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Optatus and St. Austin, that the Latins, as well as the Greeks, had then but one altar in a church. For Optatus 47 speaks of the altar of Cyprian's church, as one only, and no more, both in the time of Cyprian and afterward; and thence concludes that the Donatists were schismatics, because they went from Cyprian's altar, and set up another altar against it. And St. Austin 48 argues against them upon the same foundation, that there ought not to be two episcopal altars in one city. This supposes then but one altar in a church among the Latins, as well as the Greeks; and so Christianus Lupus 49, and Pagi 50, the learned corrector of Baronius, affirm it to have been the constant practice of the primitive Church. Though now (to see what improvement has been made in later ages) there are no less than twenty-five altars, besides the great altar, in St. Peter's church, at Rome; and the great altar itself is no less than twenty-five feet square, with a cross of twenty-five inches long upon it, as Dr. Potter observes out of Onuphrius and Angelus Roccha, in his ingenious Book 51 of the Number Six-Hundred Sixty-six.

17. Some improve this observation, of one altar in a church,

a little further, and think that anciently there was but one city, though altar in a whole city, or diocese, and country-region belonging several churches, to a bishop; though there might be many lesser churches, as according there were many synagogues among the Jews, though but

And sometimes but one in a

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authors.

isse erectum. Et hinc colligitur, olim omnis ecclesia, &c.
immerito dubitare eminentissimum 50 Crit. in Baron. an. 313. n. 15.
Cardinalem Bona, Libr. 1. Rer. Li. [al. 17.] (t. 1. p. 368.) Lupus, tomo
turg. c. 14. num. 3., num olim in 3. Conciliorum, in Responsis ad Mi-
Latinis ecclesiis unicum duntaxat chaëlis Cerularii calumnias notat,
altare, &c.

primis ecclesiæ temporibus, ob pau-
47 L. I. p. 42. (p. 21.).... Plena citatein fidelium, non fuisse in civi-
erat cathedra episcopalis, erat altare tatibus plures quam unam ecclesiam;
loco suo, in quo pacifici episcopi in ecclesia unum, non plura altaria ;
retro temporis obtulerunt, Cypria. et ad altare illud unum, non plura
nus, Lucianus, et cæteri. Sic exitum sacrificia eodem die fuisse oblata.
est foras, et altare contra altare erec- 51 Vid. Poli Synops. Criticor. in

Apocalyps. 13, 18. (t. 5. p. 1895. 2.) 48 Hom. 3. in 1 Joan. [al. in Ep. In ecclesia S. Petri Romæ 25 altaria Joan. c. 2. Tract. 3. n. 7.) (t. 3. part. numerat Onuphrius, præter mag2. p. 846 f.)... Si in unitate sumus, num illud altare, cui crux superquid faciunt in hac civitate duo al. imposita est 25 palmos alta, teste taria ?

angelo Rocca, &c. [The context 49 Schol. in Concil. Respons. ad refers just before to Potter, q. v. Mich. Cerular. c. 13. (t. 3. p. 346.) c. 25. (p. 172.) I come now to their Altare enim, quod unicum habebat altars, &c. "Ev.]

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one temple and one altar. Mr. Mede 52 is of opinion that it was so when Justin Martyr wrote his Second Apology, because of those words of his 53, ‘On Sundays all that live in the towns, or in the country, meet together in one place for the celebration of the eucharist;' and he concludes the same from several of Cyprian's Epistles 54, where bishop and altar are made correlatives. Christianus Lupus and Pagi 55 seem to think it continued the custom within the walls of Rome to the time of Pope Innocent I. For he seems to say, in one of his Epistles 56, that the presbyters of the several tituli, or lesser churches, within the city, had the sacrament sent to them every Sunday from the bishop's altar; but the presbyters of the cemeteries, or churches without the walls, had liberty to consecrate the eucharist in them, because the sacraments were not to be carried to places at too great a distance. But Dr. Maurice 57 and other learned men think the Roman tituli had

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52 Discourse of Churches. (p. 326.) terant, Lupus intelligit. Nay, more than this, &c.

