much welcomed by me; and Monsieur Tieleners also, one of and his younger brother George, each thinking for the greatest scholars of his time; who, after they had perused himself on matters of religion. Edward, who was it, and given it more commendations than is fit for me to made after his return from Paris in 1625 an Irish repeat, exhorted me earnestly to print and publish it. How- baron, and afterwards an English peer as Lord beit, as the frame of my whole book was so different from

Herbert of Cherbury, taught forcibly the existence any thing which had been written heretofore, I found I must

of a spiritual power within man, supreme over all the either renounce the authority of all that had written formerly faculties, which draws knowledge from the world concerning the method of finding out truth, and consequently around and reasons upon Revelation. He denied insist upon my own way, or hazard myself to a general eensure

that the salvation of man could wholly depend on concerning the whole argument of my book. I must confess it did not a little animate me, that the two great persons

acceptance of a form of religion revealed only to a

portion of the human race. God as the Father of above-mentioned did so highly value it, yet, as I knew it

mankind could not, he said, condemn a large part of would meet with much opposition, I did consider whether it was not better for me a while to suppress it. Being thus

the human race for ignorance of that which it had doubtful in my chamber, one fair day in the summer, my

no opportunity of knowing. It has been said that

his refusal to believe in revelation confined to a few casement being opened towards the south, the sun shining clear, ard no wind stirring, I took my book, De Veritate, in

is inconsistent with his belief that a revelation to my hand, and kneeling on my knees, devoutly said these

himself alone communicated the assent of God to his words,

diffusion of his book. But this would have only “O thou eternal God, author of the light which now shines been inconsistent had he held that God in listening upon me, and giver of all inward illuminations, I do beseech to him was deaf to the prayers of others. He Thee, of Thy infinite goodness, to pardon a greater request believed that every man could, by true worship, than a sinner ought to make. I am not satisfied enough draw near to God and bring God near to him, whether I shall publish this book De Veritate ; if it be for receiving aid and comfort. The supposition that Thy glory, I beseech Thee give me some sign from heaven ; God answered his prayer was, in fact, part of his if not, I shall suppress it."

supposition that the prayers of all who drew near I had no sooner spoken these words, but a loud though yet to Him with spiritual worship found their way to gentle noise came from the heavens (for it was like nothing heaven. Thus reasoning, Edward Herbert built up on earth), which did so comfort and cheer me, that I took in this treatise upon Truth a creed of his own, my petition as granted, and that I had the sign I demanded,

containing the five points that he held to be the whereupon also I resolved to print my book. This, how essentials of a true religion. These were belief (1) strange soever it may seem, I protest before the eternal God

in God; (2) in Man's duty to worship Him; (3) in the is true, neither am I any way superstitiously deceived herein,

Immortality of the Soul; (4) in Future Rewards and since I did not only clearly hear the noise, but in the serenest

Punishments ; (5) in the need of Repentance for Sin. sky that ever I saw, being without all cloud, did to my

So taught Edward, Lord Herbert of Cherbury, eldest thinking see the place from whence it came.

brother and head of the house of “boly George

Herbert,” who, while the De l'eritate was being read, The book was remarkable for boldness of specula- maintained in his parsonage at Bemerton every tion upon sacred things, and for the difference it ordinance and doctrine of the English Church, and shows in bent of thought between Edward Herbert quickened all with a pure spirit of devotion.

