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Of the different forms and parts of the ancient churches. And first
of the exterior narthex, or ante-temple.
SECT. I. Churches anciently of different forms, 50.-II. And different situ-
ations from one another, 52.-III. Commonly divided into three parts,
and sometimes into four or five, 54.--IV. And these subdivided into other
parts. The exterior narthex, or ante-temple, included first the πрожνλоν,
or vestibulum, the porch, 55.—V. The atrium, or the area, or court, be-
fore the church, surrounded with porticoes or cloisters, 55.-VI. In the
middle of which stood a fountain for washing as they entered into the
church, called cantharus and phiala in some authors, 56.-VII. Whe-
ther the superstitious use of holy water be a corruption of this an-
cient custom, 57.—VIII. The atrium and porticoes in the ante-temple,
Of the interior narthex, and the parts and uses of it.
SECT. I. Of the lesser πрóжυλa, or porches, before the doors of the church,
59.-II. Of the narthex, рóvaos, or ferula, 60.-III. The use of it for
the catechumens and penitents of the second order, 61.-IV. Also for
Jews, Heathens, heretics, and schismatics to hear in, 62.-V. This not
the place of the font, or baptistery, as in our modern churches, 62.-
VI. Why called narthex, and of the different sorts of nartheces in several
Of the naos, or nave of the church, and its parts and uses.
SECT. I. Of the beautiful and royal gates. Why so called, 64.-II. The
nave of the church usually a square building, called by some the oratory
of laymen, 65.—III. In the lowest part of which stood the substrati,
or penitents of the third order, 65.—IV. And the ambo or reading-desk,
66.-V. And above this the communicants and fourth order of peni-
tents, called consistentes, had their places, 69.-VI. The places of men
and women usually separate from each other, 70.-VII. Why these
places of the women were called κατηχούμενα and ὑπερῶα, 73.—VIII.
Private cells for meditation, reading, and prayer, on the back of these,
74.-IX. The place of the virgins and widows distinguished from others,
74.-X. The owλeîov, or solea, that is, the magistrate's throne, in this
Of the bema, or third part of the temple, called the altar and the sanctuary,
SECT. I. The chancel, anciently called bema, or tribunal, 79.-II. Also
aylov, or leparetov, and sacrarium, the holy, or the sanctuary, 80.-III.
And Ovσiaσrnpiov, the altar-part, 81.-IV. Presbyterium and diaconicum,
81.-V. Also chorus, or choir, 82.-VI. This place separated from the
rest by rails, called cancelli, whence comes chancel, 82.—VII. And kept
inaccessible to the multitude: whence it was called adyta, 82.—VIII.
The holy gates, and veils, or hangings, dividing the chancel from the
rest of the church, 84.-IX. The highest part of the chancel called
apsis, exedra, or conchula bematis, 86.-X. This anciently the place of the
thrones of the bishop and his presbyters, 87.-XI. And of the altar or
communion-table, 89.-XII. Both these names indifferently used in the
Primitive Church, 90.-XIII. In what sense the Ancients say, they had
no altars, 92.—XIV. Of the names holy table, mystical table, &c. 93.—
XV. Altars generally made of wood till the time of Constantine, 94.—
XVI. But one altar anciently in a church, 96.-XVII. And sometimes
but one in a city, though several churches, according to some authors,
98.-XVIII. Of the ciborium, or canopy of the altar, 100.-XIX. Of the
peristerion or columbæ, 101.—XX. When first the figure of the cross
set upon the altar, 103.-XXI. Of some other ornaments and utensils
of the altar, 104.--XXII. Of the oblationarium, or prothesis, 112.--
SECT. I. Baptisteries anciently buildings distinct from the church, 116.
-II. These very capacious, and why, 119.-III. Why called porLOTŃ-
pia, places of illumination, 120.-IV. Of the difference between a
baptistery and a font. And why the font called piscina and koλvμßýėpa,
121.-V. How fonts and baptisteries were anciently adorned, 122.-VI.
Baptisteries anciently more peculiar to the mother-church, 123.-VII.
