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tes 25, Sozomen 26, and other ancient writers. But in some canons the name oratories seems to be restrained to private chapels, or places of worship set up for convenience in private families, still depending upon the parochial churches, and differing from them in this, that they were only places of prayer, but not for celebrating the communion; or if that was at any time allowed there to private families, yet, at least, upon the great and solemn festivals, they were to resort for communion to the parish-churches. Gratian 27 cites a canon of the Council

-. of Orleans, which allows such oratories, but forbids any one to celebrate the eucharist there. The same privilege is granted in one of Justinian's Novels 28, with the same exception. And so I think we are to understand that canon in the Council of Trullo 29, which allows the clergy to use the public offices or liturgy in such oratories, provided they did it with the consent and approbation of the bishop of the place. For no mention is made there of administering the sacraments in those places, though the Latin translations put in the word baptizing, which is not in the original 30, and is expressly forbidden in another canon 31 of the same Council, requiring all persons to be baptized in the catholic, that is, public churches. But the Council of Agde 32, in France, allows the eucharist to be adminis

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25 L. 1. c. 18. (v. 2. p.48.45.) To- habere et ibi orare: missas autem σούτος δε ήν και του βασιλέως περί τον ibi celebrare non licet. Χριστιανισμόν πόθος, ως και Περσικού 28 Novel. 58. (t. 5. p. 299.) Sed si μέλλοντος κινείσθαι πολέμου, κατα- φuidem domos ita simpliciter aliqui σκευάσας σκηνήν εκ ποικίλης οθόνης, habere putant oportere in sacris εκκλησίας τύπον αποτελούσαν, ώσπερ suis, orationis videlicet solius graΜωύσης εν τη ερήμω πεποιήκει, και tia, et nullo celebrando penitus hoταύτην φέρεσθαι, ίνα έχοι κατά τους rum, quae sacri sunt mysteri, hoc έρημοτάτους τόπους ευκτήριον ηύτρε- eis permittimus. πισμένον.-Ιbid. c. 19. (p. 50. 26.) 29 C. 31. (t. 6. p. 1155 d.) Τους εν Παρεκάλει τόπους καταλαμβάνειν ιδι- τοις ευκτηρίοις οίκοις ένδον οικίας τυγάζοντας, επί τω τας Χριστιανικάς εκ- χάνουσι λειτουργούντας [η βαπτίζοντελεϊν ευχάς καταβραχύ δε προϊόντος τας) κληρικούς, υπό γνώμην τούτο του χρόνου, και ευκτήριον κατεσκεύ- πράττειν του κατά τον τόπον επι

σκόπου. 26 L. 2. c.5. (ibid. p. 52.30.) πλεί- 30 [Labbe reads the passage with σται γαρ δή και άλλαι πόλεις τηνι- the term βαπτίζοντας, as bracketed καύτα προς την θρησκείαν ηυτομόλη- in the preceding note. ED.] σαν και αυτόματοι, βασιλέως μηδέν 31 C. 58. al. 59. (ibid. p. 117o a.) επιτάττοντος, τους παρ' αυτούς ναούς Μηδαμώς εν ευκτηρίω οίκω ένδον οικαι ξόανα καθείλον, και ευκτηριους οί- κίας τυγχάνοντι βάπτισμα επιτελείκους ώκοδόμησαν.

σθω, &c. 27 De Consecrat. distinct. 1. c.33. 32 C. 21. (t. 4. p. 1386 d.) Si quis (t. 1. p. 1897. 83.) Unicuique fide- etiam extra parochias, in quibus lelium in domo sua oratorium licet gitimus est ordinariusque conventus,

ασε, &c.

