guilt and blame, punishments and rewards, and Sussex, where he died in 1684. Robert Leighton plainly rendering a Day of Judgment ridiculous ; was one of the best preachers of his time, if not the and it is evident,” says Cudworth, “ that some have best after Jeremy Taylor died, in the year of the pursued it of late in order to that end." The volume publishing of “ Paradise Lost," 1667. This passage published is a very learned one, in which Cudworth is from a sermon of Leighton's, upon traces the reasonings for and against the existence of God through all ancient philosophies. I quote a

HOPE AMIDST BILLOws. passage, in which, after proposing the three principal Attributes of the Deity, which are, Infinite Good

“I will not be afraid, though ten thousands of the people ness, with Fecundity; Infinite Knowledge and Wis

set themselves against me round about," says David; and

lest you think him singular, in the 46th Psalm it is the joint dom; Infinite Active and Perceptive Power, Cudworth thus expands

voice of the whole Church of God: “We will not fear, though the earth be removed, and though the mountains be

carried into the midst of the sca; though the waters thereof THE IDEA OF GOD.

roar and be troubled; though the mountains shake with the Nevertheless, if we would not only attend to what is barely

swelling thereof. There is a river, the streams whereof shall necessary for a dispute with Atheists, but also consider the

make glad the city of God; the holy place of the tabernacles satisfaction of other free and devout minds, that are hearty

of the Most High. God is in the midst of her; she shall not and sincere lovers of this most admirable and most glorious

be moved." This is the way to be immovable in the midst of Being, we might venture, for their gratification, to propose a

troubles, as a rock amidst the waves. When God is in the yet more full, free, and copious description of the Deity, after

midst of a kingdom or city, He makes it firm as Mount Sion, this manner. God is a being absolutely perfect, unmade,

that cannot be removed. When He is in the midst of the or self-originated, and necessarily existing, that hath an in

soul, though calamities throng about it on all hands and roar finite fecundity in Him, and virtually contains all things; as

like the billows of the sea, yet there is a constant calm also an infinite benignity or overflowing love, uninvidiously

within, such a peace as the world can neither give nor take displaying and communicating itself, together with an im

away. On the other side, what is it but want of lodging partial rectitude or nature of justice : who fully comprehends

God in the soul, and that in His stead the World is in the Himself and the extent of His own fecundity; and therefore

midst of men's hearts, that makes them shake like the leaves all the possibilities of things, their several natures and re

of trees at every blast of danger? What a shame is it, spects, and the best frame or system of the whole: who hath

seeing natural men, by the strength of nature and by help of also infinite active and perceptive power: the fountain of

moral precepts, have attained such undaunted resolution and all things, who made all that could be made, and was fit to

courage against outward changes, that yet they who would be made, producing them according to His own nature (His

pass for Christians, are so soft and fainting, and so sensible essential goodness and wisdom), and therefore according to

of the smallest alterations! The advantage that we have in the best pattern, and in the best manner possible, for the

this regard is infinite. What is the best ground-work of a good of the whole; and in reconciling all the variety and

philosopher's constancy, but as moving sands in comparison contrariety of things in the universe, into one most admirable

of the rock that we may build upon? But the truth is, that and lovely harmony.

either we make no provision of faith for times of trial, or, if Lastly, who contains and upholds all things, and governs

we have any, we neither know the worth nor the use of it, them after the best manner also, and that without any force

but lay it by as a dead unprofitable thing, when we should or violence they be all naturally subject to His authority,

most use and exercise it. Notwithstanding all our frequentand readily obeying His laws. And now we see that God is

ing of God's House and our plausible profession, is it not too such a being, as that if He could be supposed not to be, there

true, that the most of us either do not at all furnish ouris nothing whose existence a good man could possibly more

selves with those spiritual arms that are so needful in the wish or desire.

militant life of a Christian, or we learn not how to handle

them, and are not in readiness for service ?-as was the case of Dr. Cudworth died in 1688, leaving one daughter,

that improvident soldier, whom his commander found mend.

ing some piece of his armour when they were to give battle. who inherited her father's papers, married Sir Francis

