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iepatiko to mean all the clergy, inferior as well as superior. But Habertus 72 thinks it means only the inferior clergy, priests and deacons; and that all the inferiors, subdeacons, readers, &c. were excluded from this part as well as the people. However it is agreed on all hands that the people in that age had no place there; for St. Ambrose would not permit the Emperor Theodosius himself to communicate in this part 73, but obliged him to retire as soon as he had made his oblation at the altar. Which custom continued for some ages after; as appears from what Theodosius Junior says of himself in the Acts of the Council of Ephesus 74,' that he only went up to the altar to make his oblation, and, having done that, retired again to the exterior court, or atrium, of the people.' And so we find it decreed, correspondent to this practice, in the Council of Trullo 75, that no layman whatsoever should come into the altar-part, except only the Emperor, when he had made his oblation to the Creator, according to ancient custom.' And hence it was that this part of the church was called åßara, andadura, by Theodoret 76 and other Greek writers, and adyta by the Latins, that is, inaccessible; because there was no place of access here for the people, who were wholly excluded from it. Though I must note, that according to the difference of times and places, different customs seem to have prevailed in this matter. For the most ancient custom was both for men and women to come

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72 Archierat. part. 10. observ. ix. c. 25. See n. 62, preceding. (p. 268.) Tertium est, Solis sacerdo- 74 Edict. Theodos. ad calc. C. tibus et diaconis ad altare in sanctu- Ephes. (t. 3. p. 1238 d.) Toù ayıwario communicare licuit. De solis τάτου θυσιαστηρίου διά μόνην την των sacerdotibus Concilium Laodicenum δωρεών προσφοράν εφαπτόμεθα και decernere nonnulli arbitrantur, ob εις την των θείων κύκλων περιστοιhaec verba Canonis xix. Και μόνοις, χουμένην έπαυλιν άμα το εισελθείν κ.τ.λ. (See before.) Et solis sacer- υπεκβαίνομεν και ουδέν έκ της αγdotibus licere ad altare accedere γιστευούσης θειότητος εαυτοίς απονέet communicare. Ita vertit hetero

μομεν. doxus auctor. Verum iepatikois, 75 C. 69. (t. 6. p. 1174 b.) Méta melius reddiderat Dionysius Exi- έστω τινί των απάντων έν λαϊκούς guus, sacro ministerio deditis; quo Teloûvti čvdov jepoù civiévai Ausensu et diaconi saltem compre- σιαστηρίου μηδαμώς επί τούτο της henduntur, qui hic etiam ad altare βασιλικής είργομένης εξουσίας και in sanctuario communicant : nam αυθεντίας, ηνίκα άν βουληθείη προσhypodiaconi et lectores extra sanc- άξαι δώρα τω Πλάσαντι, κατά τινα tuarium, ad ejus limen.

αρχαιοτάτην παράδοσιν. 73 Vid. Theodoret. 1.5. C. 18. See 76 L. 5. c. 18. See before, s. 3. s. 3. n. 63, preceding.--Sozom. 1. 7. n. 63, preceding.

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up to the altar and communicate there, as it appears to have
been in the third century in the time of Dionysius of Alex-
andria, who speaks both of men 77 and women 78 standing at
the holy table, and reaching forth their hands to receive the
eucharist there, and so Valesius 79 understands it.

The same
privilege was allowed the people in France in the sixth cen-
tury; for the second Council of Tours, anno 567, orders 80
' the holy of holies to be open both for men and women to
pray and communicate in at the time of the oblation ;' though
at other times, when there was any other service without the
communion, they were not allowed to come within the chorus
of the singers, or rails of the chancel. By which also we learn
what part of the church in this age, in France, was called the
chorus; namely, that which was immediately within the rails
of the chancel, where the inferior clergy had their station in

the time of the oblation. The holy

8. The modern Greeks call the entrance into this part the veils, or

holy gates, because they open from the body of the church hangings, into the holy of holies. But there is little mention made of dividing the chancel these in ancient writers; but they often speak of the use of