κτορα,

tered in private oratories, except upon Easter-day, or Christmas, or Epiphany, or Ascension, or Pentecost, or such other of the greater festivals; and upon these too, if they had the bishop's license and permission for it. So that in those ages an oratory and a catholic church seem to have differed, as now a private chapel and a parochial church, though the first ages

made no distinction between them. Why called 5. Another common name of churches is that of basilica; basilicæ, and ανά

which we may English, palaces of the great King. This name frequently occurs in St. Ambrose 33, St. Austin 34, St. Jerom 35, Sidonius Apollinaris 36, and other writers of the fourth and fifth ages, before which time we scarce meet with it in

any

Christian author. For originally the basilicæ among the Romans were the public halls or courts of judicature, where the princes or magistrates sat to hear and determine causes; and other buildings of public use, such as state-houses, and exchanges for merchants, &c., went by the same name among them. But upon the conversion of Constantine, many of these were given to the Church, and turned into another use, for Christian assemblies to meet in; as may be collected from that passage in Ausonius 37, where, speaking to the Emperor Gratian, he tells him, the basilicæ which heretofore were wont to be filled with men of business, were now thronged with votaries, praying for his safety. By which he must needs mean, that the Roman halls or courts were turned into Christian churches. And hence, I conceive, the name, basilicæ, came to be a general name for churches in after-ages. Though I know Durantus 38 and Bona 9 have other reasons beside this for the appellation, as that it was because churches were places where sacrifice was offered to God, the King of all the earth; or because they were only the more stately and magnificent churches which had the title; which is not true in fact, for ever since it came first into use, it appears to have been the common name of all churches.

. . . .

oratorium in agro habuerit [al. ha- 680 b.) Basilicas martyrum et ecclebere voluerit), reliquis festivitatibus sias sine matre non adeat.–Ep. 53. ut ibi missas teneat propter fatiga- [al. 109.] ad Ripar. (ibid. p: 720 b.) tionem familiæ justa ordinatione per- . Et omnium martyrum basilicas mittimus : Pascha vero, Natale Do- ingredimur. mini, Epiphania (Domini,] Ascen- 36 L. 5. Ep. 17. (p.361.) Convenesionem Domini, Pentecostem, et ramus ad Sancti Justi sepulcrum, Natale S. Johannis Baptistæ, et [al. sed tibi infirmitas impedimento, ne vel) si qui maximi dies in festivita- tunc adesses : processio fuerat antetibus habentur, non nisi in civitati- lucana, solemnitas anniversaria, pobus aut in parochiis teneant, &c. pulus ingens sexu ex utroque, quem

33 Ep. 33. [al. 20.) ad Marcellin. capacissima basilica non caperet. de Tradendis Basilicis. (t. 2. p. 852 -Eusebius in his Panegyric, ch. 9, e.) Nec jam Portiana, hoc est, ex- uses the Greek name ανάκτορον.tramurana basilica petebatur, sed De Laud. Constant. c.9. (v.1. p.741. basilica nova, hoc est intramurana, 19.) Είσω δε το ανάκτορον, εις αμήquæ major est. Convenerunt me χανον επαίρων ύψος, εν οκταέδρου μεν primo principes virtutum viri, comi- oxýuatı kateroikiev. tes consistoriani, ut et basilicam tra- 37 Gratiar. Actio ad Gratian. pro derem, et procurarem, ne quid popu- Consulatu, p. 190. (p. 524. 3.) Balus turbarum moveret.

silica olim negotiis plena, nunc vo34 Serm. 12. de Divers. [al. Serm. tis, votisque pro tua salute sus261.] (t. 2. p. 1065 c.) Sermo habitus ceptis. (See Ciampini's Vetera MoCarthagine in Basilica Fausti.

nimenta, part. 1. c. 1. Romæ, 1690. 35 E. 7. Cal.107.) ad Lætam.(t.1. p. p. 9. Ed.]