56 Ep. 1. ad Decent. c. 5. (CC. t. [Apol. 2. (p. 99 a.) .... Tìv 2. p. 1247 b.) De fermento, quod του ηλίου ημέραν κοινή πάντες την die dominica per titulos mittimus, συνέλευσιν ποιούμεθα. Que [werba] superflue nos consulere voluisti, cum vero, contends Grischovius, (v. 3. p. omnes ecclesiæ nostræ intra civita231. n. c.) non penitus id probare tem sunt constitutæ. Quarum presvidentur, ad quod probandum

a Medo byteri, quia die ipso propter plebem pariter et Binghamo allegantur. Ed.] sibi creditam, nobiscum convenire

54 Ep. 40. [al. 43.] See before, non possunt, idcirco fermentum a s. 12. p. 92. n. 23. Compare Ep. nobis confectum per acolythos ac72. (p. 305.)... Contra altare unum cipiunt, ut se a nostra communione, atque divinum,&c.—Ep.73. (p. 306.) maxime illa die, non judicent sepa

Aut quia Novatianus altare col- ratos. Quod per parochias fieri delocare et sacrificia offerre contra fas bere non puto, quia non longe pornititur; ab altari et sacrificiis cessare tanda sunt sacramenta.

Nec nos nos oportet ? &c.

per cæmeteria diversa constitutis 55 Crit. in Baron. an. 313. n. 15. presbyteris destinamus, sed presby[al. 17.) (v. I. p. 368.) Quæ omnia teri eorum conficiendorum jus haex variis antiquitatis monumentis bent atque licentiam. constant, ex quibus apparet, usum 57 Diocesan Episcopacy, &c. (p. obtinuisse, ut episcopi, diebus do- 37.) Besides some passages, &c.minicis, in ecclesia sacrificium of- See also p. 43.-Bona, Rer. Liferendo præsentem populum ex ob- turg. l. 1. c.23. 1.9. (corrige. n. 17.), latis communicarent, ad absentem differs in this, that he thinks every vero ex oblatis consecratis mitterent. church had her own oblations and Hinc Justinus Martyr, in Apologia the eucharist consecrated out of them. pro Christianis, testatur, diebus solis [His words are (p. 245.) .... Nemo seu dominicis sacramenta per diaco- certe absurdum, aut a moribus ecnos ad absentes delata fuisse. Per clesiæ, prout illa ferebant tempora, absentes autem non solum infirmos alienum existimabit, quod presbyet captivos, sed etiam sacerdotes, teri Romani, accepta a pontifice euqui missæ pontificali adesse non po- charistia, quæ fermentum dicebatur,

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always communion-tables, and the communion administered in
them from the beginning, only the consecrated bread was sent
to them from the oblations made at the bishop's altar. For
the oblations, they think, at first were only made at the
bishop's altar, and always blessed at the bishop's altar, though
not always consecrated there; upon which account the name
of altar might be appropriated to that of the bishop's church.

I shall not pretend to make any judgment or decision in this
dispute, being a matter involved in great obscurity, but leave
the reader to judge for himself. Dr. Hammond 58 heretofore
passed the same censure on it, thinking it too dark a point
to be over-boldly determined. All I shall say further upon it
is only this,—that it makes nothing for the congregational
way, (as some pretend,) though it were certain there was but
one altar in a diocese at the first : for there might, notwith-
standing, be many churches. Or, if there was but one church
in a diocese, while the number of the believers was very small,
yet it does not follow that there ought to be no more, when
their number so increased in any city or territory that one

church would not contain them. Of the ci. 18. But I return to the business in hand. In some of the borium, or

more stately churches, as that of Sancta Sophia, the altar was
canopy of
the altar. overshadowed with a sort of canopy, which, from the fashion

of it, is termed by Paulus Silentiarius 59, múpyos, the turret;
by others 60, umbraculum; but among the Greeks, most com-
monly kißoplov, which Durantus 61 and other modern ritualists

missam nihilominus diebus domini- Κίοσι δ' αργυρέοισιν άείρεται, ών επί
cis agerent, et alium panem, oblatum κόρσης
de more a fidelibus, consecrarent, 'Apyvpeous idpuoe tróðas Tetpáčuyos
atque ex utroque se et alios com- αψίς.
municarent. ED.]

