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MARY TUDOR. (When Princess. Froin the Portrait by Holbein.)
CHAPTER VI. THE REIGN OF ELIZABETH.—John Knox, JOHN
Fox, JOHN JEWEL, MATTHEW PARKER, EDMUND GRINDAL, JOHN AYLMER, AND OTHERS. —A.D. 1558 TO A.D. 1579.
ment in the Netherlands of a severe edict for the extirpation of all sects and heresies. Elizabeth had dangerous neighbours, and a people divided against itself. She meant to uphold the Reformation. She desired to establish harmony within the English Church by taking a middle way between extreme opinions, and forcing all within the Church to follow that course. In the first year of her reign appeared an Act for the Uniformity of Common Prayer, which restored, with some slight modification, the forms of church service established in the fifth and sixth years of the reign of Edward VI., required the use of them in all churches, and made it punishable to “preach, declare, or speak anything in the derogation or depraving” of the Book of Common Prayer. For one such offence a minister was to forfeit his clerical income for a year, and be imprisoned for six months without bail ; for the second offence he was to be deprived of his church offices and imprisoned for a year, or for life upon a third conviction. An offender not beneficed was to suffer a year's imprisonment for the first offence, and for the second offence imprisonment for life. Of 9,400 clergy there were not quite two hundred who refused to hold their livings upon these conditions.
Meanwhile John Knox—whose Trumpet Blast against the Government of Women closed England against him, when he would gladly have sought the goodwill of Elizabeth— landed at leith and preached in Perth against idolatry. A fervent zeal opposed the force of the Queen Regent. The Reforming Lords, who had been withdrawing from the churches to form congregations of their own, and were called Lords of the Congregation, entered into a second covenant for mutual support and defence. The Queen Regent was defied. Monasteries were destroyed, the Abbey of Scone was burnt, Edinburgh came into the keeping of the Reformers, and at Stirling the Lords of the Congregation signed a third covenant binding themselves not to treat with the Queen Regent separately. When the Dauphin became Francis II. of France, French soldiers landed at Leith, with a legate from the Pope and doctors from the Sorbonne. Elizabeth aided the Scots quietly with English money. In October, 1559, the Queen Regent in Scotland, Mary of Guise, was deprived of her authority by “us the Nobility and Commons of the Protestants of the Church of Scotland.” Elizabeth, for security against a French conquest of Scotland, gave more active aid, and in April, 1560, the English were besieging Leith. The Lords of the Congregation then signed a fourth covenant, binding themselves to pursue their object to the last extremity. Then the Queen Regent died. Peace was made between England and France in the affairs of Scotland, and proclaimed at the Edinburgh marketcross in July, 1560. The Estates of Scotland met on the 1st of August, and embodied on the 17th the opinions of John Knox in a Confession of Faith for
N April, 1558, Mary Queen of
Scots, aged sixteen, was married to Francis, the French Dauphin. On the 17th of November, Elizabeth, aged twenty-five, became Queen of England, and the Estates of Scotland, meeting in that month, gave to the French Dauphin the title of King Consort. The Dauphin in 1559 became King of France as Francis II., and the young queen's uncles, the two brothers, Charles, Cardinal of Lorraine, and Francis, Duke of Guise, became rulers in France—one of financial and civil affairs, the other of the army. Their principles of civil and religious liberty were, as set forth by the Duke of Guise, that “all Truth must proceed from Tradition, all Justice and all Authority from the Crown." Francis and Mary styled themselves King and Queen of England, and Scotland, and Ireland; and it was determined to join
Scotland to France if Mary died PLEACHER'S HOUR-Glass childless in her husband's life
time. In August of the same year, 1559, Philip II. of Spain ordered the enforce
the due length of the sermon by the running of its sand. An overfervent preacher might sometimes turn it when the sand was run, and invite his hearers to “take another glass." The hour-glass above figured was in the church of St. Alban's, Wood Street, London, and the sketch of it is taken from Allen's “ History of Lambeth."
