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vidual programs is shared with State and local agencies. Thus, work crews are coordinated by a CPI staff member in cooperation with the municipal department of parks and recreation. The Manpower Development and Training Act skill training courses are the joint responsibility of the Connecticut State Employment Service and the State vocational education department. CPI assists in liaison with employers and unions in recruiting through neighborhood employment centers. On-the-job training is subcontracted directly with employers by CPI, with aid from the U.S. Bureau of Apprenticeship and Training and with the cooperation of the State labor department, apprenticeship division. Basic education components of training programs are the joint responsibility of the New Haven Board of Education and CPI. With its links to all of these agencies, CPI is able to draw on all available resources to provide a varied and flexible program that can be adapted to individual needs.

In the total manpower effort, as of August 31, 1965, there have been 5,939 applicants for manpower programs. Of these 519 were put into work crews, 50 into the Job Corps, 475 have received on-the-job training (in operation 14 months), 691 received institutional skill training, and 1,403 were placed directly on jobs.

It is our experience that on-the-job training offers the most important skill training resource in the CPI manpower program. While institutional skill training under the Manpower Development and Training Act takes months to design and set up, and has to be cleared through many different agencies, on-the-job training in New Haven has proved to be a realistic and simple mechanism for moving large numbers of inner-city residents into meaningful employment. Once the trainee has been selected, on-the-job training specialists can prepare the training schedule, complete the required forms, and submit them to the regional representative of the Bureau of Apprenticeship and Training for final approval, a process which can be completed in about 1 week. Furthermore, on-the-job training not only preserves the principle of "tailormade" training and prior commitment of permanent employment to successful trainees, but it provides the added benefits to trainees of tying training into actual work experience while providing a living wage. Wages for on-the-job training jobs have varied from $1.50 per hour to $2.25, with a progression in wage and skill training built into the contract. And these jobs are not dead end jobs. Rather, they are skilled and semi-skilled jobs in the expanding segments of New Haven's diverse economy. Through CPI's special inner-city efforts, these jobs are becoming accessible to youth and adults who otherwise would have little chance of securing meaningful training and employment.

To the employer, on-the-job training offers an opportunity to fill jobs that may be vacant for lack of available trained applicants. Many small businesses that lack personnel offices and training programs, find expansion possible when the recruiting and selection process is facilitated by CPI services. Furthermore, the costs of training new personnel are alleviated with the Federal funds.

In both the approach and the implementation of this program, CPI's staff is guided by candor and realism. Before any subcontract is signed, both the em. ployer-trainer and the prospective employee-trainee are properly oriented, including their obligations, the trainee's past work history, other related records, etc. Many employers will accept an employee on the recommendation of the on-the-job training staff. Local employers have been informed that a prospective employee 'is considered ready for on-the-job training only after he has been "processed" by a CPI neighborhood employment center. In the process every applicant is extensively interviewed, tested, and counseled by members of the NEC staff. In addi. tion, past school, police, and work records are checked and the applicant may be a graduate of the Neighborhood Youth Corps or a basic education program. Thus, when on-the-job training is the culmination of an applicant's association with a community action program and on-the-job training is directly related to all the other components of a total manpower effort, an employer can have confidence in the collective judgment involved in the candidate's referral.

And, finally, CPI regularly follows up all who have participated in programs to evaluate the programs and to see if the participants need further service.

While many of the on-the-job training participants are educationally deficient, come from disrupted homes, have unstable work records, and little in their previous history to recommend them, the success of on-the-job training placements has been outstanding.

These following characteristics of the on-the-job trainees will highlight the obstacles which must be surmounted when confronted with traditional employ. ment barriers. Race:

Percent White

58 Negro..

39 Puerto Rican.-

1 Other---

2

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Number of dependents :

1.. 2. 3_ 4. 5 plus.-

2 13 29 19 32

95

48

Total.--
Trouble with the law (more serious than loitering)
Highest grade completed :

0 years.
1 to 3 years.
4 to 6 years-
7 to 9 years.
10 to 11 years.
12 plus---

0 0 3

25

29 43

Applicants unemployed at least 1 month in last year:

1 to 3 months.
4 to 7 months.
8 to 12 months..

