7. Upon this account these places of the women are by such Why these Greek writers as speak of them termed útepwa, upper rooms; the women

places of as by Evagrius 22 in his Description of the temple of Sancta were called

κατηχούSophia, and more particularly by Paulus Silentiarius 23, who peva and styles them expressly θηλυτέρων υπερώια, the upper galleries υπερώα. of the women. These were also called κατηχούμενα, as appears from an Edict of the Emperor Leo 24, which makes these upper rooms and the catechumena [or catechumenia, for both these terms are in use,] to be the same thing. Suicerus 25 and Hospinian, and many other learned men, mistake these for the place where the catechumens stood, and where the catechetical books were kept : but Du Fresne 26 more truly observes, that they were so called, because they were places of hearing, where the women sat in their upper galleries to hear divine service. In one of these the Empress commonly

. had her apartment, as Du Fresne observes out of Evagrius. And by that one may easily understand what Paulus Diaconus 27 means, when, speaking of the Empress Eirene, he says,

22 L. 4. c. 31. (ν. 3. p. 4ΙΙ. 21.) supr. p. 210. n. 38.) Porticus supe“Υπερωά τε μετεωρίζουσιν ετέροις riores, feminis precantibus addicte, παραπλησίοις κίοσι, προκύπτειν τοις ut plurimum catechumeniorum vel βουλομένοις διδόντες εις τα τελού- catechumenorum nomine donantur μενα όθεν και η βασιλίς παρούσα a scriptoribus : non quod in iis unταις εορταϊς τη ιερουργία των μυστη. quam catechumeni constiterint, sed ρίων εφίσταται.

quod divinos, qui a sacerdotibus et 23 Descript. S. Soph. part. I. V.

oratoribus concinebantur, hymnos 256. (ap. Byzant. Hist. Scriptor. t. ibi auditu exciperent mulieres: unde 13. p. 186 c. 9.) "Ενθα δε θηλυτέρων et κατηχούμενα, Ioca Di verbo ofυπερώϊα καλά νοήσεις.

ficiisque ecclesiasticis audiendis su24 Novel. 73. (ad calc. Corp. J.C. perne exstructa, recte viri docti inArmst. 1663. t. 2. p. 264.) Πραγμα κα- terpretantur.-Ibid. p. 553. (p. 212. κώς μεν και προ των κωλυόντπν αυτό n. 40.) In istarum aularum supeδικαίων γινόμενον, χείρον δε μετά το riorum una Imperatrix consistere κωλυθηναι τολμώμενον, (φημί δε το solebat, cum divinis officiis interεν τοις των εκκλησιών υπερώοις, άπερ erat. Ιd diserte tradit Evagrius ubi ο πολύς άνθρωπος κατηχούμενα καλείν Ioquitur de columnis Thessalicis, έγνω, συνοικείν τινάς γυναιξίν) ουκ que ad septentrionem et meridiem άξιον παριδείν ουκούν ουδε παροφθή- utramque arearm septentrionalerm et σεται ημίν... ορίζομεν, μηδένα μη- meridianam sufulciunt: Εν δεξιώ δε δαμώς, μήτε ιερέα, μήτε των εκ του κατά το ευώνυμον, κίονες αυτοίς παλαού, γυναιξί συνοικούντα, εν τοις λε- ρατετάχαται, εκ θεττάλου λίθου πεγομένοις κατηχουμένοις οικείν ει δέ ποιημένοι υπερώα δε μετεωρίζουσιν τις ευρίσκoιτο τον άγιον οίκον ούτω ετέροις, κ. τ. λ. See n. 22, precedκοινοποιών, τούτον μεν βασιλεία χερι ing. ατίμως εκείθεν έξωθείσθαι.

27 Miscel. 1. 23. (juxt. Ed. Hamb. 25 Thes. Eccles. voce Κατηχού- 16II?) Ascendit Imperatrix Eirene μενα. (t. 2. p. 75.)

In quibus

per æneæ portæ ascensum in catecatechumeni stant et ubi tabulæ chumenia ecclesiae. [According to quoque catecheticæ asservantur. the Ed. Basil. 1569. (p. 732.) the

