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proceedings have been published and will be used to stimulate change by local branches of the National Committee for Children & Youth.

Vera Foundation: A series of grants to the Vera Foundation has awakened nationwide interest in the problem of bail. Consequently, more than 100 jurisdictions are modifying the bail bond process to substitute procedures which do not punish the poor by jailing them unnecessarily.

Camp Fire Girls: A curriculum development program has been organized to provide Camp Fire Girls staff with knowledge of how to involve culturally deprived and delinquency prone girls in programs designed to meet their needs.

SPECIAL TRAINING PROJECTS AND STUDIES

Significant special studies are underway in the following areas:

The National Committee on the Employment of Youth is studying and evaluating programs for the training of problem youth in new careers.

The National Council on Crime & Delinquency is analyzing the training needs of the entire spectrum of correctional personnel, including police.

The School of Criminology at the University of California is making an assessment of training programs for correctional personnel.

A study of socioeconomic trends and their implications for youth programs has been completed by Peace Research Institute.

Paul Fine, Associates, completed a study on the attitudes of slum youth toward their neighborhood, school, police, and families. This study starkly reveals their hostility and feelings of estrangement toward society.

Brandeis University has studied how States plan and coordinate in the delinquency field. The office has also participated with the Council of State Gov. ernments and the National Council on Crime & Delinquency in the preparation of a report outlining the scope of the juvenile delinquency problem, reviewing current State programs, and offering specific recommendations for State action to combat youth crime. A followup Governor's conference workshop was held in February 1965 for State administrators of juvenile delinquency programs.

INFORMATION

As new information has been gained from the demonstration projects and as new training methods and materials have been developed, these have been made available to other projects, communities, and individuals in a number of ways.

Through the National Council on Crime & Delinquency, an information center has been established. This center collects the written materials from all of the training and demonstration projects, and reproduces it electronically on request. Cross-referencing and a punched card system make it possible to meet requests for material by subject or by project.

In addition, a number of conferences and workshops, on a local, State, regional, or national, scale have been held. A conference on legal services for the poor was held in Washington in November 1964, which drew on the experience of a number of the demonstration projects which have established such services. That conference received nationwide attention, and its report is a "bestseller." A national conference on adolescent girls has led to a number of new programs for girls.

The Office of Juvenile Delinquency has made a number of publications available, either directly or through the projects which developed them. As new information is gained, we expect this activity to increase.

FUTURE DIRECTIONS

DEMONSTRATIONS

Considerable assistance is being offered children and youth by a variety of Government programs. Such basic areas as education, family assistance, youth employment, and child welfare services, are being developed and sustained at increasingly high levels. The juvenile delinquency grants will concentrate on reaching and working with the hard-core delinquent youth and those children and their families who are systematically excluded from a large number of socializing organizations and institutions. These children are highly resistant to conventional norms. They isolate themselves or are isolated from schools, settlement houses, jobs, and adults.

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The agencies that deal with hard-core children--the police, the courts, the training schools also tend to be isolated from other agencies. The agencies that treat children in the community-clinics, family service agencies, settlement houses, recreation agencies--all concentrate on the "easier to reach”, the children and families who want service.

In our previous grants both kinds of agencies have demonstrated the desire and capacity to change their focus and experiment with new ways of reaching and dealing with the hard-core segment of youth.

The continuing special demonstration program will aim to enhance and extend these new directions. We hope to encourage police juvenile youth bureaus to develop proposals. Juvenile courts may develop proposals for more effective court functioning for children brought under court jurisdiction as well as developing referral sources for children who come before the court but are not adjudicated.

In the area of citizen participation, we have only begun to develop capacity to deal with neighborhood delinquency. Church groups, citizen groups, business groups, child welfare agencies, and public housing agencies are all potential grantees who can be helped and encouraged to handle delinquency “at home.”

There are also some relatively neglected but important areas of delinquency where new programs are needed. The use of addictive substances (drugs, pills, glue) is becoming of increasing concern. There has been a great rise in so-called middle-class delinquency among children who are theoretically well prepared to take advantage of all that America has to offer but who are nonetheless breaking its laws. We need to know why this is so, and devise programs to counteract it.

Violence and the threat of violence have been much in the news. From slum boys erupting on subways to college boys rioting on beaches, there is a gamut of aggressive and dangerous behavior. Here, too, research into causes must combine with practical demonstration techniques to produce control of violence and alternatives to it. One such project has been tentatively approved. The Chamber of Commerce of Hampton Beach, N.H., is taking responsibility for copying with the Labor Day riots which threaten to become a tradition. Working with the chamber of commerce and university researchers, the project will attempt to combine theory and practice to solve a social problem. Research in this project, as in all special demonstration projects, is aimed at showing the doers how to do better. Additionally we hope to encourage:

1. Grants to develop cooperation and coordination between State and local agencies which would bridge the gap between the different agencies that deal with the same child at different points in the correctional rehabilitative scale. Local police apprehend a youth. He is adjudicated in a local court and sent to a State institution. He must then be returned to his home, reenter school or get a job. The present connections between agencies is tenuous, indeed.

