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CHAPTER XII. FROM THE DEATH OF QUEEN ANNE TO THE FRENCH REVOLUTION.—JOSEPH BUTLER, WHITEFIELD,

WESLEY, SAMUEL Johnson, CoWPER, AND OTHERS. —A.D. 1714 TO A.D. 1789. The “Psalms and Hymns” of Isaac Watts, from died. Young left the office of tutor to the young which quotation was made at the close of the last Lord Burleigh to enjoy the patronage of the Marchapter, were published in the reign of George I. quis Philip, who became, in 1718, Duke of Wharton. During this reign also other men, of whom we In 1719 Young published a Paraphrase of part of have already spoken, laboured still ; but it was not the Book of Job, and in 1725 he began to publish a tine rich in religious thought. Edward Young, his satires upon “ Love of Fame: the Universal whose “ Night Thoughts” were written in the reign Passion.” The fifth of this series of satires was pubof George II., began his career as a religious poet lished in 1727, the sixth in 1728. From the fifth in the reign of George I., and out of this reign satire, addressed to Woman, I take these lines upon we may pass at once, with a short recognition of Young's earlier verses. Edward Young was born

A WOMAN'S BEAUTY. in 1684 at Upham, in Hampshire. His father was a clergyman, who became chaplain to William and

But adoration ! give me something more, Mary, and Dean of Sarum ; but he died in 1705,

Cries Lycé, on the borders of threescore. during his son Edward's boyhood. Young was

Nought treads so silent as the foot of Time; educated at Winchester School, and went in 1703 to

Hence we mistake our autumn for our prime.

'Tis greatly wise to know, before we're told, Oxford, where he was first at New College, and then

The melancholy news, that we grow old. at Corpus, which he left in 1708, on being nomi

Autumnal Lycé carries in her face nated by Archbishop Tenison to a law Fellowship

Memento mori to each public place. at All Souls'. In 1714 he took his degree of B.C.L.

Oh how your beating breast a mistress warms He became Doctor of Civil Law in 1719. His first

Who looks through spectacles to see your charms ! serious poem was in three books, and had for its

While rival undertakers hover round subject the Last Day. It was finished in 1710 and

And with his spade the sexton marks the ground, published in 1713. It was soon followed by a shorter Intent not on her own but other's doom, poem founded on the story of Lady Jane Grey, She plans new conquests, and defrauds the tomb. called “ The Force of Religion, or Vanquished Love," In vain the cock has summond sprites away, which appeared a little while before Queen Anne She walks at noon, and blasts the bloom of day;

Gay rainbow silks her mellow charms infold,

was Francis Atterbury. He had been chaplain to And nought of Lycé but herself is old.

Queen Anne, Dean of Carlisle, and Dean of ChristHer grizzled locks assume a smirking grace,

church, and in 1713 was made Bishop of Rochester And art has levell'd her deep-furrow'd face.

and Dean of Westminster. After the accession of Her strange demand no mortal can approve,

George I. he warmly opposed the Whig government, We'll ask her blessing, but can't ask her love.

and, suspected as a zealous Jacobite of favouring the She grants indeed a lady may decline

Pretender, he was sent to the Tower in August, 1722. (All ladies but herself) at ninety-nine.

In March of the following year he was arraigned Oh how unlike her was the sacred age

before the House of Commons, and in May sentenced Of prudent Portia! Her gray hairs engage,

to deprivation of all his ecclesiastical preferments, and Whose thoughts are suited to her life's decline;

banishment for life. He left England in June, 1723, Virtue's the paint can make the wrinkles shine.

meeting at Calais Bolingbroke, who had then obThat, and that only can old age sustain; Which yet all wish, nor know they wish for pain.

tained leave to return. Atterbury died abroad in 1732. His sermons were published in 1740.

While the spirit of religion suffered much through Then please the best ; and know, for men of sense,

bitterness of controversy on its forms, bold questionYour strongest charms are native innocence. Arts on the mind, like paint upon the face,

ing continued, which looked more and more to the Fright him that's worth your love from your em

innermost life of religion and society. Authority, brace.

especially in France, associated with corruption, lost In simple manners all the secret lies ;

respect; and many earnest men were on their way Be kind and virtuous, you'll be blest and wise.

to doubt whether the whole fabric of civilised society Vain show and noise intoxicate the brain,

were not a helpless complication of untruths, and faith Begin with giddiness and end in pain.

in God Himself a superstition. A wild stream of Affect not empty fame and idle praise,

thought was broadening and rolling on towards a Which all those wretches I describe betrays.