26' In Paul. Silent. p. 550. (ut passage reads,-- Processit autem et

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* she went up by the ascent of the brazen gate into the
catechumenia of the church,' that is, into the place of hearing
among the women's apartments in the church. These galleries
were sometimes also made use of for Councils to sit in, as Leo
Allatius 28 has observed of the Council of Constantinople in the
time of Johannes Comnenus, anno 1165, that it was held
¿v Tols de cloîs katnxovuévous, in the right-hand galleries of the
church of Alexius;' and some others are mentioned 29 as held

in the same place.
Private 8. The inner parts of these porticoes were sometimes divided
cells for

into little cells or places of retirement on the walls of the meditation, reading, church, and that not only in the women's parts, but the men's and prayers also, as may be collected from the account which Paulinus

the back
of these. Nolanus 30 gives of them, who calls them cubicula, little

chambers, and tells us, “the use of them was for people to
retire into, that were minded to give themselves to reading,
or meditation, or private prayer.' These were looked upon as
parts of the catechumenia, and were sometimes abused to
profane, instead of pious uses. For, as we may collect from
the decrees of the Council of Trullo 31 and the Emperor Leo 32,
some made use of them for lodgings instead of oratories, and
cohabited with their wives there: to correct which abuse, it is
ordered, in both those decrees, ' that all such persons should

be expelled from the catechumenia of the church.'
The place 9. It is to be noted further, that not only men and women
of the vir-


Imperatrix Eirene, carm precessis- μένους του αγίου Αλεξίου, κ. τ.λ.
sent Imperatores, sceptris obsequen- Ep. 12. ad Sever. (p. 151.) Cu-
tibus per scholas antelatis, et ascen- bicula intra porticus quaterna longis
dentibus per æneæ portæ ascensum, basilicæ lateribus inserta, secretis
in catechumeni ecclesiam non exiens orantium, vel in lege Domini medi-
in plateam Emboli. Others read in tantium, præterea memoriis religi-
catechumenia ecclesia. See Murator, osorum ac familiarium accommoda-
Not. ad loc. Rer. Italic. t. 1. p. 164. tos ad pacis æternæ requiem locos

28 De Consens. Eccles. 1. 2. c. II. 31 C. 97. (t. 6. p. 1183 c.) Toùs ñ
(p. 644.) Μηνί Μαΐω, ινδικτιώνος τρί- γαμετη συνοικούντας, ή άλλως αδια-
της, προκαθημένου του αγιωτάτου κρίτως τους ιερούς τόπους κοινοποι-
ημών δεσπότου και οικουμενικού πα- ούντας, και καταφρονητικώς περί αυ-
τριάρχου κυρίου Λέοντος εν τοις δε- τους έχοντας, και ούτως εν αυτοίς
ξιοίς κατηχουμένους του αγίου 'Αλε- καταμένοντας, και εκ των εν τοις σε-
ξίου, συνεδριαζόντων και ιερωτάτων βασμίους ναούς κατηχουμένων έξωθεί-
αρχιερέων, κ. τ.λ.

σθαι προστάσσομεν.
29 Ibid. c. 12. (p. 681.) IIpokaOn- 32 Novel. 73. See n. 24, preced-
uévov toll áyıwrátov ňuôv deottótov ing. See also b. 3. ch. 4. v. 1. p.
και οικουμενικού Πατριάρχου κυρίου 346. n. 12.
Μιχαήλου εν τοις δεξιοίς κατηχου-

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had their distinct places, but also virgins and widows a peculiar gins and

widows apartment assigned to them. Which we learn from St. Am- distinguishbrose's Discourse to a lapsed Virgin 33, telling her that she ed from ought to have remembered that place in the church, railed out from the rest, where she was used to stand, whither the religious matrons and noble women came thronging to receive her salutations, which were more holy and better than herself.' This appears also from the author of the Constitutions 34, who,

, speaking of the order in which persons were appointed to sit in the church, first places the virgins, widows, and aged women, in the highest rank; then married women below them, in a place by themselves; then their children, daughters with their mothers, and sons with their fathers, or next behind them; and, last of all, young men, according to their age, in different

, stations. This was the order in such churches as had none of those hyperoa or galleries before spoken of; for otherwise, as has been noted out of Nazianzen, the virgins and matrons had their distinct places in the porticoes above.

I do not here allege Origen, after Durantus and Bona, because they plainly mistake the sense of their author, who speaks not of the Christian Church, but of the Jewish Temple, and that with such a formal story, that it is a wonder any learned men could mistake him. He tells us 35 he had it from an old tradition, that there was a place in the temple peculiar for virgins to worship God in, whither no married woman was

33 AJ Virg. Laps. c.6. See before, 35 Hom. 26. in Matth. p. 162. [al. b.7. ch.4. s. 7. v. 2. p. 408. n. 26. Tractat. 23. n. 25.] (t. 3. p. 845 f.)