It were not amiss, before afflictions overtake us, to try and Masham, and was one of the most cordial friends of

train the mind somewhat by supposing the very worst and John Locke in his latter years.

hardest of them; to say, What if the waves and billows of adversity were swelled and flowing in upon me? could I then believe? God hath said, “I will not fail thee, nor for

sake thee,” with a heap of negations ; “In no wise, I will Robert Leighton, son of the Alexander Leighton who

not." He hath said, When thou passest through the fire suffered cruelly for writing “ Zion's Plea" and " The

and through the water, I will be with thee.” These I know, Looking Glass of the Holy War," was born in 1613,

and can discourse of them; but could I repose and rest upon and educated in Edinburgh. In 1643 he became

them in the day of trial? Put your souls to it. Is there minister of Newbottle, near Edinburgh, then left

any thing or person that you esteem and love exceedingly? the Presbyterian for the Episcopal Church, became

- say, What if I should lose this? Is there some evil that Principal of the University of Edinburgh, and then

is naturally more contrary and terrible to you than many Bishop of Dumblane. The heat of dissension between others ? Spare not to present that to the imagination too, Episcopal and Presbyterian Christians drove Leighton and labour to make Faith master of it beforehand, in case it to London, but he was persuaded to go back as Archbishop of Glasgow. A year's experience of the feuds associated with that office caused him to with

1 Its text is, “Yet the Lord will command His loving-kindness in

the daytime, and in the night His song shall be with me, and my draw finally, and he spent his last years quietly in

prayer unto the God of my life.” (Ps. xlii. 8.)

should befall you; and if the first thought of it scare you, David looks higher than the very kingdom which God look upon it the oftener, till the visage of it become familiar promised him and gave him, when he speaks of “His loving to you, that you start and scare no more at it. Nor is there kindness.” In a word, he resolves to solace himself with the any danger in these thoughts. Troubles cannot be brought assurance of this, though he was stripped of all other comthe nearer by our thus thinking on them, but you may be forts, and to quiet his soul herein, till deliverance should both safer and stronger by breathing and exercising of your come; and when it should come, and whatsoever mercies faith in supposed cases. But if you be so tender-spirited with it, to receive them as fruits and effects of this loving that you cannot look upon calamities so much as in thought kindness; not prizing them so much for themselves, as for or fancy, how would you be able for a real encounter ? No, the impressions of that love which is upon them. And it is surely. But the soul that hath made God his stay can do that image and superscription that both engages and moves both. See it in that notable resolution of the prophet, Hab. him most to pay his tribute of praise. And truly this is everyiii. 17: “Although the fig-tree shall not blossom, neither where David's temper. His frequent distresses and wants shall fruit be in the vines; the labour of the olive shall fail, never excite him so much to desire any particular comfort in and the fields shall yield no meat; the flock shall be cut off the creature, as to entreat the presence and favour of God from the fold, and there shall be no herd in the stalls: yet I Himself. His saddest times are when, to his sense, this favour will rejoice in the Lord, I will joy in the God of my salva- is eclipsed. “In my prosperity I said, I shall not be moved." tion. The Lord is my strength”-and in that saying of And what was his adversity that made him of another mind? David, Ps. xxiii. 4: “ Yea, though I walk through the “Thou didst hide thy face, and I was troubled." This valley of the shadow of death, I will fear no evil, for thou verifies his position in that same psalm, " In thy favour is art with me; thy rod and thy staff, they comfort me." You life.” Thus, in the 63rd Psalm, at the beginning, “ My soul see how faith is as cork to his soul, keeping it from sinking thirsteth for Thee, in a dry land where no water is ;' not for in the deeps of afflictions. Yea, that big word which one' water where there is none, but, “ for Thee, where no water says of his morally just man, is true of the believer : “Though is." Therefore he adds in verse 3, " Thy loving kindness is the very fabric of the world were falling about him, yet better than life.” And all that be truly wise are of this would he stand upright and undaunted in the midst of its mind, and will subscribe to his choice. Let them enjoy this ruins."