60 Vid. Ord. Rom. (ap. Bibl. Max.
58 Dissert. cont. Blondel. I. 3. t. 13. p. 724 b. 3.) Præfatio ciborii,
c. 8. n. 16. (v.4. p. 788.).... In re id est, umbraculi altaris.
incomperta non est audacter nimis 61 De Ritibus, &c., 1. 1. c. 16. n. 1.
pronunciandum.

(p. 39.) Leo Papa IX. ad Michaëlem
59 Part. 2. v. 303. (ap. Byzant. imperatorem scribit, Hierosolymis
Hist. Scriptor. t. 13. p. 192 c.) eucharistiam in pyxide pro advenis,
Χρυσείης δ' εφύπερθε παναχράντοιο et quotidie eam sumere volentibus,
τραπέζης,

asservari solitam. Hanc pyxidem "Ασπετος εύρυκέλευθον ες ήέρα πύργος Greci vocarunt κιβώριον, quam voανέστη,

cem et Latini et Galli de Græcis Τετραπόροις αψίσιν επ' αργυρέησι βε- retinuerunt, ciboriumque Latine, βηκώς.

Gallice ciboire nuncuparunt.

usually mistake for the pyxis, where the host is kept; but Du Fresne 62 shews it to have been anciently quite another thing, viz. an ornamental canopy hanging over the altar. This was raised in the form of a little turret, upon four pillars at each corner of the altar. The heads of the pillars were adorned with silver bowls, which was an usual ornament in those days, as is evident from the description which Eusebius 63 gives of the twelve pillars in Constantine's church at Jerusalem. The top of it was in the form of a sphere, adorned with graven flowers, whence it has sometimes the name of sphæra, lilia, and malum. Above the sphere stood the cross, as Paulus Silentiarius 6+ represents it: and the several arches below, between the pillars, were hanged with veils, or curtains, called as some others, åupidupa, which served also to cover or conceal the whole altar.

I have been the more particular in describing this ornamental structure about the altar, after Du Fresne, because the common ritualists so generally apply the name ciborium only to their pyxe; whereas, in the most ancient writers, it signifies this beautiful fabric about the altar.

19. In some places, after images and pictures began to be of the periallowed in churches, the Holy Ghost was represented in the cerimba. effigies of a silver dove hovering over the altar; and their baptisteries had the same, as we learn from the complaint against Severus, bishop of Antioch, in the Council of Constantinople under Mennas 65, anno 536; where he is accused · for diverting to his own use, among other treasures of the Church, the silver and golden doves that hanged over the baptistery and the

sterion or columbæ

62 In Paul. Silent. p. 569. (p. 219. φάνους, τους του Σωτήρος αποστόλοις n. 57.) Sacræ mensæ imminebat ci- loáp@uoi, xpatñpou peyiotous é ipborium : ita autem appellabant um rúpou TETTOLNHévous tas kopupàs Koobraculum quoddam altius eductum, μούμενοι' ους δή βασιλεύς αυτός ανάquo universa mensa sacra tegeba- θημα κάλλιστον εποιείτο τω αυτού tur. [The whole of this passage as Deco well as those which follow, as far as

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Part. 2. V: 220. (ubi supr. d. 4.) the end of n. 62, may be profitably Υψόθι δ' αυτού consulted, as bearing on the same Σταυρός υπερτέλλων αναφαίνεται. topics. ED.]

