« ForrigeFortsett »
enough water was being used and hence humidification effects were only slight or nil.
15. The Drying Surfaces of the house were those ordinarily present, such as rugs, varnished furniture, clothing, wall paper and varnished woodwork - a 11 of which, as it is well-known, have a most remarkable capacity for absorbing moisture, at least in the first few days of artificial humidification attempts.
When all of these have reached a condition of moisture saturation in general keeping with that of the air, these factors practically cease to be of importance as atmospheric dehydrating agents.
16. Auxiliary heating by Natural Gas applicances was used quite extensively because of the severity of the weather and the shortage of coal, and it early became apparent that the burning of natural gas in a room, in itself, had a marked influence on humidity relations, its use being accompanied by a concurrent rise, invariably, in the humidity readings. Therefore, so far as the efficiency of the humidifying device was concerned, only such readings as were made when a minimum amount of, or no, gas-heating accompanied were taken.
hung in each room; (4) an eightinch ordinary electric fan placed in the basement opening of the cool-air inlet at the side of the base of the furnace; (5) a humidifying apparatus connected to the water supply; (6) a pan to catch the overflow from the humidifying apparatus; (7) the city water supply, which ranged betwen 14 and 25 pounds' pressure, as gauged in the basement, and (8) a pocket sling psychrometer with accompanying psychrometric chart and some distilled water (placed in covered tumblers in each room for moistening the wet-bulb thermometer). Other essentials in conducting the experiments were observations as to weather conditions, including official local reports corresponding to the hours when the home readings were made, notations as to the number of persons present, and the presence or absence of temporary disturbing factors.
Summary of Experimental
Findings. Tables showing the results of the experiments are omitted because of lack of space, but the following summaries give the essential facts of each table:
Summary of Devices Used.
It will be seen that the total number of devices used in these air-conditioning experiments in the abode in question (in addition to the building construction with the amounts of insulation and air leakage indicated) were (1) an ordinary, hot-air furnace,
furnace, coal heated; (2) gas-grates, gas-stoves, and one overhead gas-heating plate - all burning natural gas; (3) standardized thermometers,
A. EXPERIMENTS IN ROOMS HEATED BY
DIRECT Gas-HEATING APPLIANCES
(GRATES, STOVES AND PLATES). In 24 experimental readings made in "comfortable living rooms”, the experiments made on 13 different days (between January 10 and February 17) with outdoor temperature ranging from 0° to 38° F. and outdoor relative humidities ranging from 63 per cent to 91 per cent and wind velocities from four to twentysix miles per hour, it was found that the relative humidities within the rooms ranged from 37 per cent to 68 per cent (all but four scattered readings falling between 40 per cent and 55 per cent, While this does not constitute an ideal condition (60 per cent relative humid
ity), it conforms to the conditions which are usually laid down as practical of obtainment. It would, therefore, seem that no artificial humidification is needed in rooms thus heated (direct heating by grates, stoves and heating plates burning natural gas in the air of the rooms). B. EXPERIMENTS with Hor-AIR FUR
tween January 13 and February 5) with outdoor temperatures ranging from -2° to 24° F. and outdoor relative humidities ranging from 56 percent to 91 percent and wind velocities from three to twenty-nine miles per hour, it was found that the relative humidities within the rooms ranged from 29 per cent to 58 per cent (all but seven scattered readings—the lowest of these 29 percenfalling between 38 percent and 58 percent. This is, for practical purposes, the normal condition desired. This experiment, therefore, shows that it is practical, with only the outlay described, to humidify artificially the average size and type of residence and include proper humidity as an element in the "comfortable living rooms". E. EXPERIMENTS
IN ARTIFICIAL HUMIDIFICATION WHERE BOTH HotAIR FURNACE AND DIRECT HEATING
GAS APPLIANCES WERE USED. It is thought advisable to include the four readings which come under this head, as it was sometimes found necessary to augment the heat coming from the furnace by the gas-grates or gasstoves available. This was usually due to the fact that the furnace had been allowed to cool down inadvertently. The four experimental readings were made in "comfortable living rooms”, on four different days (between January 13 and February 2), with outdoor temperatures ranging from 14 to 22° F., with outdoor relative humidities ranging from 66 percent to 90 per cent and wind velocities from 10 to 13 miles per hour. It was found that the relative humidities within the rooms ranged from 41 percent to 46 percent—the "normal” condition. These readings serve to show again how readily the burning of natural gas in the atmosphere of the room increases or maintains an atmospheric humidity. The findings are in line with those obtained in the A group of experiments.