veils or hangings in this place to cover the prospect of the church. altar. Athanasius 81 calls them Bỉa ekkingias, the hangings

of the church : for, speaking of the fury of the Arians, and
their ravaging a church in the time of Constantius, he says,
they took the bishop's throne, and the seats of the presbyters,

gates, and

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from the rest of the

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77 Ap. Euseb. 1. 7. c.9. (v. J. p. Christi de manu presbyteri, stantes,
330. 14.) .... Tpatén tapaotávra, non ut hodie genibus flexis, ac-
και χείρας εις υποδοχής της αγίας cipiebant.
τροφής προτείναντα, κ.τ.λ.

60 C. 4. (t. 5. p. 853 e.) Ut laici
78 Ep. Canonic. c. 2. (ap. Bevereg. secus altare, quo sancta mysteria
Pand. t. 2. part. 1. p. 4 e.) Oủðè celebrantur, inter clericos tam ad
aúràs oiuaı miotàs oőoas kai eúla vigilias quam ad missas, stare peni-
Beis, toluñoelv oŰtws diakeluévas ñ tus non præsumant. .....

Ad oran-
τη τραπέζη τη αγία προσελθείν, ή του dum vero et communicandum laicis
couatos kai toù aiuatos toû Xplotoù et fæminis, sicut mos est, pateant
TT pogáypaodai.—[Ad quem Dionysii sancta sanctorum.
locum recte notat Balsamon. (ibid. 81 Ep. ad Solitar. Vit. Agent. t. 1.
. 5 c.) ' s čolke de, Talaiòv cio. p. 847: (t. 1. part. I, p. 298 e. n.

1.56.)
ήρχοντο γυναίκες είς το θυσιαστή- Αρπάσαντες τα συμψέλλια, και
ριον, και από της αγίας τραπέζης με- τον θρόνον, και την τράπεζαν, ξυλίνη
Telauavov. Grischov.]

γάρ ήν, και τα βήλα της εκκλησίας, 79 In Euseb. 1. 7. c. 9. (v. Ι. p. τά τε άλλα, όσα ηδυνήθησαν, εξενέγ330. n. 3.) Fideles communicaturi

καντες, έκαυσαν. ad altare accedebant, ibique corpus

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and the table which was of wood, and the veils of the church, and whatever else they could, and carried them out and burnt them.' In Synesius 82 they are called katanétaoua uvotiKÒV, the mystic veils ; and in Chrysostom and Evagrius, åpploupa, from their opening in the middle as folding-doors. These were sometimes richly adorned with gold, as that which Evagrius 83 says Chosroes gave to the Church of Antioch. The use of them was partly to hide the prospect of this part of the church from the catechumens and unbelievers, and partly to cover the sacrifice of the eucharist in the time of consecration, as we learn from these words of Chrysostom 94; When the sacrifice is brought forth, when Christ the Lamb of God is offered, when you hear this signal given, let us all join in common prayer; when you see the veils withdrawn, then think you see heaven opened, and the angels descending from above.' There were also several other veils, to note this by the way, in other parts of the church; for Paulinus 85 speaks often of veils before the doors of the church, and St. Jerom commends Nepotian 86 for that, among other parts of his concern for the decency of the church, as he took care that the altar, and the walls, and the pavement should be kept clean, so also that the doors should have their keepers, and the gates their veils. In like manner Epiphanius 87, speaking

82 Ep. 67. ad Theophil. (p. 212 c. licitus, si niteret altare, si parietes 6.) ToūTO 8è, ei dià rôv tavayeotá: absque fuligine, si pavimenta tersa, TWY évayéotata wpivolto, eux), kai si janitor creber in porta, vela semτράπεζα, και καταπέτασμα μυστικόν, per in ostiis, &c. εφόδου βιαίας όργανα.