loving kindness and prize it, because, whatever befalls them, In this confidence, considered in itself, we may observe (1) their happiness and joy is above the reach of all calamities. the object of it, “ The loving kindness of the Lord;” (2) the Let thern be derided and reproached abroad, yet still this manner or way by which he expects to enjoy it, “The Lord inward persuasion makes them glad and contented; as a rich will command it;" (3) the time, “ In the day." The object; man said, though the people hated and taunted him, yet when “ His loving kindness.” He says not, “ The Lord will com- he came home and looked upon his chests, “ Egomet mihi mand my return to the House of Gud,” or, “will accomplish plaudo domi.”? With how much better reason do believers my deliverance from the heavy oppression and sharp re- bear our external injuries! What inward contentment is proaches of the enemy,” which would have answered more theirs, when they consider themselves as truly enriched with particularly and expressly to his present griefs, but, "will the favour of God! And as this makes them contemn the command His loving kindness.” And the reason of his thus contempts that the world puts upon them, so likewise it expressing himself, I conceive to be two-fold. First, in the breeds in them a neglect and disdain of those poor trifles assurance of this, is necessarily comprised the certainty of all that the world admires. The sum of their desires is, as the other good things. This special favour and benignity of the cynic's was of the sunshine, that the rays of the love of God Lord, doth engage His power and wisdom, both which you may shine constantly upon them. The favourable aspect and know are infinite, to the procurement of every thing truly large proffers of kings and princes would be unwelcome to good for those whom He so favours. Therefore it is, that them, if they should stand betwixt them and the sight of David chooses rather to name the streams of particular

that sun. And truly they have reason. What are the mercies in this their living source and fountain, than to highest things the world affords? What are great honours specify them severally. Nor is it only thus more compendious, and great estates, but great cares and griefs well dressed and but the expression is fuller too, which are the two great ad- coloured over with a show of pleasure, that promise contentvantages of speech. And this I take to be the other reason ment and perform nothing but vexation? That they are not -a man may enjoy great deliverances and many positive satisfying is evident; for the obtaining of much of them doth benefits from the hand of God, and yet have no share in “ His but stretch the appetite, and teach men to desire more. They loving kindness.” How frequently doth God heap riches, are not solid neither. Will not the pains of a gout, of a and honour, and health on those He hates; and the common strangury, or some such malady, to say nothing of the gifts of the mind too, wisdom and learning; yea, the common worst, the pains of a guilty conscience, blast all these delights? gifts of His own Spirit; and give a fair and long day of What relish finds a man in large revenues and stately buildexternal prosperity to those on whom He never vouchsafed the ings, in high preferments and honourable titles, when either least glance of His favourable countenance! Yea, on the his body or his mind is in anguish? And besides the empticontrary, He gives all those specious gifts to them with a ness of all these things, you know they want one main point, secret curse. As He gave a king in wrath to His people, so continuance. But the loving kindness of God hath all He often gives kingdoms in His wrath to kings. Therefore requisites to make the soul happy. “O satisfy us early with

1 Horace, Odes, iii. 3.

" Justum et tenacem propositi virum
Non civium ardor prava jubentium
Non vultus instantis tyranni

Mente quatit solida ...

ut qnidam memoratur Athen's,
Sordidus ac dives, populi contemnere voces
Sic solitus: Populus me sibilat, at mihi plaudo
Ipse domi, simul ac nummos contem; lor in arca."

(Horace, Sat. I., i. 6167.)
(As it is recorded that one among the Athenians, sordid and rich,
was thus used to contemn the voices of the people : The people
hisses me, but at home I applaud myself, and contemplate the
moneys in my chest).

Si fractus illabitur orbis,

Impavidum ferient ruinæ."

Thy goodness or mercy," says Moses, " that we may rejoice and be glad all our days," Ps. xc. 14. There is fulness in that for the vastest desires of the soul—“ satisfy us;" there is solid contentment—that begets true joy and gladness; and there is permanency—"all our days.” It is the only comfort of this life, and the assurance of a better.