1 The hour-glass, once familiar neighbour to the pulpit, measured
the Scottish Church. On the 24th they annulled self to the printer Oporinus by showing him the former acts for the maintenance of the Roman first sketch of his “History of the Church.” This, Church, abolished the Pope's jurisdiction, and made written in Latin, was published in 1554. After the it criminal to say a mass or hear a mass. And so death of Mary, his friends, Edmund Grindal and the Scottish Reformation was accomplished.
others, returned to England, whence they supplied Fox The short reign of Francis II. of France, husband with ample material from the records of the bishops' of young Mary Queen of Scots, was ended by his courts. An enlarged version of his History, still death in December, 1560, and he was succeeded by in Latin, came from the press of Oporinus in August, a boy of eleven, Charles IX. The queen-mother, 1559. Then Fox came home, and lived at first near Catherine of Medicis, made friendly advances to Eliza- Aldgate, at the manor place of the Duke of Norfolk, beth, who said to the young king's ambassador, constantly busied over the production of the first “Tell your master that war is only fit for poor devils English edition of his famous book, which appeared of princes who have their fortunes to make, and not in folio in 1563 as “ Acts and Monuments of these for the sovereigns of two great countries like France latter and perilous Days touching matters of the and England."
Church, wherein are comprehended and described The change of rule in England brought home froin the great Persecutions and horrible Troubles that Switzerland and Germany many Reformers who had have been wrought and practised by the Romish been in exile under Mary. John Fox did not return Prelates, especially in this realm of England and immediately. His age was forty-one in the year of Scotland, from the Year of Our Lord a Thousand, Elizabeth's accession, and he was then living unto the Time now Present. Gathered and collected with a wife and two children at Basle, earning his 'according to the true copies and writings certificatory, bread as a corrector of the press. He was born at, as well, of the parties themselves that suffered, as Boston, in Lincolnshire, educated at Oxford, and also out of the Bishops' Registers which were the expelled in 1545 on accusation of heresy. He was doers thereof." It is the book of a devout and then tutor, first to the children of Sir Thomas Lucy, zealous partisan, adorned with pictures designed to at Charlcote, near Stratford-on-Avon, and next to impress more vividly on readers' mịnds the reasons the children of the Earl of Surrey after their father's for repudiation of the Church of Rome. Fox conexecution. Their grandfather, the Duke of Norfolk, demned the Roman Church for persecution to the
death, and honestly endeavoured to prevent, as far as he could, infliction of the penalty of death by the Reformed Church upon those whom he accounted heretics. He busied himself much to save the lives of two Anabaptists, and sought without success to do away with punishment by death in matters of religion. But in the conflict of opinion he was an eager combatant, not an impartial judge, deeply convinced of the truth of his own cause, and showing what is to be found also sometimes in a writer of more genius, the inability to know how men as honest and as earnest as himself could hold the opposite opinion.
A few records of the suffering of Englishmen in Spain were added by Fox to his narrative of English persecutions, the chief of them being this account of the burning of an English merchant, at an auto da fé, at Seville, on the 20th of December, 1560.
THE CRUELL HANDLYNG AND BURNYNG OF NICHOLAS
BURTON, ENGLISHMAN AND MERCHANT IN SPAYNE. John Fox. (From his "Acts and Monuments," ed. 1641.)
Forasmuch as in our former booke of Actes and Monuwho had shared his son's peril, and narrowly escaped mentes mention was made of the martyrdome of Nicholas sharing his fate, became John Fox's friend, and Burton, I thought here also not to omit ye same, the story protected him at the beginning of the reign of Mary. beyng such as is not unworthy to be known, as well for But soon Fox escaped to Basle, and introduced him- the profitable example of his singular constancie, as also for
the notyng of the extreme bearing and cruell rauenyng
of those Catholicke Inquisitours of Spayne, who under the i Mass. The name that had come to be used in the Church of Rome for the Communion Service was not rejected in the First
pretensed visour of religion, do nothing but seeke their Prayer Book of Edward VI., where that service is headed “The owne private gayng and commoditie, with crafty defendyng Supper of the Lord, and the Holy Communion, commonly called the and spoylyng of other men's goodes, as by the notyng of Mass.” But the name was soon restricted to the communion service this story may appeare. of the Church of Rome. The Latin “Missa" first referred only to
The fift day of the moneth of Nouember, about the yeare the close of servic) and the dismissal of the congregation, then it was applied to the church service generally, then to a special part
of our Lord God 1560, this Nicholas Burton, citizen someof it.
