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68 35

66 48


Statement concerning operations in the Department of Labor in the

youth and delinquent field..
Sviridoff, Mitchell, executive director of Community Progress, Inc., pre-

pared statement..
Wallace, John A., director, Office of Probation for the Courts of New York
Prepared statement.--

A Plan: Youth Opportunity Centers in the Employment Service Centers,

by Bureau of Employment Security, Robert C. Goodwin, Adminis

trator Cardozo juvenile delinquency project Cities in which Youth Opportunity Centers exist or will be established in

fiscal year 1965.Criteria for a special demonstration grants program.Delinquents Are People, progress report of the Federal Antidelinquency

program. H. Doc. 103, message from the President of the United States, relative

to crime.. Increase in youth offenders, by the FBI Annual Uniform Crime Reports -Letter from the subcommittee to Mr. Shriver, dated March 30, 1965, and

his reply thereto.Letters to Senator Hill from:

Celebrezze, Anthony J., Secretary, Department of Health, Education,

and Welfare, April 6, 1965.-
Clark, Ramsey, Deputy Attorney General, April 6, 1965-
Hughes, Phillip s., Assistant Director for Legislative Reference,

Bureau of the Budget, April 9, 1965--
Material submitted by the Department of Labor..
Number of youth offenders and potential youth offenders..
Program summary, Crusade for Opportunity, Inc., Syracuse, N.Y.
Questions submitted by Senator Javits and the answers thereto..
Secretary Wirtz announces six more youth opportunity centers.-
Summary of the programs for the Mobilization for Youth, prepared by the

staff of Office of Juvenile Delinquency and Youth Development.
Supplemental answer to Senator Javits..
The Effect of Cause.

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Washington, D.C. The subcommittee met at 9:30 a.m., pursuant to call, in room 4232, Senate Office Building, Senator Clark presiding.

Present: Senator Clark (presiding), Randolph, Nelson, Javits, and Murphy.

Also present: Senator Kennedy, of New York, member of the full committee.

Committee staff members present : Stewart E. McClure, chief clerk, and William C. Smith, counsel to the subcommittee; Stephen Kurzman, minority counsel.

Senator CLARK. The subcommittee will be in session. We open this morning hearings on S. 1566 which would extend the Juvenile Delinquency and Youth Offenses Control Act of 1961 for 2 additional years upon its present termination date of June 30, 1966, to June 30, 1968. The bill authorizes $6,500,000 to be appropriated for fiscal year 1966 and such sums as may be necessary for fiscal years 1967 and 1968.

A copy of the bill will be printed in the record at this point. (S. 1566 follows:)

(8. 1566, 89th Cong., 1st sess.)

A BILL To extend the Juvenile Delinquency and Youth Offenses Control Act of 1961
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United
States of America in Congress assembled, That section 6 of the Juvenile De-
linquency and Youth Offenses Control Act of 1961 is amended to read as follows:

"AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS "Sec. 6. For the purpose of carrying out the programs provided for in the preceding sections of this Act during the period ending June 30, 1968, there is hereby authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1962, and each of the three succeeding fiscal years, the sum of $10,000,000, for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1966, the sum of $6,500,000, and for the two succeeding fiscal years such sums as may be necessary."

Senator CLARK. Our first witness this morning is the Honorable Wilbur J. Cohen, Assistant Secretary for Legislation, the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare.

Mr. Cohen has prepared a statement with a number of tables and appendixes attached. It will be printed in the record in full at this point.


EDUCATION, AND WELFARE Mr. Chairman and members of the subcommittee, I appear before you today in support of S. 1566 introduced by the distinguished chairman of the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare, Senator Lister Hill, for himself and Senator Clark, the distinguished chairman of the Subcommittee on Employment and Manpower. This bill authorizes $6.5 million for fiscal year 1966 and extends the Juvenile Delinquency and Youth Offenses Control Act for 2 additional years. The bill provides for grants to public and private nonprofit agencies, for programs to demonstrate new techniques of delinquency prevention and control, for the training of personnel working with youth and youth problems, for technical assistance to communities seeking to combat delinquency, and for the dissemination of information.

As President Johnson said in his recent speech on law enforcement and the administration of justice, "The Federal Government has been giving active support to juvenile delinquency control efforts. Under the Juvenile Delinquency and Youth Offenses Control Act, programs have been developed to provide new approaches to the prevention and control of juvenile delinquency, and to train needed personnel. Under this act important studies have shed new light on the complex causes of delinquency.

