bunal of the church. Here it was also that the singers had their station, as is evident from that canon of the Council of Laodicea 93, which forbids all others to sing in the church, beside the canonical singers, who went up into the ambo, and sung by book. Here also the diptychs, or books of commemoration, were read; as appears from a noted passage in the Council of Constantinople under Mennas 94, where the people cry out, Τα δίπτυχα το άμβωνι, Let the dotyclis be laid upon the reading-desk. Bona 95 thinks the bishop and presbyters here also made their sermons to the people: for which he cites Prudentius 96 and Sidonius Apollinaris 97, from whose words he further concludes that the ambo was sometimes called ara, or altar. But this observation seems to be founded on a mistake; for the bishops anciently did not use to preach from the ambo, but more commonly from the rising steps of the altar, as Valesius 98 shews that the custom continued in France to the time of King Childebert. And therefore both Socrates 99 and Sozomen seem to speak of Chrysostom's preaching in the ambo as an unusual thing; but he did it for conveniency, Socrates says, that he might be the better heard by the people. We cannot hence therefore conclude, that the ambo was the ordinary place of preaching, but rather the altar; and that when we read of bishops preaching from the ascent of the ara, it is ra


93 C.15. (t. 1. p. 1500 a.) IIepi Toù, 314. n. 1.) Ex hoc loco apparet, epiμη δείν πλέον των κανονικών ψαλτών, scopos olim solitos non esse ex amτων επί τον άμβωνα αναβαινόντων, bone seu pulpito concionem ad poκαι από διφθέρας ψαλλόντων, ετέρους pulum habere. Id enim tanquam τινάς ψάλλειν εν τη εκκλησία. singulare quidpiam in Chrysostomo

94 Al. C. Constant. 10. act.5. (t.5. notat Socrates, quod verba facturus p. 184 a.)

conscendere in ambonem consuevis95 Rer. Liturg. I. 2 c. 6. n. 3. (p. set, ut a populo facilius exaudiretur. 287.) Solebant antiquitus tam Epi- Ut plurimum autem episcopi in grastolæ quam Evangelium legi in am- dibus altaris concionabantur; id bone seu pulpito, ex quo etiam epi- docet Childeberti regis Constitutio, scopus conciones habebat.

quam Sirmondus retulit in tomo Peristeph. Hymn. 11. vv. 225, primo Conciliorum Galliæ, pagina 226. de Hippol. (v. 1. p.402.) Fron- 300, sed mutilam. te sub adversa gradibus sublime tri- 99 L. 6. c.5. (t. 2. p. 314. 24.) fo bunal Tollitur, antistes prædicat un- ούν επίσκοπος, του Ευτροπίου υπό το de Deum.

θυσιαστήριον κειμένου, και εκπεπλη97 Carm. 16. ad Faust. (p. 161. yóros ÜTÒ Toù póßov, kadeoleis étà 125.) Seu te conspicuis gradibus ve- του άμβωνος, όθεν είώθει και πρότεnerabilis are Concionaturum plebs ρον όμιλείν χάριν του εξακούεσθαι, sedula circumsistit.


98 In Socrat. 1. 6. c. 5. (v. 2. p. 1 L. 8. c.5. See n.91, preceding.

κ. τ.λ.

ther to be understood of the altar than the ambo. Yet, in Afric, St. Austin seems to have made his discourses to the people from the ambo, which he sometimes calls eredra?, and sometimes apsis3; which I the rather note, because these words are of various signification among the Ancients, sometimes denoting the ambo, perhaps from its orbicular form, and at other times the cross-wings and outer buildings of the church. Some take the apsis for the ambo, in that canon of the third Council of Carthage 4, which says, “ Notorious and scandalous criminals shall do penance before the apsis.' But Du Fresne, as I have noted before, takes it in another sense, for the porch of the church, and it is not always easy to determine exactly the meaning of it.