tyme of London, and marchaunt, dwelling in the parish of
little Saint Bartlemewe, peaceably and quietly following his traffike in the trade of marchandise, and beyng in the citie of Cadiz, in the partes of Andolazia in Spayne, there came into his lodgyng a Judas (or, as they terme them) a Familiar of the Fathers of the Inquisition, who, in askyng for the sayd Nicholas Burton, fayned that hee had a letter to deliuer to his owne handes : by whiche meanes he spake with him immediatly. And hauing no letter to deliuer to him, then the sayd Promoter or Familiar, at the motion of the Deuill his master, whose messenger he was, inuented another lye, and sayd that he would take ladyng for London in such shyppes as the sayd Nicholas Burton had frayted to lade, if he would let any: whiche was partly to knowe where hee laded his goodes, that they might attache them, and chiefly to detract the tyme untill the Alguisiel, or Sergeant of the sayd Inqui.
Triana, where the sayd fathers of the Inquisition proceeded agaynst him secretly accordyng to their accustomable cruell tyranny, that neuer after he could be suffered to write or speake to any of his nation : so that to this day it is unknowen who was his accuser.
Afterward the xx. day of December, in the foresayd yeare, they brought the sayd Nicholas Burton, with a great number of other prisoners, for professyng the true Christian religion, into the citie of Siuill, to a place where the sayd Inquisition sat in judgement, which they call the Awto,” with a canuas coate, whereon in diuers partes was paynted the figure of an houge deuill tormentyng a soule in a flame of fire, and on his head a coppyng tanke of the same worke.
His toung was forced out of his mouth, with a clouen sticke fastened vppon it, that hee shoulde not vtter his conscience
and fayth to the people, and so hee was set with an other Englishe man of Southampton, and diuers others condemned men for religion, as well Frenchmen, as Spanyardes, vppon a scaffold ouer agaynst the sayd Inquisition, where their sentences and judgementes were read and pronounced against them.
And immediatly after the sayd sentences geuen, they were all caryed from thence to the place of execution without the
sition, might come and apprehend the body of the sayd Nicholas Burton: whiche they did incontinently.
Who then well perceauyng that they were not able to burden nor charge him that he had written, spoken, or done any thyng there in that countrey agaynst the ecclesiasticall or temporall lawes of the same realme, boldly asked them what they had to lay to his charge, that they did so arrest hym, and bad them to declare the cause, and hee would aunswere them. Notwithstanding, they aunswered nothyng, but commaunded him with cruell and threatnyng woordes to hold his peace, and not to speake one word to them.
And so they caryed him to the cruell and filthy common prison of the same towne of Cadiz, where he remained in yrons xuij. dayes amongest theeues.
All whiche tyme he so instructed the poore prisoners in the Worde of God, accordyng to the good talent whiche God had geuen him in that behalfe, and also in the Spanish toung to vtter the same, that in short space he had well reclaymed sundry of these superstitious and ignorant Spanyardes to embrace the Woorde of God, and to reiect their popish traditions.