8 9 18

Total -

35 Current employment status of on-the-job training graduates : Unemployed--- 7

The current status of on-the-job training graduates indicates a 7-percent unemployment rate, as compared with a 23-percent figure for graduates of Manpower Development and Training Act institutional courses and a 11-percent unemployment rate for those directly placed on jobs. Thus, with 93 percent of all on-the-job training graduates currently employed, the effectiveness of this approach is readily apparent. On-the-job training provides an important mechanism to bridge the gap between many of our Nation's unemployed and underemployed and the numerous semiskilled jobs that remain unfilled.

Since the on-the-job-training trainee is an active employee, it is in the economic self-interest of the employer to train effectively. The employer seeks to teach only the most current and relevant materials. The trainee receives individual-" ized attention under actual working conditions, being confronted with the usual job pressures and production quotas.

Another important consequence of on-the-job training is its stimulus for apprenticeship training. A cursory view of typical on-the-job training job placements in the appendix indicates the increased number and diversity of apprenticeable trades. More individuals, more employers, and more trades are being involved in training programs. For many small employers on-the-job training offers an unprecedented opportunity to learn the value and the necessity of training. Many employers receive invaluable instructional experience.

The experience of New Haven's community action program indicates that on-the-job training has a considerable community impact, benefiting trainees, employers, and the local economy. By providing effective training opportunities both dimensions of our manpower problem are directly confronted-the need of the unemployed and underemployer to find and maintain meaningful jobs and the requirements of the employer to find competent employees. The expansion of on-the-job training is critically needed to meet our Nation's increased manpower challenge.

APPENDIX I

TYPICAL ON-THE-JOB TRAINING PLACEMENT

TV antenna man Auto body man Dry cleaner-presser Furniture assembler Meat processor Auto mechanic Collection telephone clerk Short-order cook-salad man Inventory control Maintenance Alarm installer Stock and sales trainee Printer apprentice Bookkeeping clerk Sheet metal mechanic Baker Stock clerk Machine operator Salesman Plumber apprentice Woodworking trainee Auto parts clerk Parts clerk Carpet mechanic Aircraft mechanic Metal, wood, paint sprayer Frame assembler Cushion fabricator Saleswoman, insurance Seamstress Clerk-typist Delivery, floral designer Reporter Civil draftsman Veterinarian's assistant technician Setup operator Machine setter Pattern maker trainee Machine repair trainee Molder Office clerk Coremaker bench Apprentice mechanic

Machinist trainee
Butcher
Bindery trainee
Antenna technician
Installation man
Window shade maker
Counter man
Repairing and servicing
Carpet mechanic
Metal worker
Dental technician aid
Installation man
Assistant estimator
Security guard
Sewing machine operator
Furniture salesman
Driver salesman
Truck driver
Driver's helper
Cosmetic and drug sales specialist
Porter
Station attendant
Apprentice painter
Apprentice carpenter
Apprentice mason
Power equipment mechanic
Finisher
Child care interne
Radio technician
Real estate salesman
News announcer
Parts service man
Bookkeeper.
Broom winder
Recreation supervisor
Baker's helper
Wireman
Power equipment mechanic
Milling machine operator
Lead inspector
Spotter
Machine repair trainee
Millwright trainee

[graphic]

APPENDIX

Man power central office on-the-job training placements This report lists the on-the-job training placements for the month of March. These additional 37 placements bring the aggregate total to 324.

There were 19 new employers during March, making a total of 129.
Employees

Race
Starting
Job category

Employer

Area re-
cruited

[graphic]

Manpower central office on-the-job training placements—Continued This report lists the on-the-job training placements for the month of April. These additional 38 placements bring the aggregate total to 362. There were 12 new employers during the month of April making a total of 141 employers.

[graphic]

Arcangelo, Charles
Benson, William
Boyd, Arthur
Brito, Leroy
Brown, O. William
Clayton, Johnny.
Crona, Randall..
D'Amato, Pasquale.
Esposito, Robert
Fraenza, James
Generette, James
Green, Brenda..
Gross, Jerome
Hrynyszyn, Louis
Jarman, Yvonne
Ortz, Jaime
Soto, Ismael
Stowers, Robert
Taylor, Michael
Wilson, Cecil.

Anderson, Donald
Cretella, Liberato J.
Cuticelli, Joseph.
Ferraro, Adelmo.
Ferraro, Joseph
Harris, Thomas
LaFrazier, Elizabeth
Laney, Melvin
Micio, James F.
Milano, Nicolas
Mitchell, Levon.
Nichols, Edward F
Little, Horace...
Pullen, Theodore.
Sauro, Mary C..
Trasacco, Pasquale.
Vargas, Nocario.
Zanders, Rose E.

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