2. Grants to complement other Federal programs. Such projects will work with the harder-to-reach delinquents to equip them to make use of the general job training and education programs.

3. State and local agencies to develop programs for correctional institutions to recruit and train middle-class management and operating personnel. Training and Demonstration grants could focus together on new programs and training of staff to implement them.

We plan to carry four comprehensive projects to completion—Boston, New Haven, Mobilization for Youth, and Washington. Preliminary data indicate that a wealth of material and knowledge is being produced. A major effort will be made to analyze the results and to test out the specialized areas where we still have either large gaps in our information or inconclusive results.

The community action programs developed in other cities will continue with financial support from the Office of Economic Opportunity. As each of these projects reach the end of their present grant from the juvenile delinquency program, they will apply for refunding to the Office of Economic Opportunity. Staff from both Offices are working together with the project staff to make for a smooth transition. Our staff will continue to give consultation on the juvenile delinquency components of these projects.

TRAINING

Over the next 3 fiscal years an expansion of activity is contemplated to continue the momentum generated, and to move into new areas significant in training for delinquency prevention and control.

The work of the 12 training centers should be expanded with funds to add staff and to carry out new curriculum development projects and institutes. The centers need staff assistance to meet the heavy demand for consultation as well as to carry out training activities. Some of the centers will be encouraged to develop expertise in such areas as the juvenile court and detached work with gangs.

The establishment of 12 new centers is also projected. Two or three of these may be special centers on (a) violence, (b) youth employment and delinquency, and (c) manpower utilization of indigenous personnel to work with youth. Experimentation will be initiated for regional training by centers in sections of the country where training resources are sparse, possibly through the use of mobile training teams.

Workshops, institutes, seminars, and curriculum development projects will be initiated and expanded in the following areas:

Procedures for prevention and control of violence in the schools.
The role and responsibilities of prosecuting attorneys.

Examination of the pros and cons of delinquency solutions such as curfews, teenage juries, increased age for driver permits or purchase of liquor.

Prevention and control of middle-class and suburban delinquency.
Recruitment of personnel.
Control of the violent offender.

Programs to advance rehabilitative and educational procedures in training schools.

Role of the juvenile bureau in police departments.

Materials for the training of police in special problem areas such as prevention and control of youth riots.

The role of undergraduate schools and community colleges as sources of personnel.

Role and responsibilities of mass media.
Use of groups work skills in rehabilitation of delinquents.
Skills needed in staffing halfway houses.

The involvement of national organizations in adoption and use of new knowledge.

New careers for indigenous personnel to work with youth.
Role of schools in delinquency prevention and control.

Development of materials for use in the professional education of teachers, social workers, lawyers, and public administrators.

Ways and means for coordinating youth services between State and urban levels of government. In our efforts to disseminate information, we have found one of the most effective means is through national or regional conferences, such as the recent Conference on the Extension of Legal Services to the Poor and The National Bail Bond Conference. We plan to exploit this means of further disseminating learning from the training and demonstration projects.

PROGRAM ANALYSIS

In view of the experimental nature of the demonstration and training programs, an intensive period of program analysis is in process. After three and a half years of project development, the strengths and weaknesses of programs are being thoroughly evaluated. The program analysis underway involves thorough study of the various functional areas investigated by projects to qualitatively assess new developments, accomplishments, and problem areas and gaps. It will also give direction to development of new grants in training and demonstration, contracts for studies, and policy reformulation of the program.

Some of the functional program areas to be evaluated are: police, parole and probation programs; programs for girls; work with gangs; community integration of youthful offenders and community youth services. School programs, development of core curriculum, preschool programs and the use of subprofessionals in institutions are added programs for evaluation.

Training center programs, community leadership programs, programed instruction; as well as public-private agency patterns, legal services for the poor and multiservice centers are also to be studied and evaluated for their special relationship to juvenile delinquency prevention and control.

