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information Both dermal and polimeonard caneers bare besa podard artificially exposed to an irradiated misture of ozone and oraueris carbons. Skin gaiating with ancasic hidrocarburs pnduer som both C57 back and straid-4 mice Skin painting wih alidade Arantzari also produced skin tumors in (5 blac, mice. of more inters and pas more sizniñcance is the finding that palmocars tumers were and in 37 mice after their esposure to an atmoet bere of ozonized maline. In the tumor dereloped in 41 percent order washed air conditions and in pat in polluted air. Results on the C57 black mice under similar erreure ar te ported by Kotin and Faik. The control animals showed a rery low perenne of lung tumors, wbereas over one-third of those erased to polluted air pan duced tumors. Additional biological effects on these nice will be repercei in detail. At the moment it has been noted that the mice bound in a paintai atmosphere sbowed a consistent weight deficit in comparison with the contras
In tbe animal esperiments in which the rarious carcinogenic chemials are used, the target tissue that responds with a malignant cancer growth mar be in the respiratory tract or it may be at another site. In connection with the fact that respiratory tract cancer has been esperimentalls produced by these materials, and the strong current belief that these materials are discharged into the air in larger amounts in recent years as a result of urbanization and industriali. zation, it is noteworthy that recent epidemiological reports have shown that human lung cancer frequency bas been steadily increasing orer manr areas of the world, especially in urbanized industrialized communities. The prissible causal relationship of tobacco smoking to this increase is receiving world-wide attention, as the voluminuous literature on the subject attests. The subject of tobacco smoking and its manifold possible health effects, although inrelring a problem of personal" air pollution, falls outside the prorince of our immediate consideration, except in so far as the smoke produced adds to the pollution of the air breathed by bystanders. Of some importance in connection with tobacco smoking is a recent report suggesting that if cigarette smoking does, in fact, contribute to the increased frequency of human lung cancer, it cannot account for all of that increase ; urban air pollution, it is argued, also contributes to the frequency of the disease. Thus it would appear that in human cancer, as in other disease, we often deal with conditions that have multiple cansation, such as multiplicity being operative both when the disease is considered as a mass human phenomenon and when it occurs in an individual.
The contribution that coexistent disease may play in the derelopment of lung cancer is uncertain. On the one hand, particularly for still active or acute lesions, the host's immunologic defenses may be weakened; on the other, the carcinogen may be better able to make entry into scar tissue. In the case of atmospheric carcinogens, the numerous respiratory irritants that accompany them in community air may promote their biologic activity through both these mechanisms.
Animal experimental work also demonstrates the importance of such biochemical phenomena as synergism and antagonism when applied to the activity of carcinogens. Substances not in themselves carcinogenic, such as croton oil, longchain fatty acids, higher molecular weight paraffins, various aromatic compounds and phenolic derivatives, have been found capable of promoting or reinforcing the action of carcinogens and are classified as cocarcinogens.
The incidence of spontaneous and induced pulmonary tumors in mice is to an unknown degree a factor of their genetic strain, rendering interpretation of results and comparisons between different sets of experiments hazardous. Further complicating extrapolation to human terms, the tumors induced in mice hare been largely adenomas, occasionally adenocarcinomas, and it is not certain that these have any comparative value as far as human cancers are concerned, particularly since it is the epidermoid lung cancer that is usually indicated as bearing a relationship to exogenous influences. The few reported instances of chemically induced epidermoid cancers in mice need to be corroborated by adilitional experiments, and this will require time and diligence.
Putting their findings together, Falk and his associates postulate a disturbing sequence of events: ciliary activity is inhibited by atmospheric pollutants; soot particles carrying hydrocarbons are abnormally deposited and retained in the lungs, the particles are engulfed by phagocytic cells, and the intracellular proteins elute the adsorbed hydrocarbons: conceivably a high local concentration of eluted aromatic hydrocarbons results, faroring the development of lung cancer. Selected References
1. Bailar, J.C., III, King, H., and Mason, M.J.: Cancer Rates and Risks.
USDHEW, PHSP 1148, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.,
1964. 2. Kotin, P., and Falk, H.L.: Atmospheric factors in pathogenesis of lung cancer.
Adv. Cancer Res. 7:475-514, 1963. 3. Nelson, N.: Carcinogenic implications of inhaled pollutants. Arch, Environ.
Health 8: 100-104 (Jan.) 1964. 4. Shimkin, M.B.: Science and Cancer, PHS Pub. No. 1162, USDHEW, National
Cancer Institute, 1964. 5. Dean, G.: Lung cancer in Australia. Med. J. Australia. 49 1003-1006 (June
30) 1962. 6. Kotin, P., and Falk, H.L. : Air pollution and lung cancer. In: Proceedings,
National Conference on Air Pollution, USDHEW, PHS Pub. No. 1022, U.S.
Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1963. 7. Kotin, P., and Falk, H.L.: II. The experimental induction of pulmonary
tumors in strain-A mice after their exposure to an atmosphere of ozonized
gasoline. Cancer 9:910–917 (Sept.-Oct.) 1956. 8. Saffiotti, U. et al.: Experimental studies of the conditions of exposure to
carcinogens for lung cancer induction. J. APCA 15:23–25 (Jan.) 1965. 9. Kotin, P.: Air pollution with cancerigenic substances. Acta Union Inter
nationale Contre le Cancer 19:3–4, 469 471, 1963. 10. Motor Vehicles, Air Pollution and Health. A report from the Surgeon Gen
eral to the U.S. Congress. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare.
June, 1962. 11. Stern, A.C., ed. : Air Pollution, Vol. I, Chapter 9. Academic Press, 1962.
Mr. ROGERS of Florida. Do you feel we are doing enough in providing help for the manpower that will be needed in this area?
Mr. MACKENZIE. We are giving emphasis to this element of our program, Mr. Rogers. In the past several years, we have increased our budget proposals for training of personnel by about threefold and we are doing this in several ways. We are making training grants to a number of universities for training of technical people in this field.
We are supporting fellows in graduate training at other schools and we are conducting short courses within our own laboratory at Cincinnati and from there elsewhere in the field.
Mr. ROGERS of Florida. I visited Cincinnati and was very impressed with what you are doing. As I understand you are sending out teams to areas rather than bringing people to Cincinnati which I would think could be more economical and perhaps reach a wider number of people.
Mr. MacKENZIE. Yes.
Mr. Rogers of Florida. I wanted to ask one more question, Mr. Chairman. As you know, our committee is not inclined to go along with open-ended authorizations. I would think we would want some substantiation of the figures that the Senate has put in their bill, $46 million, $60 million, $80 million, as to how these funds would be used, where they would be planned for and if you could submit that for the record, I think this could be helpful.
Mr. MacKENZIE. Yes, sir.
BACKGROUND MATERIAL RELATING TO PROPOSED ANNUAL APPROPRIATION LIMITA
TIONS FOR FISCAL YEARS 1967, 1968, AND 1969, AS CONTAINED IN S. 3112, AND AIR POLLUTION PROGRAM PROJECTIONS THROUGH PERIOD AUTHORIZED BY H.R. 13199, 1968–72
The Division of Air Pollution of the Public Health Service, Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, in connection with its responsibilities under the Clean Air Act, and in conf mance with Executive Branch requirements, prepares long-range plans, generally for five years ahead, on the basis of its best professional judgments as to what is required to fulfill legal requirements in a manner which will most effectively deal with the air pollution problem.
Accordingly, the table below indicates estimates of the cost of the Federal air pollution program for the years 1967–72. These estimates are professional judgment estimates and do not constitute official estimates for future years approved by the Executive Branch. In addition, there follows an explanation of the more significant goals which the program is attempting to achieve and the major program activities proposed to meet these goals.
AIR POLLUTION PROGRAM, FISCAL YEARS 1967–72 Grants
(a) Research.-Current experience indicates a continuation of and increase in the wide and active interest by universities in air pollution research. The current and projected existence of backlogs of approved but unfunded grant applications has been used as an experience factor in projecting activity levels through 1972. This program will constitute an important resource to carry out much of the research specifically earmarked for attention in the Clean Air Act.
(b) Fellowships.—This program is one phase toward meeting a resource goal of 4,000 additional trained personnel to curtail the current shortage of trained personnel nationally and to meet the increasing demands of expanding State and local control programs.
(c) Training.--Increased emphasis in the university grant program will be placed on curricula to develop trained manpower for expanding State and local regulatory control programs. This activity, as in the case of Fellowships, is aimed at assisting in the development of a university-based training structure which will be instrumental in developing the additional trained manpower needed.
(d) Control program 8.—The goal is an expansion of State and local air pollution regulatory efforts to about 50 percent of the necessary level of activity by 1970 with 100 percent attainable by about 1975. While broadened financial assistance authority, in the form of maintenance or support grants for on-going programs, will be required to meet this goal, good progress has already been made to date through the award of stimulatory control program grants and this progress is expected to continue. It is hoped that the available funds will permit funding of all approved projects. Regional control organizations will be given increased emphasis for assistance.