6. The like observation is to be made upon the name tem- When first ples, which, for the three first ages, is scarce ever 40 used by

ples. any Christian writer for a church, but only for the Heathen temples, which were receptacles of idols, and cloisters of their gods. But when idolatry was destroyed, and statues every where demolished, and temples purged and consecrated into Christian churches, then the writers of the following ages make no scruple to give them the name of temples. As when St. Ambrose 41 says, 'he could not deliver up the temple of God,' he certainly means the church, and not an idol-temple. So does also Lactantius 42 when he says, 'he taught oratory in Bithynia, when the temple of God was destroyed;' meaning the church of Nicomedia, which was the first that was demolished in the Diocletian persecution. Eusebius 43, speaking

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38 De Rit. Eccles. 1. 1. c. I. n. 9. 41 Ep. 33. [al. 20.] ad Marcellin. (p. 3.) Ideo autem divina templa, (t. 2. p. 853 a.) Respondi quod erat ait Isidorus, 1. 15. C. 4., basilicæ no- ordinis, templum Dei a sacerdote minantur, quia ibi Regi omnium

tradi non posse. Deo cultus et sacrificia offeruntur. 42 Instit. 1. 5. c. 2. (t. 1. p. 363.)

39 Rer. Liturg. I. 1. c. 19. n. 4. Ego cum in Bithynia oratorias lite(p. 221.) ..... Ea vox (basilica) ec- ras accitus docerem, contigissetque clesiis Christianorum tributa est, vel ut eodem tempore Dei templum epropter ædificii magnificentiam : vel verteretur, &c. quod ibi, ut ait Isidorus, 1. 15. Ori- 43 L. 10. c. 2. (v. 1. p.463. 18.) gin. c. 4., Regi omnium Deo cultus .... Távta TÓTOV TÒV apò pirpoū tais et sacrificia offeruntur: vel quia pro- των τυράννων δυσσεβείαις ήρειπωμέfanæ basilicæ in ecclesias Christi νον, ώσπερ εκ μακράς και θανατηφόconversæ sunt.

ρου λύμης αναβιώσκοντα θεωμένοις, 40 Ignatius, Ep. ad Magnes. n. 7. veus te aŭdis ek Báopwv eis õyos (Cotel. v. 2. p. 19.) once uses the interpoy eyespojévous, kai Todù kpeirname with some restriction, calling τονα την αγλαΐαν των πάλαι πεπολιthe Church ναόν θεού, the temple of ορκημένων απολαμβάνοντας. God.

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of the churches that were rebuilt after that persecution was over, gives them the name of temples; and particularly the church built by Paulinus he calls 44 the temple of Tyre. Not to mention other passages of Chrysostom 45, Theodoret 46, Prudentius 47, St. Hilary 48, St. Austin 49, and a thousand more to the same purpose, which shew that they had no aversion to the name temple, when they could safely use it without ambiguity, and not be mistaken to mean the temples of the Heathen. But from the name fanum they more religiously abstained, and never used it, unless it were by way of contempt, to signify their resentments against some conventicle of heretics, whom they usually put into the same class with heathens. As we may observe in St. Ambrose 50, who, having occasion to speak of a conventicle of the Valentinians, will not vouchsafe it the name of a temple or a church, but a fanum, a name always appropriated to the idol-temples of the heathens, with whom he parallels the Valentinians, as no better than a pack of idolatrous Gentiles met together, for they worshipped idols and images as the heathen did.

7. There is one general name more for churches, which I must not omit, because the ambiguity of the expression has led some learned men into strange mistakes about it. Constantine, in one of his laws in the Theodosian Code 51, calls the church

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44 Ibid. c. 4. (p. 465. 4.) Oů [Pass. Hippol. vv. 215. 216. διά σπουδής και μάλιστα των αμφί το Stat sed juxta aliud, quod tanta Φοινίκων έθνος διαπρέπων εν Τύρω frequentia templum νεώς φιλοτίμως επισκεύαστο.

Tunc adeat, cultu nobile regifico. 45 Hom. 4. de Verb. Esai. t. 3.