Revolution that would touch the interests of Europe. Your sex's glory 'tis to shine unknown;

The reaction against formalisin and insincerity affected Of all applause, be fondest of your own.

the most vigorous minds, whatever their tendencies Beware the fever of the mind! that thirst

of thought. Pope, who under Queen Anne had With which the age is eminently cursed.

written about writing, and spent wit on the theft of To drink of pleasure but inflames desire,

a lock of hair, after earning money in the reign of And abstinence alone can quench the fire,

George I. by translation of Homer, grew with the Take pain from life and terror from the tomb, time in which he lived, deepened in thought as the Give peace in hand and promise bliss to come.

years passed over him, and under George II. dealt in Moral Essays with the higher duties of life, and in

his “ Essay on Man" sought, in accordance with the When Henry Sacheverell was impeached for his argument of Leibnitz's “Theodicée,” to meet the new two political sermons, preached at Derby and St.

questioning of God's justice in the order of the world.

In 1731 his Epistle to the Earl of Burlington on Paul's, in August and November, 1709, Benjamin Hoadly, rector of St. Peter's-le-Poor, was declared

Taste satirised the misuse of wealth, in that false to have deserved well of the State for advocacy of luxury against which many minds were then rebelthose principles of the Revolution which Sacheverell

ling. It was followed in 1732 by another Moral attacked, and early in the reign of George I. Mr.

Essay—his Epistle to Lord Bathurst on the Use of Hoadly was made Bishop of Bangor. After the

Riches. It was here that Pope paid honour to the Jacobite rising of 1715, the new Bishop of Bangor memory of John Kyrle, of Ross, in Herefordshire

,

who died in 1724, aged eighty-seven, after a life spent wrote a treatise entitled “A Preservative against the Principles and Practices of the Nonjurors in

in bettering that corner of the world in which he Church and State." It was directed against two

lived. His own estate was not large, but he could principles-namely, that only hereditary princes in

achieve much by awakening in those about him a will the direct line can have claim to the throne, and that

to assist his enterprises for the common good. the lay power cannot deprive bishops. This argument was followed, in March, 1717, by a sermon on

HIS NEIGHBOURS' FRIEND. “the Nature of the Kingdom or Church of Christ," But all our praises why should lords engross? preached before the king, upon the text "My king- Rise, honest Muse! and sing the Man of Ross : dom is not of this world,” in which he declared that Pleased Vagal echoes through her winding bounds, no earthly body has right of restriction or inter- And rapid Severn hoarse applause resounds. ference by penalties in matters of faith. From this book and this sermon by Dr. Hoadly, Bishop of 1 Vaga, the Wye. Ross is a town of about 3,000 inhabitants, beauBangor, arose a hot argument known as the “ Ban- tifully placed by the Wye, on the top of a precipice, twelve miles from gorian Controversy.” The Lower House of Con- Hereford. The tall, "heaven-directed spire" of the church, rising vocation lost no time in issuing a "Representation"

from among trees, is seen from afar. John Kyrle, who was born at

Ross in 1637, in a house yet standing, cared for the beauty of the of what it regarded as the dangerous tendency of churchyard and planted elms. It is said that when two of the the Bishop of Bangor's arguments. The bishop who elms were afterwards cut down, by order of a dull churchworden, especially represented the form of opinion on civil

the roots started off vigorous shoots that pierced the wall under.

ground, and came up in the church within the pew that had been and religious policy to which Hoadly opposed himself, Kyrle's.

What blessings Thy free bounty gives,

Let me not cast away;
For God is paid when man receives ;

To enjoy is to obey.

Yet not to earth's contracted span

Thy goodness let me bound,
Or think Thee Lord alone of man,

When thousand worlds are round :

Let not this weak, unknowing hand

Presume Thy bolts to throw, And deal damnation round the land

On each I judge Thy foe.