In 10 experimental readings made in "comfortable living rooms” (as regards temperature), made 7 different days (between January 4 and February 4) in which heating was by the ordinary hot-air furnace, with outdoor temperature ranging from -6° to 16° F., outdoor relative humidities from 63 percent to 87 percent and wind velocities from two to thirty-two miles per hour, it was found that the indoor relative humidities ranged between 15 percent and 50 percent (all but two falling between 15 percent and 39 percent. Hence these experiments bear out the statements made by others that the heating of premises by such indirect methods as the hot-air furnace results in great aridity and shows the necessity for providing for humidification of the heated air. C. EXPERIMENTS
Cool Rooms (597/2° to 35° F.) In 15 experimental readings made on 11 different days in rooms whose temperatures ranged between the limits stated and which were miscellaneously heated (hot-air furnace and gas appliances) with outdoor temperatures ranging from -5° to 30° F., outdoor relative humidities ranging between 56 percent and 95 percent and wind velocities from four to forty miles per hour, the indoor relative humidities ranged between 30 percent and 64 percent, nine falling between 44 percent and 64 percent. These experiments simply show that as temperatures decrease below the point of comfort in living rooms there is some compensation in the fact that the relative humidity increases to an amount which may be equivalent to the ideal (60 per cent). The cold, damp atmosphere resulting, however, is not to be advocated.
Observations and Deductions.
1. The "comfortable living room" atmosphere may be defined
one in which there is (1) a barely perceptible circulation of the air, yet without draft; (2) temperature not depressingly high nor uncomfortably low with heat more or less evenly diffused throughout
the rooms; (3) a degree of humid- type of hot-air furnace and a ity which is neither high enough to humidifying device. be depressing nor low (dry)
3. Unless double windows are enough to be irritating, and (4)
used and outer walls are efficiently the absence of obnoxious gases, as
insulated, there will be an accumuthose escaping from stoves
lation of moisture on the roomgrates and, obviously, dust, smoke
side of these otherwise cold suror disagreeable odors.
faces. Surfaces of the interior of standardize the principal items in the above, and thus be more cer
rooms must approach in temtain of a “healthful” as well as a perature that of the room atmos-. "comfortable" atmosphere: The phere or moisture deposits may air should move at a velocity of occur. In the residence described, about one foot per second; its window panes, only, became movement should be varied in steamed frosted. Unquesdirection; and it need not be over tionably, double windows would 68° F. in temperature, provided have avoided this. However, there the degree of saturation with is no evidence that such condensawater vapor amounts to about 40
tion upon windows or walls beto 50 percent.
come a hazard to the health of 2. In air-conditioning buildings occupants. such as residences the chief prob
4. It was found that a small lems to be considered and con
electric fan turned on for an hour trolled are as follows:
or so three times a day was suffi(1) Movement of the mass of air
cient to "get the heat out of the
furnace", and along with it any to overcome stagnation and stratification (indirect heating, as by the hot-air added humidity. furnace, easily accomplishes this while
5. When outside temperatures great improvement can be observed by the added use of the electric fan).
mount above the freezing point (2) Prevention or control of heat (32° F.), at least in the locality in loss from the bulding through the two which these experiments were chief sources: (a) direct filtration of
made, it does not appear that artiheated air outward and ingress of cold
ficial humidification of residential air into the building (these air changes take place rapidly about doors, win- atmosphere is necessary. This dows, baseboards, floors, and especially means, therefore, that, on the chimney flue openings) and (b) direct whole, the season making such conduction of heat through walls, win
humidification desirable in this part dow panes and floors (these are usually sufficiently insulated against by proper
of the country is not only briefer building construction, which includes in- than is commonly supposed, but tervening "dead" air spaces).
that during the cold season many (3) Loss of water vapor which may days occur when the outside temhave been added to the air for bringing up the humidity requirements.
perature is above the freezing
point. With the persistence of outIt will be seen, therefore, that side temperature below the freezing the question reduces itself practi- point, indirect heating methods, cally to one of heat and humidity such as the hot-air furnace, procontrol, part of which is duce an excessively drying tenaccomplished by correct building dency, or “dryingness” of the air construction and the balance of which should be corrected, both on which may be secured by the usual account of the damage to fur
niture and decorations as well as of residence?" As the experimenfor health reasons.
ter's observations, which corre6. Heating of rooms by naked spond with those of others, are to (natural) gas flames (grates, the effect that it requires from a stoves, etc.) results in an amount few to twenty or more gallons of of atmospheric humidity which is
water per day (depending upon the apparently sufficient (forty per- temperature of the air to be heated cent to sixty percent saturation). and its rate of escape from the It was not determined whether this
building) to get enough water increased humidity comes from the oxidation of hydrogen in the gas
vapor into the air, it is obvious
that some continuously operating or whether it is any more than would result from the presence of
device connected with the water any form of naked fire in the
supply of the building is the most
practical solution. An atomizing room.
device can be made to accomplish 7. Very few precision in
this. struments are needed to measure the quality of a healthful 9.