Grischov.] p. 865. (t. 6. p. 120 e.) Ταύτα λέγω

48 In P. 126. n. 6. (t. 1. p. 468 a.) αεί και λέγων ού παύσομαι ότι εγκώ- Conventus quidem ecclesiarum, sive μιον της πόλεως της ημετέρας, ουχ tum templi, quos ad secretarm sacraότι σύγκλητον έχει, και υπάτους ά- mentorum religionem edifciorum ριθμείν έχομεν, ουδ' ότι αδριάντας septa concludunt, consuetudo nosπολλούς, ουδ' ότι ωνίων αφθονίαν, tra vel domum Dei solita est nunουδ' ότι θέσεως επιτηδειότητα αλλ' cupare, vel templum. ότι δημoν έχει φιλήκοον, και ναούς

49 De Civitat. Dei, 1. 8. c. 27. (t. θεου πεπληρωμένους.

6. p. 217 b.) Nec tamen nos eisdem 46 L. 1. c. 31. (v. 3. p. 64. 8.). martyribus templa, sacerdotia, sacra Και τους υπ' αυτού δομηθέντας καθι- et sacrificia constituimus. ερώσαι νεώς.

50 Ep. 29. [al. 40.] ad Theodos. 47 Peristeph. H. 2. Pass. Laurent. (t. 2. p. 951 a. n. 16.) Vindicabitur et Hippol. vv. 161-164. (v. 1. p. etiam 'Valentinianorum fanum in188.)

censum ? Quid est enim nisi faRecenset exin singulos, num, in quo est conventus GentiScribens viritim nomina, lium ? &c. Longo et locatos ordine 51 L. 16. tit. 2. de Episc. leg. 4. Astare pro templo jubet. (t. 6. p. 23.) Habeat unusque licen

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Sanctissimum Catholicæ Concilium, which Alciat, the great lawyer, by mistake interprets an ecclesiastical synod; whereas indeed, as Gothofred rightly observes, it signifies there the church, as in many other places of the ancient writers. For these words concilium, synodus, conventiculum, conciliabulum, and the like, are words of various acceptation. For though they commonly signify ecclesiastical synods and councils, yet sometimes they denote other assemblies, and particularly the ordinary assemblies of the Church for divine service; and thence the name was transferred from the assembly to denote the place of the assembly, or the church, as has been observed before upon the word ecclesia. Thus, when St. Jerom commends Nepotian for adorning the conciliabula martyrum with flowers and branches 52, he cannot mean councils of martyrs, but churches called by the names of martyrs. And so again when he says 53, • The persecutor's rage and barbarity was so exceeding fierce against us, that they proceeded to destroy our conciliabula,' it is evident he means the Christian churches. As Gaudentius must be understood in one of his Sermons upon the dedication of a church 54, which is called Concilium Martyrum. The church-assembly itself is often called by the same name, concilium ; as in the Passion of Cyprian, written by Pontius, his deacon 55, the Christians are commanded by the Emperor to leave off their conciliabula, or meetings and assemblies in the cemeteries for the worship of God. So the word is used by St. Jerom 56, speaking of the monks meeting in the church for divine service; and by Tertullian 57 for any

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tiam sanctissimo Catholicæ venera- cupari oportere decernimus. bilique concilio, decedens, bonorum 55 Pass. Cypr. (Vit. præf. Oper. quod optavit relinquere.

p. 13.) ...... Præceperunt etiam ut 52 Ep.3. ad Heliodor. Epitaph. Ne- nulla conciliabula faciant, neque cæpotian. (t. 1. p. 338 d.) Qui basilicas meteria ingrediantur. ecclesiæ et martyrum conciliabula 56 Ep. 22. ad Eustoch. c. 15. [al. diversis floribus et arborum comis, 35.] (t 1. p. 117 e.) Post hoc concivitiumque pampinis adumbrarit, &c. lium solvitur, et unaquæque decu

53 In Zechar. c. 8. (t. 6. p. 841 d.) ria cum suo parente pergit ad men...... In tantam rabiem persecuto- sam. rum feritas excitata est, ut etiam 57 De Pudicit. c. 10. (p. 563 a.) conciliabula nostra destruerent. Cederem tibi, si Scriptura Pastoris

54 Serm. 17. (ap. Bibl. Max. t. 5. .non ab omni concilio ecclesiap. 970 f. 13.)... Hanc ipsam basili- rum etiam vestrarum inter apocrycam eorum (martyrum] meritis de- pha et falsa judicaretur. dicatam Concilium Sanctorum nun

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