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nate as "delegate organizations", which have no direct membership but consist merely of "delegates" or "representatives" from groups of local unions. These organizations have, for convenience, been grouped under three classes: (A) State, District, and Trades Councils; (B) Central Labor Unions; and (C) Local Trades Councils.
A. STATE, DISTRICT, AND TRADES COUNCILS.
The total number of organizations included in this group at the close of 1915 was 71, as compared with a total of 74 at the close of 1914. These 71 organizations included 13 State Branches, comprising locals affiliated with various internationals; seven New England District Councils having affiliated locals in Massachusetts; 24 Railway Adjustment Committees, Grievance Committees, and Conference Boards; and 27 District Trades Councils (including carpenters, 11; painters, five; machinists, two; and others, nine). The number in each class in 1915 varied somewhat from that in 1914; there having been an increase of one in the number of State Branches, while the number of Railway Adjustment Committees showed a decrease of two, and there was a decrease of one each in the number of Machinists District Councils, and in the miscellaneous group.
The organizations of this character having at least 25 affiliated organizations in Massachusetts were: The Massachusetts State Branch of the American Federation of Labor, which at the close of the year represented 33 central labor unions and 393 local unions; the Massachusetts State Council, United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners, with 149 locals and 20 District Councils; the Grand Council of Carpenters of Eastern Massachusetts, with 67 local unions and eight local District Councils; the Massachusetts State Conference of Bricklayers, Masons, and Plasterers, with 44 locals; the Massachusetts State Association of the United Association of Journeymen Plumbers, Gas Fitters, Steam Fitters, and Steam Fitters' Helpers, with 44 locals; the New England Organizing Conference of Boot and Shoe Workers, with 41 locals; the New England Branch, Hotel and Restaurant Employees International Alliance and Bartenders International League, with 38 locals; the Massachusetts State Conference of Painters, Decorators, and Paperhangers, with 37 locals; the Massachusetts State Council of Journeymen Barbers, with 33 locals; and the Southeastern Massachusetts District Convention of Carpenters, with 25 locals.
1 For a comparative statement for the years 1908-1915, see Table 2 on p. 50.
B. CENTRAL LABOR UNIONS.
• The number of central labor unions in Massachusetts at the close of 1915 was 35, as compared with 36 in 1914. There was one such body in each of 26 cities and 9 towns. In 91 cities there was no organization of this character, namely, Attleboro, Beverly, Everett, Melrose, Newburyport, Newton, Revere, Waltham and Woburn. During the year three central labor unions were organized, one each in Bridgewater, Gardner and Medford, while in Montague, Norwood, Plymouth and Southbridge, the central labor unions were disbanded.
The aggregate number of local unions (including a few duplications) affiliated with the 35 central labor unions in Massachusetts was 774. There were 15 central labor unions each of which had 20 or more affiliated locals, as follows: Boston, 139; Springfield, 67; Brockton, 48; Worcester, 44; Lowell, 37; Holyoke, 34; New Bedford, 28; Lawrence, 27; Lynn, 27; Taunton, 27; Haverhill, 26; Cambridge, 22; Fall River, 22; Fitchburg, 21; and Salem, 21, making a total of 590 locals affiliated with these 15 central labor unions. The number of locals affiliated with the remaining 20 central labor unions was 184.
C. LOCAL TRADES COUNCILS.
Within this group there were 62 organizations at the close of 1915 as compared with 63 at the close of 1914. Among these 62 organizations there were 11 carpenters' district councils, 14 building trades councils or sections, seven allied printing trades councils, seven joint shoe councils, three textile councils, and 20 other local trades councils. Of these 62 organizations, 21 were in Boston, five each in Brockton and Lynn, three each in Haverhill, Lowell, New Bedford, Springfield and Worcester, two each in Fall River, Holyoke, Lawrence and Quincy, and one each in Fitchburg, Maynard, North Adams, Pittsfield, Salem, Taunton, Westfield, and Whitman. In each of these 20 localities (except Maynard and Whitman) there was also a central labor union.
3. LOCAL TRADE UNIONS.
Introductory. - In this section of the report data are presented 2 showing the number of local labor organizations in Massachusetts at the close of each of the eight years, 1908-1915; also, for the close of 1914 and 1915, the number and membership of locals in the leading cities and towns, the
While these cities had no central labor unions, at least one of the local unions in each was affiliated with a central labor union in a neighboring city.
Detailed tables will be found on pp. 51 to 55 and are numbered, respectively, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7.
number and membership of local unions classified by industries and by occupations, the number of women in these organizations classified by municipalities and occupations, the membership of the largest local unions (in 1915), and the membership of identical unions in 1914 and 1915.
A. COMPARISONS BY YEARS, 1908-1915.
In the following table is shown the total number of local unions in Massachusetts at the close of each of the eight years, 1908 to 1915, together with additional returns showing by sex the aggregate membership reported at the close of each year.
Number and Membership of Local Trade Unions at the Close of Each Year Specified.
1 In the report for 1908, the number of local unions for that year was given as 1,256. This total included 13 unions which are not included in the totals for the other seven years in the table, and which were not, strictly speaking, labor organizations, but rather educational and beneficial organizations. The totals for 1908 have, accordingly, been corrected as above in order that the totals for the several years may be strictly comparable. 2 Estimated on the basis of returns from 1,160 unions which reported an aggregate membership of 161,887, of which number 151,765 were males and 10,122 were females.