"The Department of Health, Education, and Welfare will shortly submit requests for urgently needed additional appropriations in this field. I support these proposals and request the Congress to act on them favorably and rapidly."

Juvenile delinquency is not a simple single problem calling for a simple single solution. Rather it is a tangle of profoundly interwoven problems, many of them deeply rooted in the fabric of our entire social system, and the basic changes taking place in it. No one would contend that the projects established under the Juvenile Delinquency and Youth Offenses Control Act in the past 4 years have "solved" the problem of juvenile delinquency. They have, however, shown an encouraging measure of success; they have been a beginning; they have developed some new ideas and approaches. The commitment made by the enactment of the Juvenile Delinquency and Youth Offenses Control Act was a commitment to ingenuity. It was a commitment that we would not be complacent with the complexity of juvenile delinquency. The President, in his recent message to the Congress on law enforcement and the administration of justice, asks now that we continue our resolve, that we intensify our efforts to deal with the causes of crime. The extension of the Juvenile Delinquency and Youth Offenses Control Act provided for in this bill is designed to further that objective.

The Federal delinquency program has attempted to stimulate communities and universities to develop prevention and control programs which take into account these many social forces which spawn delinquency. The program has urged that communities bring together knowledge and abilities from many fields sociology, psychology, social work, education, economics, law and corrections, business and labor-uniting them in a common effort to change those conditions which encourage delinquent behavior.

Our activities at the Federal level have been undertaken with the realization that the health, education, and welfare agencies in the community must work together with the job finding, training, and law enforcement agencies. Hence, we have fostered through the President's Committee on Juvenile Delinquency and Youth Crime the active cooperation of the Federal, State, and local agencies-public and private to this end. The committee is made up of the Attor. ney General, as chairman, and the Secretaries of Labor and Health, Education, and Welfare. The staffs of these three agencies have worked together to assure effective utilization of all available resources. The distinguished junior Senator from New York, Senator Robert F. Kennedy, as the first chairman of the committee, served to spark the entire enterprise with his energy and wholehearted support.

COMMUNITY DEMONSTRATIONS The Federal program has assisted 16 communities to develop and implement such demonstration action programs. These are listed as appendix A to this statement. Fourteen of these selected target areas are located in the decaying inner core of our large cities since it is these areas which account for the major

portion of delinquency. It is these areas, too, which provide the least opportunity for behavior acceptable to the larger society and provide the least preparation for youth to take advantage of those opportunities which do exist. At the same time, it seemed that all these conditions which breed antisocial behaviorinadequate housing, limited employment opportunities, marginal family income and family instability, school programs which were not adapted to the needs of the youth they serve could be attacked simultaneously in a massive effort to prevent delinquency. Indeed, it was the goal of these programs to expand the opportunities in the environment in which these youth find themselves while at the same time providing maximum services to equip them with social skills to enable them to take advantage of greater opportunities.

This subcommittee heard extensive testimony on these programs a year and a half ago. Most of these programs are now in their second and third years of action, providing a wide variety of service in such areas as education, employment training, counseling, family and group services, community development, legal aid, enforcement, and corrections. Many young people are participating in these programs, and the new and expanded services are giving these young people new skills to become self-supporting.

I would like to comment briefly on three aspects of these community demonstrations :

Each community demonstration has shown that neighborhood development is an important part of delinquency prevention programs. Increasing the capacity of local residents to plan and implement programs with and for their Fonth is an important deterrent force to youthful misbehavior. Target area residents serve on boards and committees along with representatives of the larger community. These are, in fact, programs with rather than for people programs embodying the concepts of grassroots democracy and emphasizing selfsufficiency.

Extending even further the involvement of target area residents in the projects,
and in an effort to meet the manpower requirements of such extensive programs,
many of the community projects have developed new capabilities among area
residents to serve as leaders, aids, and assistants in tutoring, community devel-
opment, and seeking out those who most need help but are so frequently the
unnoticed and unseen.