5. But to proceed. In this part of the church, all the And above faithful, or such as were in the communion of the Church, had

communi. their place assigned them; and among them the fourth order cants and of penitents, whom they called consistentes, because they were order of allowed to stay, and hear the prayers of the Church, after the penitents, catechumens and other penitents were dismissed; but yet they sistentes,

had their might not make their oblation, or participate of the sacrifice of

places. the altar. In which respect they are said to stand and communicate with the rest of the people, but in prayers only, without the oblation, as the Canons of Nice 6 and St. Basil 7 word it. Whether they were separate from other communicants in a distinct place by themselves, I find not in any other author save only Eligius Noviomensis, who lived about the year 640. He, in one of his Homilies to the Penitents ,

this the



2 De Civitat. Dei. 1. 22. c. 8. (t.7.

5 See before, ibid. n. 72. p. 672 c.). . . In gradibus exedræ, in 6 C. Nicæn. c. 11. (t. 2. p. 33 d.) qua de superiore loquebar loco, feci .. Δύο έτη χωρίς προσφοράς κοινωstare ambos fratres, cum eorum le- voovoi tỘ Naộ tô tipogeuxôv. geretur libellus.

7 C. 56. [Oper. Basil. Ep. 217. Ep. 225. [al. 126.] (t. 2. p. 367 Canonic. Tert.) (CC. ibid. p. 1748 g.)..... Qui ad nos in absidem ho- d.) 'Εν τέσσαρσι [έτεσι] συστήσεται noratiores et graviores ascenderant, μόνον τους πιστούς, προσφοράς δε ου &c.-Εp. 203. [al. 23. t. 2. p. 32 a.) μεταλήψεται' πληρωθέντων δε τούIn futuro Christi judicio, nec absidæ των, μεθέξει των αγιασμάτων.-Conf. [al. apsides] gradatæ, nec cathedræ C. Ancyr. c. 13. (t. I. p. 1460 b.) velatæ, &c.—[The Latin fathers said oi dè deútepov kai rpitov Dúoavtes absis and absida. See Suicer, as cited metà Blas, Tetpaeriav ÚTOTEJÉTwoav, before, ch. 4. s. I. p. 60. at the end dúo črn xwpis upoopopâs KOLVWof n. 72. Ed.]

νησάτωσαν, και το έβδόμω τελείως 4 C. 32. See before, ch. 4. $. I.

δεχθήτωσαν. p. 60. n. 73

8 Hom. 8. ap. Bibl. Patr. 1. 2. p.

of men and women

tells them they were placed on the left side of the church, because the Lord at the day of judgment would place the sheep, that is, the righteous, on his right hand, and the goats, that is, sinners, on his left.' But because this is a later writer, and learned men are also doubtful about his Homilies, whether they be genuine or not, we can determine nothing from this

passage concerning the original custom of the Church. The places 6. Only this is certain from good authors, that anciently

men and women had their different places in this part of the usually se- church. The author of the Constitutions 10 speaks of it as the parate from each other. custom of the Church in his time, when he gives directions

about it, that women should sit in a separate place by themselves; and accordingly makes it one part of the office of deaconesses to attend the women's gate in the church 11; • Let the doorkeepers stand at the gate of the men, and the deaconesses at the gate of the women.' St. Cyril 12 also takes notice of this distinction as customary in his own church at Jerusalem, saying, “Let a separation be made, that men be with men, and women with women, in the church. The like intimation is given us by St. Austin 13, that each sex had their distinct places in the church; and he particularly mentions the women's part, as distinct also in the baptistery 14 of the church. Pauli

99. (Bibl. Max. t. 12. P. 309 h. 17.) 11 Ibid. (p. 263.) Ernkétwoav Cur ergo in sinistra parte ecclesiae οι μεν πυλωροί εις τας εισόδους των positi estis ? Non sine causa usus ανδρών, φυλάσσοντες αυτές, αι δε ecclesiæ hoc obtinuit, sed quia Do- diákovou els tès twv yuvalkov, K.T.N. minus in Judicio oves, id est, justos, -L. 8. c. 20. (p. 408.) ʻO kai év rộ a dextris; hædos vero, id est, pec- OKNVÔ Toù paptupiou kai év , vam catores, a sinistris ponet.