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Connor, George W., and Watson, Nelson A., Juvenile Delinquency and Youth

Crime: The Police Role, Washington, D.C.: International Association of Chiefs
of Police, 1964.
Freed, Daniel J., and Wald, Patricia M., Bail in the United States, 1964, New

York: Vera Foundation, 1964.
HARYOU, Youth in the Ghetto--A Study of the Consequences of Powerlessness

and a Blueprint for Change, New York: HARYOU, 1964.
Kvaraceus, William C., et al., Negro Self-Concept: Implications for School and

Citizenship, New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1965 (186 pp.).
Matza, David, Delinquency and Drift, New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1964

(199 pp.).
Michael, Donald N., The Next Generation, New York: Random House, 1965 (218

pp.) (Available as hard cover at $4.95 or as paperback at $1.65).
Morris, Robert, ed., Centrally Planned Change: Prospects and Concepts, New

York : National Association of Social Welfare, 1964.
Prigmore, Charles S., ed., The Expansion of Correctional Field Placements and

Internships, New York: Council on Social Work Education, 1965 ($3.00). National Federation of Settlements and Neighborhood Houses, Serving the Teenage Girl, New York: National Federation, 1964 ($1.50).

Neighborhood Centers Serve the Troubled Family, New York: National Federation, 1964 ($2.00).

Young People and the World of Work, New York: National Federation, 1965 ($1.25). Office of Juvenile Delinquency and Youth Development, Conference Proceedings

The Extension of Legal Services to the Poor, Washington, D.C.: U.S. Govern

ment Printing Office, 1965 ($0.60).
President's Committee on Juvenile Delinquency and Youth Crime, Council of

State Governments, and National Council on Crime and Delinquency, Juvenile
Delinquency: A Report on State Action and Responsibilities, Washington, D.C.:

Council of State Governments, 1962.
Documents reproduced and available from the Office of Juvenile Delinquency and

Youth Development. Counter Attack on Juvenile Delinquency, June 1964. Functional Categories of Training Projects. Summaries of Training Projects, September 1963 with March 1964 Addendum. New Approaches: Prevention and Control of Juvenile Delinquency, January 1965. New Ideas in Training (no date). Proceedings of Work Conference on Deprived Adolescent Girls, 1964.

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IN PROCESS

National Committee on Children and Youth, Rural Youth in Crisis-Facts, Myths,

and Social Change. National Committee on Employment of Youth, Youth Employment Programs in Perspective.

Getting Hired, Getting Trained.
The Recruitment and Training of Automobile Mechanics.

Basic Issues in Youth Employment.
Paul Fine, Associates, Neighbors of the President.
Training materials
Boston University :

Training packet for probation institute.
Training packet for parole institute.
Training packet for conference on hazards to children born and unborn.
Training packet for training of CPI work crew foremen.

Group work with adolescents-An institute for volunteers.
Community Health and Welfare Council, Cincinnati : Supplement II to Final
Report.

Hunter Sehool of Education: Education and the Metropolis—A Book of Readings (Miller & Smiley), 1964.

Hunter School of Social Work: Teaching notes for caseworkers.

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Kings County Court Probation Department: Various training materials.
University of Michigan:

Principals workshop.

Juvenile Court Judges Institute. National Council on Crime and Delinquency : Parole Resources Book, October 1963.

New York University : 20 selected instruments for training evaluation.

Philadelphia Psychiatric Center: Theoretical seminar on the family and sexual behavior disorders of adolescent girls.

Washington Department of Institutions: Training series V. Bibliographies

Boston University: Selected Reading List for a Panoramic View of Youth Problems and Possibilities.

University of California: Cultural Diversity-Library and Audiovisual
Materials for In-Service Education (Cyr, Baker, Noone), March 18, 1964.
Hunter College of Education :

Urban Education--An Annotated Bibliography, 1963.
Urban Education--An Annotated Bibliography-Supplement I.

An Annotated Filmography.
Hunter College School of Social Work: Teaching Notes for Caseworkers
Bibliography.

Kings County Court Probation Department: Annotated Paperback Library
for Probation Officers and Students of Criminology.
University of Michigan:

Principals Workshop—Book List.

Juvenile Court Judges Institute-Books, Pamphlets, and Reprints
Distributed to Registrants.
National Federation of Settlements :

Basic References and Additional Bibliography (included in Neighborhood
Centers Serve the Troubled Family).

Bibliography (included in Serving the Teen age Girl).
Philadelphia Psychiatric Center:

Reading List for Theoretic Seminar in the Family and Sexual Behavior
Disorders of Adolescent Girls.

Miscellaneous Reading List included in Supplementary Materials on Family
Counseling
President's Committee on Juvenile Delinquency and Youth Crime : Bibliography.
University of Texas: Selected Reading Lists (included in Parole Officer as an
Agent of Change).

Vera Foundation : Bibliography on Bail (included in Bail in the U.S., 1964).
Summary of grants for fiscal years 1962–64 awarded under Public Law 87-274

The Juvenile Delinquency and Youth Offenses Control Act of 1961

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1 No new planning grants were awarded in fiscal year 1964. The 8 grants awarded for planning were to
allow communities to finish planning begun in fiscal year 1962 or fiscal year 1963.
24 of the 5 training center grants were continuation grants of training centers established in 1963.

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