Estimated on the basis of returns from 1,185 unions which reported an aggregate membership of 168,037, of which number 156,799 were males and 11,238 were females.
The membership of the 1,425 local unions in the Commonwealth at the close of 1915 was 243,535, as compared with a total of 1,392 unions, and a membership of 234,266 at the close of 1914. The net increase in the membership during the year was 9,269 members, or 4.0 per cent. It will be seen, however, by referring to the table above, that this gain did little more than offset the decrease in 1914. The number of new locals organized during 1915 was 118, and the number which disbanded or amalgamated with some existing local was 85, making a net increase of 33 locals during the year.
The membership of the 118 locals organized during the year was 13,421, and of the 85 disbanded, or amalgamated with other organizations, 13,393; the slight increase here apparent was, however, augmented by an increase of 9,241 in the aggregate membership of those unions which were in existence at the close of both 1914 and 1915.
The average membership of the local organizations in existence at the close of 1915 was 170.9, as compared with an average membership of 168.3 at the close of 1914, and of 172.3 at the close of 1913.
B. DISTRIBUTION OF LOCAL UNIONS BY MUNICIPALITIES.
A classification of local organizations by cities and towns is a rather essential one because their principal field of activity is the local community, whether that be a city, a town, or a section of a city or town. In many instances, however, a so-called "local organization" may have jurisdiction over one or more adjoining cities or towns, or, in the case of railroad organizations, over even an entire railroad system. In those instances where the jurisdiction of an organization covers more than one city or town the Bureau has classified such organization under that city or town in which it maintains its headquarters, the membership of such local union usually being largely confined to the locality in which its headquarters are located. The total membership of organizations classified under Boston, for example, is probably in excess of the actual number of organized workingmen who reside in Boston because, for convenience, certain residents of neighboring localities may be members of an organization having its headquarters in Boston. In the case of certain so-called local railroad organizations the membership may include employees from even distant points on the particular railroad system represented; nevertheless, the actual headquarters is the essential consideration, and it is partly for this reason that no attempt has been made to determine the actual residence of the members of such unions. Accurate showing on the latter basis would obviously be very difficult, rendering it necessary for the Bureau to ascertain the actual place of residence of each member of each local organization in the State, or at least to secure a statement in detail from each organization as to the residence of its members, an elaborate inquiry which would hardly be justified by the value of the information when obtained.
Boston quite naturally out-ranked the other municipalities of the State with respect to the number of unions and their aggregate membership. Of the 1,425 local unions in existence in Massachusetts at the close of 1915, 293, or 20.6 per cent, had their headquarters in Boston, as com
pared with 297, or 21.3 per cent, of the 1,392 unions in Massachusetts at the close of 1914. Of the aggregate membership (243,535) of all unions in the State at the close of 1915, 94,812, or 38.9 per cent, were in unions having their headquarters in Boston, as compared with 96,343, or 41.1 per cent of the aggregate membership (234,266) at the close of 1914. These records show a slight falling off so slight as to be practically negligible in the number and membership of unions in Boston in 1915, as compared with 1914.
The cities having 25 or more local unions were: Boston, 293; Springfield, 78; Worcester, 69; Lowell, 67; Lynn, 57; Brockton, 50; Holyoke, 46; Lawrence, 42; New Bedford, 40; Salem, 37; Fall River, 36; Fitchburg, 35; Taunton, 31; Haverhill, 30; and North Adams, 25. Those having a membership of over 2,500 were: Boston, 94,812; Brockton, 16,077; Worcester, 13,830; Springfield, 13,634; Lynn, 13,575; Fall River, 8,998; New Bedford, 8,787; Lowell, 7,135; Haverhill, 6,977; Salem, 4,876; Holyoke, 3,961; and Lawrence, 3,661.
At the close of 1915, 128 municipalities in the State were represented by at least one local trade union, there being at least one local in each of the 35 cities and in 93 of the 318 towns, leaving 225 towns not so represented. The municipalities represented at the close of 1915 were the same as in 1914, with the exception of Scituate, which was represented by one local in 1915, but was not represented by any local in 1914.
A comparison of the number of local trade unions in these 128 localities at the close of 1915 with corresponding data for 1914 shows that in 81 localities there was no change in the number of local unions; in 29 localities there was an increase; and in 18 localities there was a decrease. There was a net increase in the number of unions in each of the following localities: Lowell, nine; Springfield, seven; Salem, five; Fitchburg and Westfield, four each; Chelsea, Leominster, and Worcester, three each; Gardner, Lawrence, Montague, North Adams, Northampton, and Taunton, two each; and 15 other localities, one each. The localities in which there was a net decrease in the number of local unions were the following: Lynn, six; Boston, four; Pittsfield and Quincy, three each; Gloucester and Newton, two each; and in 12 other localities, one each.
In each of 55 of the 1281 municipalities having one or more local unions in 1914 or 1915, there was a net increase in union membership, aggregating 16,439; in each of 65 localities there was a net decrease, aggregating 7,170; while in eight localities the union membership remained unchanged. The net increase in union membership was 9,269. The
1 Includes Scituate, which was represented by one local union in 1915, but was not represented by any local union in 1914.