If I am right, Thy grace impart,

Still in the right to stay ; If I am wrong, oh teach my heart

To find that better way!

Who hung with woods yon mountain's sultry brow?
From the dry rock who bade the waters flow,
Not to the skies in useless columns toss'd,
Or in proud falls magnificently lost,
But clear and artless, pouring through the plain
Health to the sick, and solace to the swain.
Whose causeway parts the vale with shady rows ?
Whose seats the weary traveller repose ?
Who taught that heaven-directed spire to rise ?
“ The Man of Ross,” each lisping babe replies.
Behold the market-place with poor o'erspread!
The Man of Ross divides the weekly bread:
He feeds yon alms-house, neat, but void of state,
Where Age and Want sit smiling at the gate;
Him portion'd maids, apprenticed orphans bless'd,
The young who labour, and the old who rest.
Is any sick ? the Man of Ross relieves,
Prescribes, attends, the medicine makes, and gives.
Is there a'variance ? enter but his door,
Balk'd are the courts, and contest is no more.
Despairing quacks with curses fled the place,
And vile attorneys, now an useless race.

B. Thrice happy man! enabled to pursue
What all so wish, but want the power to do!
Oh say, what sums that generous hand supply?
What mines to swell that boundless charity ?

P. Of debts and taxes, wife and children clear, This man possess'd-five hundred pounds a year. Blush, Grandeur, blush! proud courts, withdraw your

blaze, Ye little stars, hide your diminish'd rays!

B. And what? no monument, inscription, stone ? His race, his form, his name almost unknown ?

P. Who builds a church to God, and not to fame, Will never mark the marble with his name : Go, search it there, where to be born, and die, Of rich and poor makes all the history; Enough, that Virtue fill’d the space between; Proved, by the ends of being, to have been.

Save me alike from foolish pride,

Or impious discontent At aught Thy wisdom has denied

Or aught Thy goodness lent.

Toach me to feel another's woe,

To hide the fault I see; That mercy I to others show,

That mercy show to me.

Mean though I am, not wholly so,

Since quicken'd by Thy breath; Oh lead me, wheresoe'er I go,

Through this day's life or death!

This day, be bread and peace my lot:

All else beneath the sun Thou know'st if best bestow'd or not,

And let Thy will be done.

In the year of the publication of this Essay (1732) Pope published also the first two Epistles of his “Essay on Man;" in the following year the third Epistle of that series, and his Characters of Men. In 1734 followed the fourth Epistle of the " Essay on Man,” and the series was closed in 1738 with

To Thee, whose temple is all space,

Whose altar, earth, sea, skies, One chorus let all Being raise !

All Nature's incense rise!

THE UNIVERSAL PRAYER.

Father of all! in every age,

In every clime adored,
By saint, by savage, and by sage,

Jehovah, Jove, or Lord !
Thou great First Cause, least understood,

Who all my sense confined
To know but this, that Thou art good,

And that myself am blind;
Yet gave me, in this dark estate,

To see the good from ill;
And, binding nature fast in fate,

Left free the human will.

Pope's “Essay on Man" appeared in the years 1732-34, to be completed by the addition of “The Universal Prayer" in 1738. Butler's “ Analogy of Religion, Natural and Revealed, to the Constitution and Course of Nature” was published in 1736, and represents endeavour of a different kind to meet the form of doubt against which the “ Essay on Man" was directed.

Joseph Butler, the son of a Presbyterian tradesman, was born at Wantage in 1692. He was taught for a time by Jeremiah Jones, of Tewkesbury, under whom he had Isaac Watts for a schoolfellow. He was to be trained for the ministry outside the Established Church, but turned to the Church, and entered Oriel College, Oxford. Before he left school, Butler had written remarks on the argument of Dr. Samuel Clarke's first Boyle Lecture. At college he formed a close friendship with Edward Talbot, son of the Bishop of Durham, to whose good offices he was indebted for some of his steps towards advancement in the Church. In 1718 Joseph Butler became

What conscience dictates to be done,

Or warns me not to do; This, teach me more than hell to shun;

That, more than heaven pursue.