Whiche beyng knowen vnto the officers of the Inquisition, they conueyed him, laden with yrons, from thence to a citie called Siuill, into a more cruell and straighter prison called
1 In the low suburb of Seville called Triana, on the opposite bank of the Guadalquiver.
2 Judgement which they call the Auto. Auto (Latin "actus") was originally a Spanish forensic term, and meant a decree or judgment of a court. The Auto da Fé (Act of Faith) was a public gaol delivery by the Court of the Inquisition, when acquittals and convictions of those accused of crimes against religion were read, and those ad. judged to death were delivered to the secular power by which sentence was immediately executed. The "Auto" ended with the delivery of the judgments; but as, in days of extreme persecution, burniog of heretics immediately followed, and they were carried to the place of execution with much public ceremony, in yellow dresses painted over with suggestions of the pains of hell, to arrest attention and strike doubters dumb with fear, the term Auto da Fé was commonly associated with these public executions. Besides the general Auto da Fé, there was the private Auto, the Autillo, or little Act, and the delivery of judgment in a single case, the Auto singular.
citie, where they most cruelly burned him, for whose con- prison, to conferre with him about their accomptes;-the stant fayth God be praysed.
rather thorough a little misunderstandyng, hearyng the InThis Nicholas Burton, by the way, and in the flames of quisitor cast out a word, that it should be needefull for bym fire, made so chearefull a countenaunce, embracyng death to talke with the prisoner ;---and beyng therevpon more with all pacience and gladnesse, that the tormentours and then halfe persuaded that at the length they ment good fayth, enemyes which stode by sayd that the deuill had his soule did so, and repayred thether about the euening. Immediatly before he came to the fire, and therefore they sayd his senses vpon his commyng, the jayler was foorth with charged with of feelyng were past him.
hym, to shut hym vp close in such a certain prison, where It happened that after the arrest of this Nicholas Burton they appointed him. aforesayd, immediatly all the goodes and marchaundise whiche The partie hopyng at the first that hee had bene called for hee brought with him into Spayne by way of trafficke, were, about some other matter, and seyng him selfe, contrary to accordyng to their common vsage, seised and taken into the his expectation, cast into a darke dungeon, perceaued at the Sequester; among the which they also rolled by much length that the world went with him farre otherwise then that appertained to an other Englishe marchaunt, wherewith he supposed it would haue done. he was credited as factour; wherof, so soone as newes was But within two or three dayes after, he was brought forth brought to the marchaunt, as well of the imprisonment of into the Court, where he began to demaunde his goodes; and his factour as of the arrest made vppon his goodes, he sent because it was a deuise that well serued their turne, without his atturney into Spayne, with authoritie from him to make any more circumstaunce they had hym say his Aue Maria. clayme to his goodes, & to demaunde them, whose name was The partie began & sayd it after this maner: Aue Maria John Fronton, citizen of Bristow.
gratia plena Dominus tecum, benedicta tu in mulieribus, et When his atturney was landed at Siuill, and had showed benedictus fructus ventris tui lesus. Amen. all his letters and writynges to the holy house, requyring The same was written worde by worde' as he spake it; them that such goodes might bee redeliuered into his pos- and without any more talke of claymyng his goodes because session, aunswere was made him that he must sue by bill, and it was booteles, they commaunde hym to prison agayne, and retayne an aduocate (but all was doubtlesse to delay him), and enter an action agaynst hym as an hereticke, forasmuch as they, forsooth, curtesie assigned hym one to frame his he did not say his Aue Maria after the Romish fashion, but supplication for him, and other such billes of petition as he
ended it very suspiciously, for he should haue added, morehad to exhibite into their holy court, demandyng for eche
ouer, Sancta Maria, mater Dei, ora pro nobis peccatoribus, by bill viij. rials, albeit they stoode hym in no more stead than abbreuiatyng whereof it was euident enough (sayd they) that if he had put vp none at all. And for the space of three or he did not allow the mediation of saintes. iiij. monethes this fellow missed not twise a day, attendyng
Thus they picked a quarell to detaine him in prison a euery mornyng and afternoone at th Inquisitours Palace, longer season, and afterwardes brought hym forth into prayng vnto them vppon his kno's for his dispatch, but their stage, disguised after their maner, where sentence was specially to the Byshop of Tarracon, who was at that very geuen that he should lose all the goodes whiche he sued for, time chief in the Inquisition at Siuill, that he of his absolute though they were not his owne, and besides this, suffer a authoritie would commaunde restitution to be made thereof; yeares imprisonment. but the booty was so good and so great that it was very hard to come by it agayne.
