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tistery was a distinct place from the body of the church, and as in our

modern reckoned among the exedræ, or places adjoining to the church. churches.

. For which reason I omit speaking any further of it here, intending to do it more fully in the latter part of this Book, when I come to the exedræ of the church.

6. If it be inquired,—Why this part of the church was Why called called narthex? I answer, because the figure of it was sup- and of the

narthex : posed to resemble a ferula, which was the Latin name for it, different

sorts of that is, a rod or staff. For any oblong figure, or dromical, nartheces as the Greeks called it, was by them called a narthex, as in several

churches. Suicerus and Du Fresne have observed out of Theodosius Zygomala 83. And therefore this part of the church being a long but narrow part, across the front of the church, was termed narthex, or ferula, upon that account. And it is further to be observed, that some churches had three or four nartheces, but those without the walls ; for the porticoes or cloisters of such churches as Sancta Sophia, which were built to the north, and west, and south of them, were called nartheces, as Du Fresne 84 shews out of Procopius and Paulus

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83 Ap. Crucium, Turco-Græc. (p. alio indicio: qui quidem tertius nar201.) Παν δρομικόν νάρθης καλείται. thex prima fortassis fuerit e tribus

84' In Paul. Silent. p. 534. (ubi porticibus, quas ad occidentem Ædis supr. t.13. p. 203.sub calc.col. dextr.) Sophianæ stetisse scribit Paulus SiQuatuor porro in Æde Sophiana lentiarius, quæque étáratos vápong nartheces statuit Codinus : 'Atrò toù videtur nuncupari apud eundem Býuatos uéxpı T@V teooápwv vapoń- Anonymum, p. 248. Nam auctor est κων. Ut et Anonymus: Και των τεσ- Goarus, etiamnum Græcis & Ewváponσάρων ναρθήκων κατεχρύσωσε τα kas exteriores porticus, ut interiores όροφα εξ υελίνου χρυσού λαμπρό- εσωνάρθηκας, dici. Porro δικύμβα

Sed jure addubitari potest, dov, ni fallor, locus est constans an hoc loco quatuor aliquas por. duabus trullis, kuußalıkôs, seu in ticus exteriores innuerit, binas sci- modum cymbali, quemadmodum licet ad occidentem, et duas alias fuit major ædis trulla, exstructis. ad septemtrionem et meridiem. Ita τρικύμβαλον του τζυκανιστηρίου Quod quidem indicare videtur idem memorat alicubi Codinus in Orig. Anonymus, scribens Justinianum Jure igitur Allatius hæc verba de statuisse, (an vere, alii viderint,) ut, narthece infert: Narthex vero extra quisquis pro delictorum modo ar- ecclesiam forte an antiquis temporiceretur a sacris, in his quatuor nar- bus fuerit, non disputo. Nam ut thecibus staret : quo quidem loco nartheces, quod ex prædictis satis pivas nartheces vocat, incomperta patet, olim extra ecclesiam, seu pomihi ratione, nisi forte quod ad tius extra ecclesiæ septa, fuere, etsi templi fines haberentur porticus forte, ut pronai, sacri haberentur; istæ exteriores. Certe tertium nar- ita vicissim pro certo haberi debet, thecem ejusdem Ædis Sophianæ ob- posterioribus sæculis narthecem,eam servare est in Sexta Synodo, Act. ædis sacræ partem, quam hodie na18., ubi dikúußalov év Tpíto váponki vim vocamus, appellatum, ut patet μεγάλης εκκλησίας statuitur, nullo ex Euchologio et cæteris Græcorum

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Silentiarius, and the sixth General Council, because these were
long narrow buildings, in figure or shape of a narthex. And
such churches, he thinks, had no other narther within the
walls ; but these porticoes were the proper station of the
penitents, and such others as were not allowed to come within
the nave of the church. But in such churches as had no
porticoes adjoining to them, the narthex was the lower part
of the church within the walls, which was made to answer the
use of porticoes in other churches. And this seems to be the
true state of the matter, and the only way to reconcile the
different accounts that are given by authors of the ancient
narthex of the church.

CHAP. V.

Of the vaòs, or nave of the church, and its parts and uses.
Of the 1. AFTER the narthex, followed that part which was pro-
beautiful
and royal perly called vaòs, the temple, and navis, the nave or body
gates. Why of the church. This was separated from the narthex by
so called.

certain rails of wood, as all other places in the church were
commonly distinguished. The entrance into it from the nar-
thex was by the gates, which the modern Rituals and Greek
writers call πύλαι ωραίαι, and βασιλικαι, the beautiful and royal
gates ; which seemed to be so named in allusion to the name
basilica, as denoting the royal palace of God, his house and
temple. Though perhaps another reason might be assigned
for it among the modern Greeks, who might call it the royal
gate, because here their kings were used to lay down their
crowns, before they proceeded further into the church : which
is observed by Leo Grammaticus, in the Life of Michael S5, the
Emperor, where he notes it as an insolent and indecent thing
in him, “ that when he came to the royal gates he did not lay
aside his crown, as kings were used to do.' Some festivals
among
them were,
for like

reason,

called crown-days,

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ritualibus libris, et aliquot inferioris Μέχρι δε των βασιλικών πυ-
etatis scriptoribus, quos laudat idem λών ελθών ο βασιλείς ουκ απέθετο
Allatius in Dissertat. de Recentio- το στέφος, καθώς έθος εστί τοις βα-
rum Graecorumn Templis, p. ΙΙΟ. et σιλεύσι αλλά μετ' αυτού εισήλθεν
sequentibus.