ention. When Harmen zen, aged fifteen, was with his teacher at Utrecht, Æmilius died; but the boy was immediately cared for by another earnest Dutch Reformer, also a native of Oudewater, Rudolph Snell. Snell became Professor of Hebrew and Mathematics at Leyden, before his death in 1613. This learned fellow-town 3mın took young Harmensen away with him, but soon hurried back to Oudewater upon hearing of the cruelties of the Spaniar is, who had sacked the town and slain most of the inhabitants, including his mother, his sisters, his brothers, and his kindred. The sudden desolation is said to have caused him to spend fourteen days in passion of weeping. Snell with the boy left the scene of massacre on foot for Marburg, in Hesse Cassel ; then, having heard of the opening (in 1575) of the University of Leyden by the Prince of Orange, he went to Rotterdam, and thence sent Harmensen to Leyden. The youth excelled among the students, and in 1582 was sent, at expense of the Senate of Amsterdam, to Geneva, where he became a zealous admirer of Theodore Beza, who was expounding the Epistle to the Romans. But Harmensen's regard for the philosophy of Peter Ramus stood in his way at Geneva, and he went to Basle, where he was soon thoroughly at home. At Bisle he was offered the title of Doctor by the theological faculty before his return to Geneva, but decl'ned it because he felt himself unripe. Fron Geneva he went with a Dutch fellow-student to Padua, for the benefit of the teaching of Giacopo Zabarella, then in the fulne zs of his fame there as Professor of Philo. sophy. The two young Dutchmen then travelled together for eight months in Italy, carryin; the Greek Testament and Hebrew Psalter in their pockets. In the course of their travel they saw Rome, but the Senate of Amsterdam, with pious horror of Rome, was greatly displeased with Harmensen for going there. The young theologian, however, returned to Geneva, and thenc · carried to his patrons at Amsterdam clear testimony of his fitness for the reformed ministry.

Ther) was still, with many Reformers, dread of the student who hai gone so near to Antichrist, but when Harmensen 'began to preach he won golden opinions. At this time a book was in circulation written by some brethren of the church of Delft, called “ An Answer to some Arguments of Beza and Calvin out of a Tceatise conceruing Predesti. nation, on the 9th chapter to the Romans.” Martin Lidyus, formerly a pastor in Amsterdam, but then a Professor in Friesland, sent the book to Harmensen, because he was able, and fresh from Beza's teaching at Geneva, requesting him to defend Beza by answering the brethren of Delft. But Harmensen was converted by their book, and he was led to join in argument against Calvin's form of the doctrine of predestination and election. His ability and piety soon made him a leader of the growing reaction among Dutch Reformers against what they took to be an unjust view of God's providence in Calvin's doctrine. The name of Arminian was then given to these dissenters from Calvinism. Arminius was, in September, 1603, when James I. was newly become King of England, joined with Francis Gomar, a strict Calvinist, in the Professorship of Theology at Leyden. His predecessor in the chair was Francis Junins, the elder. Then followed bitterness of controversy, troubling a very gentle spirit, then disease, and in October, 1609, Arminius died, leaving a widow and none children. In the year after his death, his followers set forth, in five articles, the opinions for which they were attacked. These articles they specified in a “ Remonstrance to the Estates of Holland," and from it the Arminiins came to be called “the Remonstrants," and their church at Amsterdam the“ Church of the Remonstrants." The five opinions were:-1. Of Election ; that God from all eternity determined the salvation of those in whom He foresaw that they would persevere to the end in their faith in Jesus Christ, and the eternal punishment of those in whom he foresaw continued unbelief and resistance of His aid ; so that Election depended on the acts of men,

George Herbert, the fifth of Richard Herbert's But the commodiousness is beyond the revenue, for the seven sons, was born at Montgomery Castle on the Orator writes all the University letters, be it to the 3rd of April, 1593, and was in his fourth year when king, prince, or whoever comes to the University.” his father died. He was educated at home by his The commodiousness of the office was, that it enabled mother for the next eight years, and then sent to a man who sought advancement at court to show Westminster School. In his fifteenth year, being a his ability to the king, and make himself agreeable. king's scholar, he was sent on to Trinity College, Public orators before him had used the post as a Cambridge, and, young as he was, he had already stepping-stone to court preferment, and during the entered into controversy on church questions of the rest of the reign of James I. George Herbert waited day. When, after the accession of James to the upon his Majesty, a courtly and a witty fortuneEnglish throne, the Millenary Petition represented hunter. He got in 1623—as a layman—the sinecure the desire of many of the clergy for further reforma- rectory of Whitford in Flintshire, which was worth tion in the Church, the Universities signified their £120 a year, and had once been given to Philip displeasure. Cambridge passed a grace that who- Sidney when he was a boy of ten. But the death soever opposed by word or writing or any other


of James I. on the 27th of March, 1625, put an the doctrine or discipline of the Church of England, end to all George Herbert's further hopes in that or any part of it, should be suspended, ipso facto, direction. from any degree already taken, and be disabled from taking any degree for the future. Oxford published a formal answer to the petition and condemnation of