At the length, after he had spent whole iiij. monethes in In August, 1561, Mary Queen of Scots, aged sutes and requestes, and also to no purpose, he receaued this nineteen, widow of Francis II. of France, returned aunswere from them, that he must shew better euidence and to Scotland, and heard mass on the first Sunday bryng more sufficient certificates out of England for proofe after her arrival. In the same year John Bodley of his matter then those whiche he had already presented to obtained in England a seven years' patent for the the Court; whereupon the partie forth with posted to London, version of the Bible which had been prepared and and with all speede returned to Siuill agayne with more printed at his cost in Geneva, and was known as the ample and large letters, testimonials, and certificates, accord. Geneva Bible. Few men of any creed were at that yng to their request, and exhibited them to the Court.
time free from faith in the use of force and violence Notwithstandyng, the Inquisitours still shifted him off, ex- for the advancement of the highest truth they knew. cusing themselues by lacke of leasure, and for that they were
In its preface and short annotations the Geneva occupyed in greater and more weighty affaires, and with
Bible was not without trace of desire to hew Agag in such aunsweres delayed him other foure monethes after.
pieces before the Lord in Gilgal. Some shadow of At the last, when the partie had wellnygh spent all his
this form of zeal was even upon that society estabmoney, and therefore sued the more earnestly for his dispatch, they reforred the matter wholy to the Byshoppe; of
lished by the infuence of Calvin at Geneva, which whom, when he repayred unto him, he had this aunswere :
Knox held to be more truly Christian than anything that for him selfe hee knew what hee had to do; howbeit hee
that had been seen elsewhere since the days of the was but one man, and the determination of the matter apper
Apostles. tained vnto the other Commissioners as well as vnto him:
Jean Cauvin, or John Calvin, was born at Noyon and thus, by postyng and passyng it from one to an other,
in 1509. At the age of twenty-three, after a liberal the partie could obtaine no ende of his sute. Yet for his
education at Paris, Orleans, and Bourges, he had importunitie sake, they were resolued to dispatche him, but completely adopted such reformed opinions as preit was on this sorte: one of the Inquisitours called Gasco, a
vented him from entering the ministry within the man very well experienced in these practices, willed the Church of Rome, for which he was to have been partie to resorte vnto him after dinner.
trained. He found a friend in Margaret of Navarre, The fellow being glad to heare these newes, and supposing and while still young produced in Latin, at Basle. that his goodes should be restored vnto him, and that he was a first outline, developed afterwards more fully, called in for that purpose, to talke with the other that was in of the principles of his faith, and of the faith
of many whom his genius made afterwards his in 1568, the year in which the seven years' patent followers, the Institutes of the Christian Religion. for the printing of the Geneva Bible expired, and it It was in 1536, when twenty-seven years old, that became from that date the authorised version for use Calvin first settled at Geneva, but all his reforms of the Church of England, until 1611, the date of the had not acceptance then, and in 1538 he was com- first edition of the version authorised by James I. pelled to leave. In 1541 he was recalled, and then Matthew Parker, born at Norwich in 1504, was established at Geneva that “ yoke of Christ " by educated at Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, of which he sought to enforce Christian life, as well which he became master in 1544. He was chaplain as Christian doctrine. A girl was whipped for to Anne Boleyn, to Henry VIII. and to Edward VI., singing a song to a psalm-tune; three children were and took such part in the early education of Elizapunished for waiting ontside the church to eat cakes beth as won her heartiest goodwill, and