μέχρι των αγίων θυρών, κ. τ.λ.
85 Chronograph. (p. 466 b. 11.)

a year.

coprai OCOOTETTai, dies coronati, because the Emperors were used to go in their regalia to the great church of Sancta Sophia, on those days, which were twelve particular days in

So that, as these days, so those gates of the temple might have their denomination from some particular ceremony used by the imperial powers at their entrance by them. But I take the other reason to be more probable, and had scarce mentioned this, had it not been to explain a custom or two, which fall in our way upon the mention of it. 2. This part of the church seems to have been usually The nave of

the church a square building, in the middle, between the sanctuary and

usually a the narthex; as we find it described in a letter of Theodosius square

building, and Valentinian, at the end of the Council of Ephesus 56, and called by inserted also in the Theodosian Code 87, where, speaking of some the

oratory of churches as places of refuge, they divide them into these three laymen. parts :-1st, The Avolastýpuov, the altar-part or sanctuary; 2d, The eủktńPLOv toŮ daoû tetpáywvov, the four-squared oratory of the people; and, 3d, The remaining part from that to the outer doors of the church. Now as this last is a plain description of the narthex forementioned, though it be not called by that name, so is the second a description of the nave or middle of the church, called the people's oratory, because the people chiefly filled this place, having their different stations or apartments in it, according to the difference of age, or sex, or quality, or state and condition ; which distinctions were anciently observed in some, though, perhaps, not in all churches. 3. For here, first of all, at the very entrance of the royal In the

lowest part gates, in the lowest station of this part, behind the ambo, stood the ÚTOTÍTTOUTES, or substrati, the penitents of the third stood the

substrati, order, so called from the custom of prostrating themselves

or penitents before the bishop or priest, as soon as the sermon was ended, of the third to receive his benediction, with imposition of hands, and be

of which

order.

86 Ad calc. C. Ephes. (t. 3. p. τελευταίων θυρών της εκκλησίας, ών 1235 c.) Επί γάρ των ημετέρων και- τοίς εύξασθαι προηρημένους πρώτον ρων ου μόνον τα θεία θυσιαστήρια, επιβαίνειν συμβαίνει, ελέου βωμόν τοις και το ευκτήριον του λαού το τετρά- προσφεύγουσιν είναι προστάττομεν. γωνον τοίχων περιβολή τειχιζόμενον, 87 L. 9. tit. 45. De his qui ad els dopal elav aurteleiv Tây tpoopev- Ecclesiam confugiunt, leg. 4. p. 366. γόντων θεσπίζομεν, αλλ' εί τι και (t. 3. p. 363.) Pateant summi Dei περαίτερον τούτου τυγχάνει, άχρι των templa petentibus, &c.

BINGHAM, VOL. III.

F

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made partakers of those prayers, which the congregation particularly offered to God for them; after which, they were obliged immediately to depart, before the communion-service. This sort of penitents are mentioned in the Council of Nice 88, though no particular place is assigned them ; but we may collect from Tertullian and Sozomen, that their station was in this part of the church. For Tertullian 89, speaking of the Roman discipline, says, “ Pope Zephyrin brought penitents into the church, in sackcloth and ashes, and prostrated them in the midst before the widows and presbyters, to implore their commiseration and excite their tears.' This must be a different station of penitents from those called mourners, for their station, as we have seen before, was without the church-doors, but these before the widows and presbyters, in the middle of the church. And so Sozomen 90 plainly represents it, when he says, “the bishop fell prostrate with them, and all the congregation wept with tears, and then the bishop rising up, made the proper prayers for them and dismissed them.' These were exercises to be performed in the church, and not at the church-door ; and therefore this order of penitents are not without reason placed by all expositors within the royal gates, behind the ambo of the church.

4. The ambo itself was what we now call the reading-desk, a place made on purpose for the readers and singers, and such of the clergy as ministered in the first service, called missa catechumenorum. It had the name of ambo, not, as Walafridus Strabo imagines, ab ambiendo, because it surrounded them that were in it; but from åvaßalvelv, because it was a place of eminency, to which they went up by degrees or steps: for the original name is äußwv; which, as Valesius and Habertus have

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And the ambo, or readingdesk.

88 C. ΙΙ. (t. 2. p. 33 d.) "Οσοι ούν 90 L. 7. c. 16. (v. 2. p. 300. 1.) γνησίως μεταμέλονται, τρία έτη εν 'Ενθάδε γαρ έκδηλός εστιν ο τόπος ακροωμένοις ποιήσουσιν οι πιστοί, των εν μετανοία όντων εστασι δε και επτά έτη υποπεσούνται.