Communities thus became aware that the success of a many-sided attack on
delinquency required the best efforts and wholehearted support of the total com-
munity. This meant not only utilizing to the full the knowledge and abilities
found in the many social sciences, but enlisting the cooperation and support of
the political, business, labor, and civic forces of the community. There was and
is no set formula for organizing all these forces; each community develops a
pattern suited to its own local situation.
Indeed, it is not surprising that communities organizing to cope with the prob-
lem of poverty have looked to the delinquency projects as models. Many of the
delinquency projects have been designated by their communities as the agency
to develop and implement antipoverty programs. These are also noted in
appendix A.
In light of these developments, we plan, in the coming year, to continue support
from the juvenile delinquency program of only four of the major demonstration
projects in Boston, New York, New Haven, and Washington. As the current
grants to the other 13 projects expire, these projects will be transferred to the
Office of Economic Opportunity and financed from the Office of Economic Oppor-

We will fund for 1 more year the Boston, New Haven, and Mobilization for
Youth projects. These three were selected because they have been in operation
the longest and have developed the most comprhensive programs. The demon-
stration aspects of these programs will conclude after another year, and we will
be able to secure maximum evaluation of this overall approach to delinquency
prevention and of the separate program elements. Additionally, the Congress
provided for a program in the District of Columbia subject to a $5 million
limitation. You will be hearing representatives of these four projects during
your deliberations on this measure.

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tunity program.


In stimulating communities to attack delinquency on a broad scale in inner-city slums where it is most prevalent, we have left, relatively untouched, other areas and other forms of delinquency. There are, indeed, children who are more resistant to conventional behavior, who isolate themselves from schools, jobs, and

adults. There are middle-class youngsters who disrupt the community. The use of addictive drugs and sexual deviance are the kinds of difficult problems in delinquency requiring special solutions.

Furthermore, the police, the courts, and training schools tend to find it difficult to deal with the hard-to-reach children, making more difficult the return of such children served by these agencies to the larger community. At the same time, such agencies as clinics, family service associations, and settlement houses which serve children in the larger society, tend to concentrate on the easier to reach. Both kinds of organizations have expressed interest in new approaches.

In the present fiscal year we turned our attention to deal with these problems more intensively. We earmarked $1.8 million for special demonstration projects in specialized subject areas. These have been 1-year grants averaging about $80,000, to such agencies as the MacLaren Training School in Oregon, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Community Council, Kentucky Child Welfare Research Foundation, and the Hampton Beach Chamber of Commerce. These projects are listed in appendix B.

Projects have been undertaken in such areas as education within boys' correc tional institutions, assisting youth to make the transition from such institutions back into the larger community, prevention and control of youth disturbances and riots, and the treatment of sexually delinquent girls.

It is our plan to expand support of such projects in the coming fiscal year. We expect to increase the variety and range of areas, to deal with social problems which now are receiving little attention. We will encourage, to the extent possible, programs sponsored by State correctional systeins; and possibly develop ment of State-county programs for children coming from the State correctional system into county or city care. Grants will not be limited to the formal correction and control agencies; encouragement will be given to child welfare agencies, churches, citizens, and business groups, public housing agencies, and other important sources of potential for delinquency control.


Of equal importance have been the training programs initiated under the Juvenile Delinquency and Youth Offenses Control Act. There has long been a shortage of trained manpower for youth-serving programs. This shortage be comes more acute as new antidelinquency and antipoverty programs have been established.

The Federal antidelinquency program has sought, through its training programs, to improve the quality of training by making available new knowledge, new materials, and new methods. It has sought to increase quantity of personnel through development of training methods and programs which make possible much greater participation by lay persons in youth programs. Such programs have reached not only laymen from the educated, middle-class community, but persons with little formal education and few specialized skills whose close contact with the youth of the community enables them to work in programs in their own immediate neighborhoods.

As in the demonstration programs, we have stimulated programs drawing the best from the wide variety of social sciences, utilizing the facilities and forces of the university, the social welfare agencies, and the community at large. The Federal program has fostered partnerships among many institutions and agencies in joint pursuit of the solution to major social problems.

Twelve training centers have been established at universities throughout the country. These are listed in appendix A. Each center provides a concentration of resources, knowledge, staff, and facilities for the training of all categories of youth personnel, including employees of demonstration projects.

Recipients of curriculum development grants are producing a variety of new course materials. Subjects include group treatment techniques, family counseling, work with delinquent girls, techniques for gang workers, new texts for teachers, and studies of bail bond and legal practices as they affect youth and their families. Several formats have emerged : a handbook for detached work. ers, audiovisual aids for the education of teachers who work in depressed areas, manuals for police, and a guide for probation officers in the handling of juvenile offenders.

More than 100 grants have been awarded to universities, colleges, and nonprofit organizations for training, and more than 12,500 youth workers received such training. These are listed in appendix A. These short-term workshops and institutes, which may last a few days or a few weeks, are designed for

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