προχειρισάμενος τας φρουρούς αγίων 9 Albertin. de Eucharist. 1. 3. p. σου πυλών, κ. τ.λ.-Conf. c. 28. (p. 906. ad dextr.) Circa idem tempus 411.) Atakóviooa oủk ejhoyei all' Vivebat Eligius Noviomensis epi- ουδέ τι, ων ποιούσιν οι πρεσβύτεροι scopus, sub cujus nomine editae sunt ή οι διάκονοι, επιτελεί, άλλ' ή του sexdecim homiliæ, in quarum oc- Puláttelv Tàs dúpas, k. 7.1. tava dicitur, Nos vere, &c. Et in 12 Præf. in Catech. n. 8. [al. 14.] decima quinta, Sicut caro, &c. ... (p. 10 b.) ... Aleotálow apuyVerum non opus est de horum ματα, άνδρες μετά ανδρών, και γυverborum sensu exactius inquirere. ναίκες μετά γυναικών. Duas enim illas homilias, ut de 13 De Civitat. Dei. 1. 2. c. 28. (t. reliquis taceam, Eligii istius non es- 7. p. 57 f.) Quia populi confluunt se, sed authoris alicujus eo longe ad ecclesias casta celebritate, horecentioris, ex ipsismet aperte liquet, nesta utriusque sexus discretione, &c.

&c. 10 L. 2. c. 57. (Cotel. v. I. p. 261.) 14 Ibid. 1. 22. c. 8. (t. 7. p. 665 f.) ... Ai yuvaixes keywplouévos kai aủ- Admonetur in somnis [Innocentia), ται καθεζέσθωσαν.

appropinquante Pascha, ut in parte


nus takes notice of the same, in the Life of St. Ambrose 15, telling us, “how St. Ambrose was once furiously assaulted in a church by an Arian woman, who, getting up into the tribunal to him, would needs have haled him by his garments to the women's part, that they might have beat him and made him fly the church. This distinction was so generally observed in the time of Constantine, that Socrates 16 says his mother

, Helena always submitted to the discipline of the Church in this respect, praying with the women in the women's part. And it was usually made by rails, or wooden walls, as St. Chrysostom terms them, who has these remarkable words concerning the original of this custom 17; . Men ought to be separated from women,' says he, by an inward wall, (meaning that of the heart,) but because they would not, our forefathers separated them by these wooden walls. For I have heard from our seniors, that it was not so from the beginning; for in Christ Jesus there is neither male nor female. Do we not read, that men and women prayed together in their upper room?' Yet Eusebius 16 makes this distinction as ancient as Philo Judæus and St. Mark; and many learned men think it



fæminarum observanti ad baptiste- 17 Ηom. 74. [al. 73.] in Matth. rium, quaecunque illi baptizata pri- (t. 7. p. 712 b.) Έχρήν μεν ούν ένδον mitus occurrisset, signaret ei locum έχειν το τείχος το διείργον υμάς των signo Christi. [al. eundem locum γυναικών. Επειδή δε ου βούλεσθε, signo Christi signaret.]

αναγκαίον ενόμισαν είναι οι πατέρες, 15 P. 3. (prefix. append. t. 2. p. καν ταις σανίσιν υμάς ταύταις δια4 a. η. Ι.) Sirmium vero cum ad τειχίσαι ως έγωγε ακούω των πρεσordinandum episcopum Anemium βυτέρων, ότι το παλαιόν ουδε ταύτα perrexisset, ibique Justinæ tunc ήν τα τείχεια εν γαρ Χριστώ Ιησού temporis reginae potentia et mul- ουκ ένι άρσεν ή θηλυ' και επί των titudine coadunata de ecclesia pel- 'Αποστόλων δε ομού και άνδρες και leretur, ut non ab ipso, sed ab he- γυναίκες ήσαν και γάρ οι άνδρες, reticis Arianis episcopus in eadem άνδρες ήσαν και αι γυναίκες, γυecclesia ordinaretur, essetque con- ναίκες. Νύν δε παν τουναντίον αι stitutus in tribunali, nihil curans μεν γυναίκες εις τα των εταιρίδων eorum, que a muliere excitabantur, έαυτάς εξώθησαν ήθη οι δε άνδρες una de virginibus Arianorum im- ίππων μαινομένων ουδέν άμεινον διάpudentior cæteris, tribunal conscen- κεινται. Ουκ ήκουσατε, ότι ήσαν συνdens, apprehenso vestimento sacer- ηγμένοι άνδρες και γυναίκες εν τω dotis, cum illum attrahere vellet ad υπερώω; και των ουρανών εκείνος ο partem mulierum, ut ab ipsis caesus σύλλογος άξιος ήν. de ecclesia pelleretur, ait ei: Etsi 18 L. 2. c. 17. (v. 1. p. 69. 27.) Τί ego indignus, &c.