preacher at the Rolls, and in 1724 rector of Stan- The Introduction touches on the nature of prohope. In 1726 he gave up his office at the Rolls bability from observations of likeness, and the degrees Chapel, and went to live in his rectory. He next of presumption, opinion, or full conviction which it became chaplain to Lord Chancellor Talbot, and in will necessarily produce in every human mind. “I 1736 Clerk of the Closet to Queen Caroline. This shall not,” Butler sayswas his position when he published his "Analogy," one of the most valued aids to the cause of religion furnished by the Church of England in the I shall not take upon me to say how far the extent, comeighteenth century. Two years afterwards, in 1738, pass, and force of analogical reasoning can be reduced to Joseph Butler was made Bishop of Bristol. He general heads and rules, and the whole be formed into a

system. But though so little in this way has been attempted by those who have treated of our intellectual powers, and the exercise of them, this does not hinder but that we may be, as we unquestionably are, assured that Analogy is of weight, in various degrees, towards determining our judgment and our practice. Nor does it in any wise cease to be of weight in those cases, because persons, either given to dispute, or who require things to be stated with greater exactness than our faculties appear to admit of in practical matters, may find other cases in which 'tis not easy to say whether it be or be not of any weight; or instances of seeming analogies, which are really of none. It is enough to the present purpose to observe that this general way of arguing is evidently natural, just, and conclusive.

For there is no man can make a question but that the sun will rise to-morrow; and be seen, where it is seen at all, in the figure of a circle, and not in that of a square.

Hence, namely, from analogical reasoning, Origen has with singular sagacity observed that “he who believes the Scripture to have proceeded from Him who is the Author of Nature, may well expect to find the same sort of difficulties in it, as are found in the constitution of Nature." And in a like way of reflection it may be added, that he who denies the Scrip

ture to have been from God upon account of these difficulties, JUSEPI BUTLER. (From a Portrait in Dr. Williams's Library.)

may, for the very same reason, deny the world to have been

formed by Him. On the other hand, if there be an Analogy was made also Dean of St. Paul's, in 1746 Clerk of

or likeness between that system of things and dispensation of the Closet to the king, and in 1750 was translated

Providence, which revelation informs us of, and that system to the bishopric of Durham.

He died two years

of things and dispensation of Providence, which experience afterwards.

together with reason informs us of, i.e., the known course of

nature; this is a presumption that they have both the same Joseph Butler's “ Analogy of Religion, Natural

author and cause ; at least, so far as to answer objections and Revealed, to the Constitution and Course of

against the former's being from God, drawn from anything Nature" is dedicated to Lord Chancellor Talbot,

which is analogical or similar to what is in the latter, which and consists of an Introduction and two Parts. A

is acknowledged to be from Him: for an Author of Nature is preliminary Advertisement to the reader thus refers here supposed." to the fashion of thought against which Butler directed his reasoning :

It is just, he says, to argue from known facts to

others that are like them ; “ from that part of the It is come, I know not how, to be taken for granted, by

Divine Government over intelligent creatures which many persons, that Christianity is not so much as a subject

comes under our view, to that larger and more of inquiry; but that it is now at length discovered to be

general government over them which is beyond it; fictitious. And accordingly they treat it as if, in the present

and from what is present to collect what is likely, age, this were an agreed point among all people of discern.

credible, or not incredible, will be hereafter.” Some ment; and nothing remained but to set it up as a principal subject of mirth and ridicule, as it were by way of reprisals,

not attending to what is the fact in the constitution for its having so long interrupted the pleasures of the world.

of nature, idly speculate on what the world might

be had it been framed otherwise than it is. But we On the contrary, thus much, at will be here found, not taken for granted, but proved, that any reasonable man, who

have not faculties for this kind of speculation. We will thoroughly consider the matter, may be as much assured,

are not even judges of “what may be the necessary as he is of his own being, that it is not, however, so clear a

means of raising and conducting one person to the case that there is nothing in it. There is, I think, strong highest perfection and happiness of his nature. Nay, evidence of its truth; but it is certain no one can, upon

even in the little affairs of the present life we find principles of reason, be satisfied of the contrary. And the

men of different educations and ranks are not compractical consequence to be drawn from this is not attended petent judges of the conduct of each other." Let us to by every one who is concerned in it.

turn then, says Butler, to experience,

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