him in sermon-time; a child was beheaded for having great influence over her in after life. Mary deprived struck her parents; and a lad of sixteen was con- him of his preferments, but Elizabeth made him, demned to death for only threatening to strike his somewhat against his will, her first Archbishop of mother. The unreformed Church had its ecclesias- Canterbury, called him for his lightness of body, tical courts, which took cognisance of offences against - her little archbishop," and gladly took counsel minor morals, and their summoners made them with him for his weight of mind. Matthew Parker occasion of much petty oppression and cruelty. was very, learned, and partly out of reverence for the Calvin also was following traditional customs when past, partly out of desire to take a middle way of he sought unity of faith by burning the learned peace, he was unwilling to make those great changes Spaniard, Michael Servetus, in October, 1553, for in the outward form of worship which were sought by blasphemy and heresy, because he was a Christian the most uncompromising of those who had put away who could not accept the doctrine of the Trinity. the Church of Rome. In country places the great Calvin died in 1564, leaving his mind strongly im- majority of the people were still Roman Catholic, pressed on the Reformed Church of England, and yet and everywhere the less educated would associate more strongly, through John Knox, on the Reformed familiar forms of worship with their religious life. Church of Scotland. In Elizabeth's reign, Calvin's Archbishop Parker and the Queen desired to change interpretation of the doctrines of the Christian Faith only what they accounted evil in itself, because assowas that commonly accepted by the English clergy. ciated with false doctrines or practices that had crept
of into the Church ; and the Archbishop sought to show Church Doctrine, the “ Institutio Christianæ , Re- that the Reformed Church of England was not, as to ligionis," was published in a translation by Thomas essentials, a new Church, but the old restored. He Norton, who was about the same time joint author encouraged research into Church Antiquities; himself with Thomas Sackville of “ Gorboduc," the first published in 1572 a Latin book on the Antiquities English tragedy. “ The Institution of Christian of the British Church and Privileges of the Church Religion, written in Latine by M. John Calvine, trans- of Canterbury; and desired to promote a study of lated into English according to the author's last First English, that in Ælfric's sermons Englishmen edition,” by Thomas Norton, appeared as a solid might find record of opinions held by the first Church folio in 1561; a new edition of it was required in of England, which were not those of the Church of 1562, and other editions in 1572, 1574, 1580, and Rome, but those to which the Church of England 1582. Calvin's “ Institutes,” in its first edition, was in Elizabeth's day had reverted. a short book, but it grew with his life. Every point Bishop Jewel worked with Parker in the same of doctrine newly treated by him, in sermons or direction. John Jewel, born in Devonshire in 1522, otherwise, had its treatment presently incorporated was educated at Merton and Corpus Christi Colleges, with the “ Institutes," so that the whole body of Oxford. While a student he was lamed for life by Calvin's religious opinions had come at last to be an illness. When he had taken his B.A. degree he therein contained.
lived by teaching, and was for seven years reader of Latin and Rhetoric in his college.
In 1544 he comIn 1562, under the regency in France of Catherine
menced M.A. In 1548 Peter Martyr was called of Medicis, the Huguenots rose in civil war after the
from Germany to teach divinity at Oxford, and massacre of Vassy. In March, 1563, there was
Jewel became one of his foreniost friends and folpeace between Catherine and the Huguenots by the
lowers. In 1551 John Jewel became Bachelor of edict of Amboise. In that year Queen Elizabeth
Divinity, and took a poor living at Sunningwell, authorised the issue of a second “Book of Homilies,”
near Oxford, to which, lame as he was, he walked to secure uniformity of teaching in the English
to preach once a fortnight. At Mary's accession Church. She had already adopted, in 1559, the
Jewel was expelled from his college as a follower of “ Book of Homilies” first issued in 1547. In the
Peter Martyr, and a Lutheran. The last words of year 1564-year of the birth of Shakespeare—the
his last lecture, given in Latin, to his college were
these : queen's Archbishop of Canterbury, Matthew Parker, began the preparation of a Bible which was to secure
In my last Lectures I have (said he) imitated the custom the utmost accuracy of text by direct reference to
of famished men, who when they see their meat likely to the Hebrew and Greek. So many bishops were be suddenly and unexpectedly snatched from them, devour among the scholars engaged in producing it, that it it with the greater haste and greediness. For whereas I was called the Bishops' Bible. This was published intended thus to put an end to my Lectures, and perceived