87 Ep. ad Joan. Hierosol. (t. 2. p. 83 L. 6. c. 21. (v. 3. p. 469. 38.) 3.17 c, seqq.) Quum venissem ad 'Aupidupov OủvvixòY KEKOO unuěvov villam, quæ dicitur Anablatha, viχρυσίω.

dissemque ibi præteriens lucernam 84 Hom. 3. in Eph. p. 1052. (t. 11. ardentem, et interrogassem, quis lop. 23 d.).....’Evravda ékDepouévns cus esset, didicissemque esse ecclemns Avolas, kai toû Xplotoù tedun siam, et intrassem, ut orarem; inμένου, και του προβάτου του δεσπο- veni ibi velum pendens in foribus τικού, όταν ακούσης, Δεηθώμεν πάντες ejusdem ecclesiae tinctum atque deKouvÏ. orav iềns åve, kóueva áudis pictum, et habens imaginem, quasi Oupa, tóte vóloov diactékleo bai Tòv Christi, vel sancti cujusdam.

Non ουρανόν άνωθεν, και κατιέναι τους αγ- enim satis mermini, cujus imago γέλους.

fuerit. Quum ergo hoc vidissem, 85 Natal. Felic. 3. (p. 540.) Aurea in ecclesia Christi contra auctoritanunc niveis ornantur limina velis. tem Scripturarum hominis pendere Id. Natal. 6. (p. 562.)..... Pulchra imaginem, scidi illud, et magis dedi tegendis Vela ferant foribus. consilium custodibus ejusdem loci,

86 Ep. 3. [al. 60.] Epitaph. Nepo- ut pauperem mortuum eo obvolvetian. (t. 1. p. 338 b.) Erat ergo so- rent et efferrent. Illique contra

a

of the church of Anablatha in Palestine, says, ' he found a veil hanging before the doors of the church, which he tore in pieces, not because it was a veil, but because it had the image of Christ or some saint painted on it, which was contrary to the rules of the Christian Church. He therefore ordered the guardians of the church to bury some poor man in it, and sent them at his own expense another plain one in its stead. There were also veils between the pillars of the hyperoa, or women's galleries, to be drawn in time of the oblation, as Du Fresne 88 has observed out of Paulus Silentiarius and Amphilochius in the Life of St. Basil. And some others of like

nature will easily be observed by a curious reader. The highest 9. At the upper end of the chancel was commonly a semipart of the circular building, which from the figure and position of it called is by some authors called apsis, and exedra, and conchula apsis, er bematis : for these are words that signify any arched or edra, or conchula spherical building, like the canopy of heaven, to which St. bematis.

Jerom 59 applies the name of apsis. It was called concha, because in figure it resembled something the fashion of a shell, as Du Fresne shews out of Procopius and Paulus Silentiarius and Paulinus and other writers. Du Fresne 90 thinks it is also called exedra by St. Austin 91, who says the conference between

murmurantes dicerent: Si scindere capita aut oculos ad illa inspicienda
voluerat, justum erat, ut aliud daret promittere, sub anathematis pæna,
velum, atque mutaret. Quod quum fas erat. Id omnino colligere est
audissem, me daturum esse pollicitus ex Vita S. Basilii, quæ Amphilochio
sum, et illico esse missurum. Paul- tribuitur, qui ritus illius auctor fu-
lulum autem morarum fuit in medio, isse videtur.
dum quæro optimum velum pro eo 89 L. 2. in Eph. c. 4. p. 223. (t. 7.
mittere: arbitrabar enim de Cypro p. 614 b.) .... In summo cæli for-
mihi esse mittendum. Nunc autem nice, et, ut ipso verbo utar, apside.
misi quod potui reperire ; et precor,

90 In Paul. Silent. p.565. (ut supr. ut jubeas presbyteros ejusdem loci p. 218. n. 51.) Per exedram absida suscipere velum a latore, quod a [al. apsida) seu concha, intelligi nobis missum est : et deinceps præ- videtur apud Sanctum Augustinum cipere, in ecclesia Christi ejusmodi in Gestis cum Emerito, Donatistavela, quæ contra religionem nostram rum episcopo : Quum Deuterius, veniunt, non appendi.