34 L. 2. c. 57. Cotel. v. 1. p. 263. Sed venit ad nos quædam traditio 'Qs yùp oi Troméves ēkaotov Tøv åló- talis, quasi sit aliquis locus in temγων, αιγών φημί και προβάτων, κατά plo ubi virginibus quidem consistere ovnyévelay kai ņaukiav iotãou kai licet, et orare Deum : expertæ auέκαστον αυτών το όμοιον το ομοίω tem thorum virilem non permitteσυντρέχει, ούτω και εν τη εκκλησία bantur in eo consistere. Maria auoi uiv veotepou idią kadetégowgav, tem, postquam genuit Salvatorem, εάν ή τόπος ει δε μή, στηκέτωσαν ingrediens adorare stetit in illo virορθοί: οι δε τη ηλικία ήδη προβεβηκό- ginum loco: prohibentibus autem τες καθεζέσθωσαν εν τάξει τα δε παι- eis, qui noverant adhuc eam jam fidia éotta a poodaußavéolwoay aú- lium genuisse, Zacharias stetit, atτων οι πατέρες και μητέρες" αι δε νε- que dixit prohibentibus eam, quoώτεραι πάλιν ιδία, εάν ή τόπος" ει δε niam digna est virginum loco, cum μήγε, όπισθεν των γυναικών ιστάσθω- sit virgo. Ergo quasi manifestisσαν αι δε ήδη γεγαμηκυίαι και τεκναρ- sime Zachariam adversus legem aχούσαι ιδία στάσθωσαν αι παρθένοι gentem, et in loco virginum permitδε και αι χήραι και πρεσβύτιδες πρώ- tentem stare mulierem, occiderunt Tal TagÔ otykéTwoav, ñ kadecégow- inter templum et altare viri genera

tionis illius.


she is yet

allowed to come. But the Virgin Mary, after she had brought
forth our Saviour, went and stood to worship there; which
when they, that knew she had borne a son, would not allow of,
Zacharias, the father of St. John Baptist, stood up and said,
She is worthy to stand up in the place of virgins, for she is
a virgin. Upon which they rose up against Zacharias, as a
breaker of the law, in permitting a married woman to stand in
the place of virgins, and slew him between the temple and the
altar.' I make no further reflection on this passage at present,
but leave it, as I find it, to the judgment of the reader. As to
the place of virgins in the Christian church, I have only this
one thing to remark, out of St. Ambrose; which is, that usually
some profitable texts of Scripture 36 were written upon the
walls of the church in this place, proper to the virgin state,
such as that of St. Paul, 1 Cor. 7, 34, “ There is difference be-
tween a wife and a virgin: the unmarried woman careth for the
things of the Lord, that she may be holy both in body and in
spirit.” Which lesson St. Ambrose tells the virgin he writes to,
she ought to have remembered, because it was written before
her eyes upon the walls of the church.

10. There is one place more to be taken notice of in some ov, or solea, churches, before we leave this part of the temple to go into the that is, the magistrate's sanctuary, which is what Codinus 37 and some other modern throne, in this part

Greeks call the ownelov, a place of some note in the church of of the Sancta Sophia, but not exactly agreed upon by learned men, church.

either what, or where it was, or what use it was put to. Gretser, in his Notes upon Codinus 3*, fancies it to be nothing else but the pavement at the entrance of the sanctuary, or some such thing adjoining to it: Morinus 39 and Allatius 10


The σωλεί

it was

36 Ad Virg. Laps. c. 6. (t. 2. p. 22. (ap. eosdem, t. 20. p. 106 a. 4.) 311 b.) Nonne vel illa præcepta, quæ Kai katépxetai ó Baoideus toll äußwoculis tuis ipse scriptus paries inge- νος ουκ εκ του μέρους μέντοι, ούπερ rebat, recordari debuisti, Divisa est avşadev, ćws Toù topòs ràs ápaías mulier et virgo, &c.?