δεί τούτοις επιλέγειν τας επί ταυτόν 16 L. Ι. c. 17. (ν. 2. p. 47. 21.) συνόδους, και τας ιδία μεν ανδρών, Ούτω δε είχεν ευλαβώς περί ταύτα, ιδία δε γυναικών εν ταυτώ διατριβής, ως και συνεύχεσθαι εν τω των γυναι- και τας εξ έθους εισέτι και νυν προς κών τάγματι.

ημών επιτελουμένας ασκήσεις.

came from the Jewish Church into the Christian, not long after the days of the Apostles. Some are a little too curious in fixing this women's part always precisely to the north or right side of the church. For though this might be the custom of the Western Churches in later ages, when Amalarius Fortunatus, and Radulphus Tungrensis, and the authors of the Micrologus and Ordo Romanus lived, (which writers are cited by Durantus 19 for it,) yet it appears to have been otherwise anciently in many of the Greek churches. Nor does that funeral inscription, which some produce out of the Roma Subterranea 20, prove the contrary, which speaks of persons lying interred sinistra parte virorum, on the south or left side of the church, where the men sat. For not to inquire into the antiquity of that inscription, it proves no more but that the men sat on the left side in the Roman churches; which does not hinder the women from having their apartment on that side too, if the same custom was at Rome which was at Constantinople and other Greek churches, which was for the men to sit below, and the women in porticoes or galleries above them, on the left side of the church, if not on the right also. For thus Gregory Nazianzen 21 describes his temple at Anastasia, making the men to stand by the rails of the chancel and the virgins and matrons to be hearkening from their upper galleries above the other. And so it was in the church of Sancta Sophia, and many other churches.



19 De Ritibus, &c. 1. 1. c. 18. n. 3. QVOMODO INTRAMVS SINISTRA (p. 44.) Separantur viri et fæminæ PARTE VIRORVM in ecclesia, ait Amalar. Fortunat., JANVARIA HONESTA FEMINA. non solum ab osculo carnali, sed 21 Somn. de Templ. Anastas. (t.2, etiam situ locali: et eod. libr. c. 2.,

p. 78 b.) Masculi stant in australi parte, et Λαοί δ' οι μεν έχυντο περισταδόν, fæminæ in boreali, ut ostendatur per ώστε μέλισσαι fortiorem sexum firmiores sanctos Σιγκλίδος' ήν γάρ αγών ασσοτέρω constitui, in majoribus tentationibus πελάσαι æstus hujus mundi. Ordo Romanus Οι δ' ιερούς προθύροισι περιστείνοντο de Offic. Missæ. Ipse vero diaconus péovtes, stat versus meridiem, ad quam par- Ούασιν ήδε ποσίν ίσον επειγόμενοι tem viri solent confluere. -Plenius "Allovs d' aŭt' ayopai te tolvo xidées Micrologus de Eccles. Observat. c. θ' άμ' αγυιαι, 9. et Radulph. Tungrens. de Canon. Ποσσί κροαινόμεναι, πέμπον εμοίσι Observant. proposit. 23.

λόγοις 20 Arringhius, l. 2. c. 10. n. 23. Αί δ' άρ' αφ' υψηλών τεγέων εύκοσμον (t. 1. p. 204.) AD Sanctum PE


“Αγναι παρθενικαί κλίνον άμ' εσθλο





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