CHAPTER IX. the petitioners. Andrew Melville, Rector of St. Andrews, a leading minister of the Scottish Church, UNDER CHARLES I. AND THE COMMONWEALTH. then satirised the Universities (in 1604) in a Latin GEORGE HERBERT, RICHARD SIBBES, THOMAS poem entitled "Anti-Tami-Cami-Categoria," that is, FULLER, JOHN HowE, GEORGE Fox, RICHARD accusation against Thames and Cam–Oxford and BAXTER, JEREMY TAYLOR, JOHN Milton, AND Cambridge. George Herbert, as a schoolboy, retorted OTHERS. — A.D. 1625 TO A.D. 1660. with "Epigrams Apologetical," which were not printed until 1662. They could only have been published

GEORGE HERBERT, still a layman, was in July, 1626, by one who shared the unwisdom of a boyish partisan. dary of Leighton Ecclesia or Leighton Bromswald,

year of the death of Francis Bacon, made a prebenGeorge Herbert went to Cambridge in May, 1609, graduated as B.A. early in 1613, and as M.A., at the

in Huntingdonshire, with a stall in Lincoln. He age of twenty-three, in 1616, year of the death of repaired the church of the place. In 1627 his mother Shakespeare. In January, 1620, George Herbert was

died, and George Herbert retired from his office of elected Public Orator, and thus obtained what he said

Public Orator. He left Cambridge, weak in health, was “the finest place in the University, though not

for he was consumptive, and stayed for a time with

his brother, Sir Henry Herbert, at Woodford, in the gainfullest, yet that will be about £30 per annum.

Essex. In 1629 he was at Dauntsey, in Wiltshire, the seat of the Earl of Danby, with whom he was

connected by his mother's second marriage. She had free, though foreseen, and predestined only through foreknowledge. 2. Of Redemption; tbat Christ atoned for the sins of all men and of

married Sir John Danvers. At Dauntsey his health each man, though none but those who believe in Him can be partakers improved. In March, 1629, he married Jane Danof the benefit. 3. Of Original Sin ; that true faith cannot come to the vers, a kinswoman of his stepfather and of Lord natural man without help of the Grace of God-that is, regeneration

Danby. George Herbert had resolved now to take by the Holy Ghost, which is the gift of God through Christ. 4. Of Effectual Grace ; that this Divine Grace begins, advances, and per.

holy orders. His kinsman Philip, Earl of Pembroke, fects whatever is good in man; wherefore every good work proceeds obtained for him the living of Bemerton, with a little from God alone, but His Grace, offered to all, does not force men to

church within a mile or two of the great house at act against their inclinations, and may be resisted by the impenitent sinner. 5. Of Perseverance; that God helps the truly faithful to

Wilton, half way between Wilton and Salisbury. remain so, though-and upon this at first opinion among Arminians George Herbert found Charles I. and his Court differed-the regenerate may lose true justifying faith, fall from a with the Earl, at Wilton, when he went there, and state of Grace, and die in their sins. These opinions were, it will be

on the 26th of April, 1630, the Bishop of Salisseen, mainly protests against Calvin's views of Predestination. The Remonstrants were left free to hold their opinions until 1618, when the bury inducted him into his living. George Herbert's States General convoked at Dort a Synod of thirty-eight Dutch and church at Bemerton supplied the needs of a thinlyWalloon divines, five professors from different universities, and

scattered population, though it would perhaps have twenty-one lay elders, with ecclesiastical deputies from most of the States of the United Provinces, and from the churches of the Pala.