κατηφείς, και οιονεί πενθούντες ήδη 89 De Pudicit. c. 13. (p. 564 c.)... δε πληρωθείσης της του θεού λειPenitentiam mechi ad exOrandam τoυργίας, μη μετασχόντες ών μύσταις fraternitatem in ecclesiam inducens, Θέμις, συν οιμωγή και οδυρμό πρηνείς conciliciatum et concineratum cum επί γης ρίπτουσι σφάς αντιπρόσωπος dedecore et horrore compositum δε δεδακρυμένος ο επίσκοπος προσδραprosternis in medium ante viduas, μών ομοίως επί του εδάφους πίπτει ante presbyteros, omnium lachry- συν όλολυγή και το παν της εκκλησίας mas suadentem, [al. lacinias inva- indos dakpúwv éumrit Nâtai. dentem,] &c.

rightly observed in old Greek writers, Æschylus and Eustathius, signifies the ascent or height of a mountain 90, and thence it comes to signify this place of eminency in the church. Sozomeno gives it the name of Bộua, upon the same account ; but to distinguish it from the other bema, which was the sanctuary of the altar, he calls it Brua yuwot@y, the readers' bema, as the other was more properly the bishop's and presbyters'. In St. Cyprian it is called pulpitum and tribunal ecclesiæ, and the use of it is also explained by him to be a reading-desk: for here it was the readers stood to read the Gospels and Epistles, as we learn from the account which he gives of Celerinus and Aurelius 92, two famous confessors, whom he ordained readers; “that they, who had made confession of Christ's Gospel from the rack, might read it also from the pulpit or tri

90 [Suicer, Thes. Eccles. voce" Au- quid similitudinis habet cum cacuBwy, (t. 1. p. 217.) finds fault with mine et vertice montis; nam et ipsum Strabo (de Reb. Eccles. c. 6.) for TipogavaBaivel et étaviotatal atque deriving the term from ambiendo; υπερέχει, veluti οι των όρων λόφοι. and adds, Originis Græcæ est, unde The term pulpitum is the rendering etiam Latini sumpserunt. Est autem of äußwv in the Laodicean canon äußww quicquid eminet et protuberat according to the versions of Dionyforma rotunda, vel kwvoeldei, årò toù sius Exiguus and Isidore Mercator, άμβαίνειν, sire αναβαίνειν. Colligitur and suggestum in the translation of ex Hesychio, qui habet : "Außwvés, ai Labbe and Cossart; which term is a pooavaßáceis tûv ópôv; acclivitates also used by Habertus, Archierat. et fastigia montium, ex Æschylo. ad Part. 6. Liturg. &c. observ. I. Consentit Etymologus Magnus (vid. (57.) De Ambone, 8-c. referring also Ed. Gaisford. 1848. 81. 8.) .... Kv- to Æschylus as above and to Eustapiws to yellos tris Loráðos, tapà tò thius ad'Odyss. I. (400. et Odyss. K. εν αναβάσει είναι,-Proprie est ora 281.]"Ακριες λόφοι όρων οι και άμpatinæ quod sit in summitate. It is Bwves.-See also Valesius in Socrat. said to occur in that sense, the edge 1.6. c.5. (v. 2. p. 314. n. a.) Ambon of a dish, in Ælius Dionysius; and est vox Græcæ originis, significans in another place, in Critias, to mean quicquid eminet, &c. See above, as the raised bottom of a cup, as in our cited from Suicer. Ep.] common wine bottles. See also He- 91 L. 8. c.5. (ibid. p. 332. 32.) Mésychii Lexicon, (Lugd. Batav. 1746. σον εαυτόν πάσι παρέχων, επί του t. 1. col. 268.) who refers to the use Bhuatos tûv kvayvwotô v kadecóuevos of the word in the Sisyphus, one of édiðaokev.-L. 9. c. 2. (ibid. p. 367. the lost plays of Æschylus. See Din- 36.) Kai avadoyicóuevos ek tñs médas dorf's Tragedies and Fragments of παρακειμένης λεωφόρου, εικάζω αυτήν Eschylus and Sophocles, Paris. κείσθαι περί τον άμβωνα βήμα δε 1842. p. 238. nn. 240, 241. The fol- TOUTO Tôv åvayvwot@v. lowing passage also in Stephanus's Ep. 33. [al. 38.] (p. 222.) Ad Thesaurus (Lond. 1822. v. 4. col. pulpitum post catastam venire, &c. 2532.) from Schaefer's MSS. is wor- -Ep. 34. [al. 39.] (p. 224.) Quid thy of notice. Pro pulpito affertur aliud quam super pulpitum, id est, e Concil. Laodic..c. 15. (Labb. t. I. tribunal ecclesiæ, oportebat imponi, p. 1500 a.) forsan quia pulpitum ali- &c.

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