John Dryden—in whose mind, with a bias towards authority, opinion tended towards Absolutism in the State and Catholicism in the Church in accordance with his natural bent, became avowedly a Roman Catholic in James II.'s reign. Already, in November, 1682, his point of view was Roman Catholic, when his “Religio Laici” closed with these lines :

was one of the seven bishops who in May, 1688, protested against a repetition by King James II. of his illegal Declaration of Indulgence. The king ordered it to be read in all places of worship in London on Sunday, the 20th of May, and in the country on the 3rd of June. On the 18th of May, a protest was signed on behalf of a great body of the clergy by William Sancroft, Archbishop of Canterbury, and six bishops, of whom one was Thomas Ken, Bishop of Bath and Wells. Ken, born in 1637, was the son of an attorney. His eldest sister became Izaak Walton's second wife. He lived, when a boy, with Izaak Walton, and was helped in life by George Morley, Bishop of Winchester, Izaak Walton's sonin-law, who died in 1684. Young Thomas Ken went to Winchester School, and thence to Oxford. He was already, as an Oxford student, poet and musician, playing on the lute, viol, and organ. Soon after the Restoration Ken became Rector of Easton Parva, in Essex, and chaplain to Bishop Morley, with whom Izaak Walton and his family were then domesticated. Ken obtained also a fellowship of Winchester College. In 1667, year of the publication of “Paradise Lost," the Bishop of Winchester gave Ken the rectory of Brightstone, in the Isle of Wight, and it was in the Isle of Wight that the Rector of Brightstone wrote the Morning and Evening Hymns for his own use. He sang them himself to his lute, morning and evening.

“ Faith is not built on disquisitions vain;
The things we must believe are few and plain :
But since men will believe more than they ne
And every man will make himself a creed,
In doubtful questions 'tis the safest way
To learn what unsuspected ancients say;
For 'tis not likely we should higher soar
In search of Heaven than all the Church before ;
Nor can we be deceived, unless we see
The Scripture and the Fathers disagree.
If after all they stand suspected still,
(For no man's faith depends upon his will,)
'Tis some relief, that points not clearly known
Without much hazard may be let alone;
And after hearing what our Church can say,
If still our reason runs another way,
That private reason 'tis more just to curb
Than by disputes the public peace disturb.
For points obscure are of small use to learn :
But common quiet is mankind's concern."


There is the natural issue of this reasoning in Dryden's surrender of private judgment in the “Hind and Panther," published in April, 1687, a dialogue between beasts upon the questions of the Churches ; between the milk-white Hind, type of the Church of Rome, and the spotted Panther, type of the Church of England.

“What weight of ancient witness can prevail, If private reason hold the public scale ? But, gracious God, how well dost Thou provide For erring judgments an unerring guide! Thy throne is darkness in the abyss of light, A blaze of glory that forbids the sight. O teach me to believe Thee thus concealed, And search no farther than Thyself revealed; But her alone for my director take, Whom Thou hast promised never to forsake! My thoughtless youth was winged with vain desires ; My manhood, long misled by wandering fires, Followed false lights; and when their glimpse was gone, My pride struck out new sparkles of her own. Such was I, such by nature still I am; Be Thine the glory and be mine the shame! Good life be now my task; my doubts are done; What more could fright my faith than Three in One!”

Thomas Ken. (From a Contemporary Print.)


Awake, my soul! and with the sun,
Thy daily stage of duty run;
Shake off dull sloth, and joyful rise,
To pay thy morning sacrifice.

Thomas Ken, author of one of the most familiar pieces of English sacred verse, the "Evening Hymn,"

Thy precious time misspent, redeem ; Each present day thy last esteem; Improve thy talent with due care, For the great day thyself prepare.

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Praise God, from whom all blessings flow,
Praise him, all creatures here below;
Praise him above, ye heavenly host,
Praise Father, Son, and Holy Ghost.

In 1681, Ken published a "Manual of Prayers for the Scholars of Winchester College.” He was made Bishop of Bath and Wells not many days before the death of Charles II. On the 8th of June, 1688, he was among the seven bishops committed to the Tower for seditious libel. On the 30th of June, the day of the acquittal of the seven bishops, a messenger was sent to invite William of Orange, who landed in Torbay on the 5th of November. William and Mary became King and Queen of England on the 13th of February, 1689. But


All praise to thee, my God, this night,
For all the blessings of the light!
Keep me, o keep me, King of kinys,
Beneath thine own almighty wings.