Observations in a number atmosphere. Some of these the
of experiments bore out the statehouseholder may do away with and
ments of others that when relative rely upon “primary sense impres- humidity mounts to from 45 to sion” and “comfortable room tem- 60 percent, "room comfort" beperature" as guides. No doubt a comes “O. K,” even when therlittle increased watchfulness, or in- mometers about the rooms record crease in the acuity of the senses, as low as 60° F. While this indiis necessary and may be cultivated. cates that a lower temperature
8. The effectiveness of any than is customary is comfortable humidifying device is a very rela- under properly humidified air contive matter. Much depends upon
ditions, it does not mean that any the control of the heat-loss and less "heating", i. e., consumption moisture-loss through filtration of coal, is taking place, since the leaks, direct conduction and eva
heat is simply being used at the poration. It is conceivable that in furnace to evaporate the moisture quarters insulated against such which comes in contact with the losses, any humidifying device, in heated air and the furnace box. time, would succeed in completely
It does, however, render the living saturating the atmosphere with atmosphere more healthful and moisture. Under these conditions, comfortable since it does away for example, the moisture which a with the necessity of excessive mouse exhales with each breath heating (70° to 80° F.) in order would in time humidify to satura
to feel comfortable on cold days. tion a large auditorium. Hence The cost in fuel is probably about the question of the efficacy of
the same. humidifying devices appears to 10. The apparatus needed to be: "What will supply enough bring about "proper air conditions" ” moisture in a few hours' time to by the householder is (I) a hotbring about a relative humidity of air furnace of ordinary type and from forty percent to sixty percent an arrangement for air circulation in spite of the chances for losses in the rooms and back to the which exist in the ordinary place furnace (this return being accomplished either by registers between floors or by loose door and flooi constructions, or by leaving stairway doors ajar); (2) a humidifying device, costing about twentyfive dollars, with from three lollars to five dollars additional cost for its installation, the same to be connected to the hot-air furnace, (3) a small portable electric fan, costing about
about ten dollars — the same one used in the summer season for cooling and ventilation; (4) a couple of thermometers
costing about one dollar each, and (5) a hygrometer or psychrometer, costing from four to ten dollars. The cost of the amount of water used is insignificant, while the cost of electricity amounts to a few cents a day at the most (the use of the fan for four to six hours). The time necessary for regulating the humidifier and the fan should be made to correspond with that of tending to the furnace, at which place all three are under control.
NO CHRISTMAS SEAL CAMPAIGN THIS YEAR; GENERAL
RED CROSS FUNDS SUPPORT TUBERCULOSIS WORK.
No Red Cross Christmas Seal the sale of Red Cross Seals, an campaign will be held this year. amount equal to the gross amount In line with the request of Pres- realized from the 1917 seal sale. ident Wilson and the Council of
The plan of campaign as outlined National Defense that financia!
contemplates close co-operation becampaigns be reduced to the small
tween anti-tuberculosis agencies est possible number, the National
and the Red Cross in an effort to Tuberculosis Association and the
make the Christmas Roll Call uniAmerican Red Cross have joined versally successful. The arrangehands in a membership campaign
ment is distinctly a war measure for the Red Cross, to be known as
and is not to be understood at this the "Christmas Roll Call”. Each
time in any way as a permanent member secured in the Christmas
program. Roll Call will be awarded ten Red Cross seals and be given antituberculosis literature.
The controversy between medTo provide for the development icine and morals is not really conof the anti-tuberculosis campaign troversial if we look at it squarely. without abatement, the War Coun- It is simply a question of utilizing cil of the American Red Cross has
type of public health appropriated to the National machinery. Instead of using the Tuberculosis Association the sum sanitary engineer to drain a swamp of $2,500,000 to finance the tuber- as we do in malaria, we have to culosis work of the country. This use the lawyer and the social money will be distributed by the worker in controlling liquor and National Association to prostitution and other evils. The various state associations and analogy is scientific enough and the through them to their respective public is beginning to see it. local societies and committees. Major William F. Snow, in AmerThis arrangement insures to each ican Journal of Public Health, state and local association, which Vol. VIII, No. 9 (September, last year derived an income from 1918).