&c. See the next note. 88 In Paul.“ Silent. p. 551. (ap. 91 De Gestis cum Emerito, t. 7. Byzant. Hist. Scriptor. t. 13. p. p. 250. (t. 9. p. 625 a.) Cum Deu211. n. 38. col. sinistr.) Quod vero terius, episcopus metropolitanus ... ait Evagrius, pluteis incumbentibus una cum Alypio...et cæteris episcomulieribus divina sacrificia intueri pis in exedram processissent, prælicuisse, id intelligendum est de loco sentibus presbyteris et diaconibus sacrificii ac bemate: nam dum illud et universo clero, ac frequentissima peragebatur, velum statim ad inter- plebe, &c. columnia subducebatur; neque iis

the Catholics and Emeritus, the Donatist bishop, was held in the exedra of the church; which he interprets the place where the bishop and presbyters had their usual residence in the upper end of the bema beyond the altar. But Valesius 92 and other learned men take exedra here, in the common sense, for one of the outer buildings of the church. And it is not easy to determine so nice a controversy between them.

10. However this is certain, that the bishop's throne, with This anthe thrones of his presbyters on each side of it, were always place of the

ciently the fixed in this part of the church, in a semicircle above the altar. thrones of

the bishop For anciently the seats of the bishop and presbyters were and his joined together, and all called thrones, as is evident from presbyters. Eusebius's description of the temple of Paulinus, who 93 says, 'he adorned it with thrones set on high for the honour of the presidents or rulers of the people;' that is, the bishop and presbyters together. Hence it is that Nazianzen, speaking of the presbyters 94 as the rulers of the people, and venerable senate of the Church, calls their seats 'the second thrones.' Constantine, in his Letter to Chrestus, bishop of Syracuse, summoning him to the Council of Arles, uses the same phrase 95, bidding him bring with him two of the second throne, that is, two presbyters.

I know indeed Carolus à Sancto Paulo 96 by “those of the

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92 In Euseb. Vit. Constant. 1. 3. ελθείν εκελεύσαμεν και σοι γράψαι C. 5ο. (ν. 1. p. 6ο6. n. 1.) Ita [es- ένομίσαμεν, ίνα λαβών παρά του λαμedre] dicebantur edes exteriores, προτάτου Λατρωνιανού του κοντήκin circuitu basilice construi solite, τορος Σικελίας δημόσιον όχημα, συin quibus sedere ac requiescere lice- ζεύξας σεαυτώ και δύο γέ τινας των bat, ut docet Eusebius. De his έκ του δευτέρου θρόνου, ούς αν συ Augustinus, &c. See the preceding αυτός επιλέξασθαι κρίνης, αλλά μην note.

και τρεις παίδας τους δυνησομένους 93 L. 1o. C. 4. (v. Ι. p. 474. 11.) υμίν κατά την οδόν υπηρετήσασθαι ... θρόνοις τοις ανωτάτω εις την των παραλαβών, είσω της αυτής ημέρας προέδρων τιμών, κ.τ.λ.

επί τα προειρημένω τόπω απάντησον. 94 Carm. Iamb. 23. (t. 2. p. 244 c.) Geograph. Sacr. (p. 47.) Quod

Πρώτον μεν οι τα δεύτερα in ea [Syracusis] fuerit sedes me-
θρόνων λελογχότες,

tropolitana, hisce rationibus conji-
Λαού πρόεδροι πρεσβύται, cio. Primum ex tractoria Constan-
Σεμνή γερουσία,

tini ad Chrestum Syracusanum eΠεφήνασιν ημίν ου καλοι, piscopum, qua hunc ad Synodum Κ. τ. λ.

Arelatensem invitat : Quoniam, in95 Ap. Euseb. 1. 10. C. 5. (v. 1. p. quit, plurimos, &c. (See the pre485. 36.) 'ETTELØn toivv alelotous ceding note.) Quis enim non videt, εκ διαφόρων και αμυθητων τόπων duo ex his verbis colligi? Primum επισκόπους εις την 'Αρετάλησίων πο- in Sicilia quosdam episcopo8 seλιν είσω Καλανδών Αυγούστων συν- cundæ sedis fuisse, et alios vel

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