William Sancroft, Archbishop of Canterbury, and four more of the seven, including Ken, refused to take the oaths of allegiance to the new sovereigns, and, with about four hundred clergymen and members of the university, they were deprived. Ken was housed and cared for by his friend Lord Weymouth, at Longleate House, until his death in 1711. In these latter years he was suffering excruciating pain from chronic disease, and “for many years travelled with his shroud in his portmanteau, as what he often said might be as soon wanted as any other of his habiliments.” During these years of suffering he wrote several poems entitled “ Anodynes,” of which these are two :


Since 'tis God's will, Pain, take your course,
Exert on me your utmost force-
I well God's truth and promise know.
He never sends a woe,
But His supports divine
In due proportion with the affliction join.

Though I am frailest of mankind,
And apt to waver as the wind -
Though me no feeble bruised reed
In weakness can exceed-
My soul on God relies,
And I your fierce, redoubled shocks despise.

have been written in the fourth century by St. Ambrose, for Pentecost. In the year 1100 it was inserted in the office for the consecration of a bishop, and afterwards into that for the ordination of priests. It was retained, as opening part of the same ceremony, in the Lutheran churches. This is Dryden's Paraphrase :

Creator Spirit, by whose aid
The world's foundations first were laid,
Come, visit every pious mind;
Come, pour thy joys on human kind;
From sin and sorrow set us free,
And make Thy temples worthy Thee.
O source of uncreated light,
The Father's promised Paraclete!
Thrice holy fount, thrice holy fire,
Our hearts with heavenly love inspire ;
Come, and Thy sacred unction bring
To sanctify us while we sing.
Plenteous of grace, descend from high,
Rich in Thy sevenfold energy!
Thou strength of His Almighty hand,
Whose power does heaven and earth command;
Proceeding Spirit, our defence,
Who dost the gift of tongues dispense,
And crownst Thy gift with eloquence;
Refine and purge our earthly parts ;
But, oh, inflame and fire our hearts !
Our frailties help, our vice control,
Submit the senses to the soul ;
And when rebellious they are grown,
Then lay Thy hand, and hold them down.
Chase from our minds the infernal fue,
And Peace, the fruit of Love, bestow;
And lest our feet should step astray,
Protect and guide us in the way.
Make us eternal truths receive,
And practise all that we believe :
Give us Thyself, that we may see
The Father and the Son by Thee.
Immortal honour, endless fame,
Attend the Almighty Father's name :
The Saviour Son be glorified,
Who for lost man's redemption died :
And equal adoration be,
Eternal Paraclete, to Thee.

Patient, resigned, and humble wills
Impregnably resist all ills.
My God will guide me by His light,
Give me victorious might:
No pang can me invade
Beneath His wing's propitious shade.


In pity my most tender God
Now takes from me His rod;
And the transporting Ease I feel,
Enkindles in me ardent zeal,
That love, joy, praise, may all combine,
To sing infinity of love divine.

My love, joy, praise, all powers within,
Your heavenly task begin!
My love shall ever keep on wing,
Incessantly shall heaven-ward spring;
Love, the beloved still keeps in mind,
Loves all day long, and will not be confined.



OTHERS.-A.D. 1689 TO A.D. 1714. John DRYDEN remained firm to his principles, and died a Roman Catholic, on May-day of the year 1700. There is a paraphrase by him of the hymn to the Holy Ghost, "Veni, Creator Spiritus," said to

The religious aspect of the Revolution as it was regarded by a leader among the clergy who most favoured it, may be found in “A ThanksgivingSermon for our Deliverance by the Prince of Orange,” preached at Lincoln's Inn Chapel, by Dr. John Tillotson, on the 31st of January, 1689.

John Tillotson (whose great-grandfather had changed the family name from Tilston to Tillotson) was eldest of three sons of a clothier at Sowerby, in Yorkshire, and was born there in 1630. He entered Clare Hall, Cambridge, in 1647, commenced B.A. in 1650, and M.A. in 1654. His tutor had been a Nonconformist who was among those in controversy with Stillingfleet. Writings of Chillingworth had much influence upon his mind, and he had a long personal friendship with Dr. John Wilkins.


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