξιούμενον, κ.τ.λ.

81 C. 6. (t. I. p. 1497 a.) Περὶ τοῦ, μὴ συγχωρεῖν τοῖς αἱρετικοῖς εἰσιέναι εἰς τὸν οἶκον τοῦ Θεοῦ, ἐπιμένοντας τῇ αἱρέσει.

82 C. 84. (t. 2. p. 1203 d.) Ut episcopus nullum prohibeat ingredi ecclesiam, et audire Verbum Dei, sive Gentilem, sive Hæreticum, sive Judæum, usque ad Missam Catechu


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