Of the secretarium, or diaconicum magnum, the vestry, 125.-VIII. Why
called receptorium, or salutatorium, 127.-IX. Of the decanica or prisons
of the church, 128.—X. Of the mitatorium or metatorium, 129.—XI. Of
the gazophylacium and pastophoria, 130.-XII. Of the schools and
libraries of the church, 133.-XIII. In what sense dwelling-houses,
gardens, and baths, reckoned parts of the church, 136.-XIV. When
organs first came to be used in the church, 137.-XV. Of the original
of bells, and how church-assemblies were called before their invention,
Of the anathemata, and other ornaments of the ancient churches.
SECT. I. What the Ancients meant by their anathemata in churches, 147.
-II. One particular kind of these, called exтutóμata, when first brought
into churches, 150.-III. Churches anciently adorned with portions of
Scripture written upon the walls, 152.—IV. And with other inscriptions
of human composition, 152.-V. Gilding and mosaic work used in the an-
cient churches, 154.-VI. No pictures or images allowed in churches for
the first three hundred years, 155.-VII. First brought in by Paulinus
and his contemporaries privately, and by degrees, in the latter end of the
fourth century, 161.-VIII. The pictures of kings and bishops brought
into the church about the same time, 163.—IX. But neither pictures of
the living or dead designed for worship, 165.-X. No images of God or
the Trinity allowed in churches till after the second Nicene Council,
166.-XI. Nor usually statues or massy images, but only paintings and
pictures, and those symbolical rather than any other, 167.-XII. Of
SECT. I. What the Ancients meant by the consecration of churches, 171.—II.
The first authentic accounts of this to be fetched from the fourth century,
172.-III. The bishop in every diocese the ordinary minister of these
consecrations, 176.-IV. No church to be built without the bishop's
leave, 177.-V. Nor till the bishop had first made a solemn prayer in
the place where it was to be built, 177.—VI. No bishop to consecrate a
church in another diocese except necessity required it, 178.—VII. No
necessity of a license from the bishop of Rome for a bishop to conse-
crate in former ages, 180.-VIII. Churches always dedicated to God
and not to saints, though sometimes distinguished by their names for a
memorial of them, 181.-IX. Churches sometimes named from their
founders or other circumstances in their building, 183.-X. When altars
first began to have a particular consecration with new ceremonies dis-
tinct from churches, 185.-XI. No church to be built or consecrated
before it was endowed, 185.-XII. Yet bishops not to demand any
thing for consecration, 186.-XIII. Consecrations performed indif-
ferently upon any day, 186.-XIV. The day of consecration usually
Of the respect and reverence which the primitive Christians paid to their
SECT. I. Churches never put to any profane use, but only sacred and
religious service, 187.-II. The like caution observed about the sacred
vessels and utensils of the church, 189.-III. What difference made
between churches and private houses, 192.-IV. How some chose
rather to die than deliver up churches to be profaned by heretics, 192.
-V. The ceremony of washing their hands when they went into church,
194.-VI. The ceremony of putting off their shoes used by some; but
this no general custom, 194.-VII. Whether the Ancients used the
ceremony of bowing toward the altar at their entrance into the church,
195.-VIII. Kings laid aside their crowns and guards when they went
into the house of the King of kings, 196.—IX. The doors and pillars of
the church and altar often kissed and embraced in token of love and
respect to them, 197.-X. Churches used for private meditation and
prayer, as well as public, 198.-XI. Their public behaviour in the
church expressive of great reverence, 199.-XII. Churches the safest
repository for things of any value, and the best retreat in times of dis-
Of the first original of asylums, or places of sanctuary and refuge, with
the laws relating to them in Christian Churches.
SECT. I. The original of this privilege to be deduced from the time of
Constantine, 202.-II. At first only the altar and inner fabric of the
church the place of refuge; but afterwards any outer buildings or pre-
cincts of the church invested with the same privilege, 204.-III. What
persons allowed to take sanctuary, 206.-IV. What sort of persons and
crimes denied this privilege. First, public debtors, 208.-V. Secondly,
Jews that pretended to turn Christians only to avoid paying their debts,
or suffering legal punishment for their crimes, 209.-VI. Thirdly,
heretics and apostates, 210.-VII. Fourthly, slaves that fled from their
masters, 211.-VIII. Fifthly, robbers, murderers, conspirators, ravishers
of virgins, adulterers, and other criminals of the like nature, 213.-IX.