πύλας δρώντος, αλλ' εκ του ετέρου 37 Origin. Constant. l. 3. c. 12. του προς τον σωλέαν και το άγιον (ap. Byzant. Hist. Scriptor. t. 18. Böua. Ed.] p. 56 b. 3.) 'Εποίησε δε κιβώριον, και 38 Observat. in Codin. 1. 3. c. 12. τους κίονας, και τα στήθια του θυσι- ad Codin. de Officiis, C. 17. n. 38. αστηρίου εξ αργυρίου, και χρυσώσας (ibid. p. 220.) Junius etiam, &c. αυτά το δε μήλον, και το κρίνα, και 39 De Ordinat. part. 2. [Annotat. TÒv otavpòv toù kıßwpiov olóxpvoa in Græc. Ordinat.] n. 52. (p. 187.) τον δε άμβωνα, και τον σωλέα χρυσά. Grece vario modo scriptum reperi-[Id. de Offic. Constant. c. 17. n. tur, ο σωλέας, η σωλία, η σωλέα, το some place between the bema and the ambo. Schelstrate 41 is a little more particular; that it was the place before the rails of the sanctuary, where the Emperor had his seat on the right hand, and the readers and subdeacons on the left. But Suicerus 42 and Meursius 43 are more positive, that it was only the Emperor's throne, and called owlelov from the Latin solium ; and Dr. Beveridge 14 inclines to the same opinion. Du Fresne 45 allows of this as probable likewise ; but he also fancies it might signify the limina cancellorum, the threshold, or raised foundation, upon which the rails of the chancel were erected, and be so called from solum, whence comes the French name seuil, and the English sill, or groundsil. This was usually adorned and beautified very richly, he thinks with gold and precious stones, and sometimes reverenced with the kisses or salutations owlesov, ó owleùs, aliquando etiam recentioribus Græcis toties decantapro σω scribitur σο. Locus est in tus, et quem in ecclesia usum habuecclesiis Græcorum intermedius inter erit? Inter omnes enim convenit, sanctuarium et chorum. A choro aliquid fuisse in recentiorum, præingressus est in sanctuarium, vel a sertim Græcorum, ecclesiis, owlelav, sanctuario in chorum, per mediam σωλίαν, σωλείον, atque etiam σολέαν, soleam. Altior est et eminentior goliav, vel golciov, dictum, idque choro. Illuc usque procedunt, qui prope cancellos collocatum fuisse. corporis Christi participes esse vo- Consentiunt itidem omnes hoc Lalunt. Ex una igitur parte cancellis tinum esse vocabulum, et plerique nisanctuarii contiguus est; ex altera, hil aliud esse quam solium ; et tamen choro, &c.

quidnam esset istud solium se igno40 De Templ. Græcor. dissert. 2. rare ingenue fatentur: nisi quod Jacon. 5. (p. 170.) Quæris, ubinam solea bus Goar solium Christi per nomen collocanda sit? Respondeo, si con- illud designari affirmat. Sed miror, jecturæ non fallunt, bemati amboni. nemini de hac re agenti, eorum, quæ que proximum fuisse. Colligo ex supra citantur, Sozomeni verborum Codino, c. 17. de Officiis, Kai katép- in mentem venisse, quibus D. AmXetai, k. 7.1. See n. 37, above. Et brosius locum imperatoribus in ecin Originibus de Templo S. Sophiæ: clesia assignasse traditur ante can'Έποίησε το κιβώριον, κ.τ.λ. See n. cellos altaris. Ubi enim imperator

sedere solitus est, solium meritissi41 C. Antioch. Restitut. dissert. 3. mo jure nominetur. Ab Ambrosii C. 4. n. 10. de Canone 2. (p. 192.) autem temporibus et deinceps, ut e

42 Thes. Eccles. voce Ewléas' (t. dictis verbis constat, imperatoris se2. p. 1209.) At quænam est hæc so- des erat ante cancellos, ubi omnes lea? Meursio est solium seu thro- uno ore concinunt, σωλείον vel σω

Léav collocatum esse; quod haud 43 Vid. Glossar. Græco- barb. (p. dubie itaque ipsum erat imperatoris 545.) Ewéas. Solium, &c.

37, above.

solium sive sedes; quod etiam solii 44 In C. Nicæn.c.11.(t.2. append. instar erectum fuisse, fidem facit Cep. 74.) Ex his enim verbis (Sozo- drenus, &c. meni, 1.7. c. 25. See n.46, following.] 45 In Paul. Silent. p. 585. (ut sufinis, ni fallor, tandem imponatur pra, p. 231.) Itaque si bene augutortuosæ isti quæstioni, quæ docto- ror, &c. [See the whole of n. 73. rum ingenia huc usque exercuit, ibid. (p. 226.) on the word Solea. quidnam nimirum esset soleus ille a Ed.]


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