been overcrowded by a congregation of fifty. There tinate, Hesse, Switzerland, Bremen, England, and Scotland. The he laboured for not quite three years, marked for Synod of Dort condemned the Arminians, banished their ministers, death by consumption, lodged in a slight hollow of and submitted to trial their ablest defenders, Barnevelt, Grotius, and Hoogarbetz. Barnevelt was executed ; Grotius and Hoogarbetz were

pleasant but over-watered meadow-land, most favourcondemned to perpetual imprisonment. Arminian opinion spread

able to the growth of his disease. The supreme through the Reformed Churches of Europe, and was favoured by beauty of George Herbert's life was in its close at James I. and Charles I. because they looked upon the Calvinistic

Bemerton from the beginning of his ministration Puritans as enemies, and had more trust in a body of Reformers who had parted from them and were persecuted by them. The strict

there in April, 1630, when he was thirty-seven years Calvinist disliked an Arminian almost as much as a Roman Catholic. old, to his death at the age of forty. He was buried Under the Stuarts royal preference of a divine tinged with Arminian under the altar of his church on the 3rd of March, opinions was so marked, that wben Bishop George Morley was asked "what the Arminians held,” his answer was, "All the best bishoprics

1633. According to his wish, no word of inscription and deaneries in England."

marks his resting-place. The little church remains,

When thou dost tell another's jest, therein

Omit the oaths, which true wit cannot need: Pick out of tales the mirth, but not the sin; He pares his apple that will cleanly feed.

20 Play not away the virtue of that Name Which is the best stake when griefs make thee tame.

and is still used for week-day prayers, but near it there has been built a handsome memorial church.

For his own use he set down in a little book his view of the duties of the Country Parson," treating of his knowledge; the parson on Sundays; his praying; his preaching; his charity ; his comforting the sick; his arguing; his condescending; the parson in his journey; the parson in his mirth; the parson with his church wardens; the parson blessing the people. “His chiefest recreation,” says Izaak Walton, “was music, in which heavenly art he was a most excellent master, and composed many divine hymns and anthems, which he set and sung to his lute or viol ; and though he was a lover of retiredness, yet his love to music was such that he went usually twice every week, on certain appointed days, to the cathedral church in Salisbury, and at his

Lie not; but let thy heart be true to God,

Thy mouth to it, thy actions to them both:
Cowards tell lies, and those that fear the roa;
The stormy-working soul spits lies and froth.

Dare to be true: nothing can need a lie ;
A fault, which needs it most, grows two thereby.

The way to make thy son rich is to fill

His mind with rest, before his trunk with riches: 20 For wealth without contentment climbs a hill,

To feel those tempests which fly over ditches;

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But if thy son can make ten pound his measure, Then all thou addest may be called his treasure.

return would say, 'that his time spent in prayer and cathedral music elevated his soul, and was his heaven upon earth. But before his return thence to Bemerton he would usually sing and play his part at an appointed private music-meeting; and to justify this practice he would often say, 'Religion does not banish mirth, but only moderates and sets rules to it.'” George Herbert's sacred poems, expressing a pure spirit of worship that shone in these last years of his life through all his actions, were published under the title of “The Temple” in 1633, soon after his death. The opening verses, entitled “ The Church Porch," are counsels as to the mind with which the temple should be entered, of which these are a few examples that may serve as an abridgment of the whole :

By all means use sometimes to be alone;

Salute thyself; see what thy soul doth wear;
Dare to look in thy chest, for 'tis thine own,
And tumble up and down what thou find'st there:

Who cannot rest till he good-fellows find,
He breaks up house, turns out of doors his mind. 30

Be sweet to all. Is thy complexion sour?

Then keep such company; make them thy allay;
Get a sharp wife, a servant that will lour:
A stumbler stumbles least in rugged way.

Command thyself in chief. He life's war knows
Whom all his passions follow as he goes.

FROM GEORGE HERBERT'S CHURCH PORCH. Thou whose sweet youth and early hopes inhance

Thy rate and price, and mark thee for a treasure,
Hearken unto a Verser, who may chance
Rhyme thee to good, and make a bait of pleasure:

A verse may find him who a sermon flies,
And turn delight into a sacrifice.

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