A just reflection upon the great abuse of modern sanctuaries, in ex-
empting men from legal punishment, and enervating the force of civil
laws, 214.-X. Conditions anciently to be observed by such as fled for
sanctuary. First, no one to fly with arms into the church, 215.-XI.
Secondly, no one to raise a seditious clamour or tumult, as he fled
thither, 216.-XII. Thirdly, no one to eat or lodge in the church, but
Of the state and division of the Roman Empire, and of the Church's con-
forming to that in modelling her own external polity and government.
SECT. I. The state of the Roman Empire in the days of the Apostles, 218.
-II. The state of the Church conformable to it, 219.-III. The division
of the Roman Empire into provinces and dioceses, 220.-IV. The same
model followed by the Church, 220.—V. This evidenced from the Civil
Notitia of the Empire, 221.-VI. Compared with the most ancient
accounts of the division of provinces in the Church, 223.-VII. This
evidenced further from the rules and canons of the Church, 228.-
VIII. Yet the Church not tied precisely to observe this model, but used
her liberty in varying from it, 232.-IX. An account of the ecclesiæ sub-
urbicaria in the district of the Roman Church, 233.-X. This most
probably the true ancient limits of the bishop of Rome's both metro-
political and patriarchal jurisdiction, 236.—XI. Some evident proofs of
this, 238.-XII. The contrary exceptions of Schelstrate, relating to the
A more particular account of the number, nature, and extent of dioceses, or
episcopal Churches, in Africa, Egypt, and other Eastern provinces.
SECT. I. Dioceses anciently called Tapoikia, parœchiæ, 251.-II. When
the name diocese began first to be used, 253.-III. What meant by the
πроáσтeiα, or suburbs of a city, 254.-IV. Dioceses not generally so
large in nations of the first conversion, as in those converted in the
middle ages of the Church, 256.-V. A particular account of the
dioceses of Afric, 257.-VI. Of the dioceses of Egypt, Libya, and Pen-
tapolis, 266.-VII. Of the dioceses of Arabia. And why these more
frequently in villages than in other places, 271.--VIII. Of the diocese
of Palestine, or the patriarchate of Jerusalem, 273.-IX. A catalogue of
the provinces and dioceses under the Patriarch of Antioch, 281.-X.
Observations on the dioceses of Cyprus, 283.-XI. Of the dioceses of
Syria, Prima and Secunda, 284.-XII. Of the dioceses of Phoenicia,
Prima and Secunda or Libani, 286.-XIII. Of Theodorias, 288.-XIV.
Of Euphratesia, or Comagene, 288.--XV. Of Osrhoëne and Mesopo-
tamia, 290.-XVI. Of Armenia Persica, 291.-XVII. Of Assyria, or
Adiabene, and Chaldæa, 292.-XVIII. Of the Immireni in Persia, and
Homeritæ in Arabia Felix, 294.-XIX. Of bishops among the Saracens
in Arabia, 295.-XX. Bishops of the Axumites, or Indians beyond
A continuation of this account of the provinces of Asia Minor.
SECT. I. Of the extent of Asia Minor and the number of dioceses con-
tained therein, 300.--II. Of Cappadocia and Armenia Minor, 303.-
III. Of Pontus Polemoniacus, 307.-IV. Of Hellenopontus, 308.-V.
Of Paphlagonia and Galatia, 309.-VI. Of Honorias, 310.-VII. Of
Bithynia, Prima and Secunda, 311.-VIII. Provinces in the Asiatic
diocese. Hellespontus, 312.-IX. Asia Lydiana, or Proconsularis, 313.
X. Of Caria, 315.-XI. Of Lycia, 316.-XII. Of Pamphylia, Prima and
Secunda, 317.-XIII. Of Lycaonia, 318.-XIV. Of Pisidia, 318.—XV.
Of Phrygia, Pacatiana and Salutaris, 318.-XVI. Of Isauria and Cilicia,
320.-XVII. Of Lazica, or Colchis, 321.-XVIII. Of the Isle of