65 Act. 5. (t. 5. p. 160 b.) .... Tàs 63 De Vit. Constant. 1. 3. c. 38. γαρ εις τύπον του Αγίου Πνεύματος, (ν. Ι. p. 599. 12.) Τούτων δ' αντικρύ, χρυσάς τε και αργυράς περιστεράς το κεφάλαιον του παντός ημισφαιρίου κρεμαμένας υπεράνω των θείων κολυμήν, έπ' άκρου του βασιλείου εκτετα- βηθρών και θυσιαστηρίων, μετά των μένον και δη δυωκαίδεκα κίονες έστε- άλλων έσφετερίσατο.

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altar, as types or symbols of the Holy Ghost.' And this, I think, is the first time we meet with any thing of this kind : for no credit is to be given to the author of the Life of St. Basil, under the title of Amphilochius 65, when he says St. Basil was used to reserve the eucharist in one of these silver doves, because he is known to be a spurious writer. However, when the thing came to be in use, the place over the altar, where it hanged, was called peristerion, from Teplotepà, the Greek name for a dove, as Du Fresne and others have observed. If it be inquired, Where the eucharist was reserved according to ancient custom? I answer, In times of persecution the priests seem to have had it in their own private custody at home; as may be collected from an Epistle of Dionysius, in Eusebius 66, where he relates · how Serapion had the eucharist sent him in the night by a boy, the presbyter being sick, and not able to attend

upon him.' At other times it was kept in one of the pastophoria, which were certainly places distinct from the altar : for so the author of the Constitutions 67 plainly informs

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process of time it came to be kept at the altar, either in those silver doves we have been speaking of, or in an ark or pyxe at the foot of the cross, which, by some canons, is ordered to be placed upon the altar. For in the second Council of Tours 68, anno 567, a decree was made “ that the eucharist should not be kept in the armarium, but under the figure of the cross upon the altar.” And so, in process of time, the pyxe took the name of ciborium, which originally is an Egyptian

[Int. Oper. Amphiloch. Paris. σαι, λαβόντες οι διάκονοι τα περισ: 1644. (p. 176.) Και διελών τον άρτον σεύσαντα εισφερέτωσαν εις τα παστοεις τρεις μερίδας, την μεν μίαν μετέ- φόρια. λαβε φόβω πολλώ [και σεβάσματι.] 68 C. 3. Ut corpus Domini in alTÌv idúlage ouvraðavai aita tari, non in armario, sed sub crucis την δε ετέραν ένθείς περιστερά χρυσή titulo componatur. So it is read in éxpéuagev etrávo toll áyiov dvolaotn- Crabbe's edition. (t. 2. p. 137.) But plov.—Where, it will be observed, others, instead of armario, read it, St. Basil's biographer does not in imaginario ordine, and explain it speak of silver but of golden doves. by ciborium. Conf. Du Fresne in Ed.]

Paul. Silent. loc. citat. pp. 574,575. 66 L. 6. c. 44. (v. 1. p. 317. 6.) "E- (ap. Byzant. Hist. Scriptor. t. 13 apδραμεν ο παίς επί τον πρεσβύτερον pend. pp. 221, 222. n. 62. [See the νύξ δε ήν κακείνος ήσθένει" αφικέ- edition of Labbe and Cossart (t. 5. σθαι μεν ουν ουκ ηδυνήθη. ... Βραχύ p. 853 e.) Ut corpus Donini in alThis evxapio tias étréðWKEV tỘ taida- tari, non in imaginario ordine, sed ρίω, αποβρέξαι κελεύσας, και το πρε- suo crucis titulo componatur. The σβύτη κατά του στόματος επιστάξαι. marginal note says, In et sub absunt

67 L. 8. c. 13. (Cotel. v. 1. p. 405.) ad Cod. Vat. Ed.] Και όταν πάντες μεταλάβωσι και πα

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