(c) Survey and demonstration.—These grants are directed toward the dual purpose of: a) permitting a State or locality to assess its problem prior to embarking on a specific control program, or assisting in the design of a control program; and b) demonstrating, in a practical field application, new techniques for control of air pollution. Emphasis is currently being given to the survey grant as a preliminary to regulatory control activity, in line with current build-up of programs. In subsequent years, as initial surveys have been completed, the emphasis will shift to demonstration of control techniques which will be of broad significance nationally. Direct operations
(1) Research.-Major emphasis will be in three areas. First, by 1970 it is planned that there will be developed air quality criteria for all major pollutants known to be harmful to man, plants, and materials. This activity will encompass a review and evaluation of all available data and will include clinical, laboratory, and epidemiological research aimed at developing the data necessary for the air quality criteria. This schedule for criteria is geared to the build-up of State and local regulatory programs, which will be the prime users of the criteria.
The second area of research emphasis is with respect to air pollution caused by automotive vehicle emissions. As a result of authority under the Clean Air Act Amendments, it is estimated that by 1970 hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions from about 25 percent of all motor vehicles will meet Federal standards. The FY 1968 research program will be aimed at improvement in techniques, technical developments to permit extension of controls to include oxides of nitrogen, not now controlled, and further efforts to stimulate the development of fundamentally improved means of vehicle propulsion, from the pollution point of view.
The third area of research emphasis is in the control of oxides of sulfur. Toward the end of meeting our goal of having economically feasible means for control of oxides of sulfur emissions by 1970, work will be undertaken to test promising control techniques on a pilot scale, including construction costs, as part of a research contract, cooperatively with TVA, of pilot-scale control apparatus.
These latter areas of research have been specifically singled out for increased emphasis under the 1965 Amendments to the Act.
(2) Training.-The direct, short-term technical training offered at the Sanitary Engineering Center, Cincinnati, Ohio, is a necessary and valuable complement to the full-time graduate level training which is principally the type of training funded under the Training Grants and Fellowships activities. This activity is presently under severe pressure to meet demands for intensive training of State and local personnel, as part of the expanding regulatory effort nationally. To maximize the training effort, increased emphasis will be placed on field courses, and on training aids which have a "niultiplier effect," such as films and programmed instruction.
Curriculum emphasis will be increasingly on those aspects of air pollution most critically needed by personnel engaged in public regulatory control programs.
(3) Technical services.-- The basic goal of this activity is to provide adequate technical consultation and related supporting services to State and local control agencies. A major expansion, related to the build-up of State and local regulatory control programs, is contemplated. A major objective is the development of industrial guides to good practice, for all the signficant industrial processes in the country. This will be of value to industry, but especially as control guides to State and local agencies. The Air Pollution Technical Information Center will be operational by 1968 and will be a national source of technical information.
(4) Enforcement and regulations.-With respect to the Federal automotive regulatory control programs, a 25 percent reduction in pollutant emissions is planned for 1975, with a 40 percent reduction by 1985. These are difficult goals in the face of a rising automobile population, but they are goals which may be considered as "buying time” to permit development and production of "pollutionfree" automobiles. Under the provisions of the Act, the automotive manufacturers will request Federal certification for nearly all models, which will mean a substantial amount of direct Federal testing of vehicles in a Federal laboratory. Such a facility is currently planned and being negotiated for. With the model year 1968 automobiles to be the first ones to be Federally regulated, operations will commence in 1967. 1968 will be the first full year of testing under this program.
With respect to Federal abatement authority, apart from motor vehicles, special emphasis will be given to abatement activity in interstate areas of pollution at the initiative of the Secretary. Over 100 areas have been identified as potential problems areas subject to Federal action under the abatement provisions of the Act. By 1968 the level of enforcement activity will be stepped up to at least double that anticipated for 1967. 1967 will be the first full year in which the international and preventive abatement authorities of the Amendments will be implemented. In 1968, there will be expanded activity, under the preventive abatement authority, with primary emphasis on the prevention of potential polJution from electric power generating plants. The projected build-up of power generating plants, with their high pollution potential, will be a major target for application of the new preventive abatement feature.
This activity also includes the program of prevention and abatement of pollution from Federal facilities. By 1970, a significantly substantial reduction in such pollution is anticipated. In 1968 major activity will be on implementing recently issued Executive Order designed to prevent pollution in new Federal construction, and to abate existing pollution.
(5) Intelligence and surveillance.—This activity, as a direct Federal operation, is a continuing activity designed to provide basic data on pollution trends and to permit detection of emerging problems. The National Air Sampling Network and the Continuing Air Monitoring Program are the key ingredients of this system at present. By 1972, the intelligence and surveillance program will be increasingly characterized as an input receiving and coordinating mechanism for many State and local monitoring systems which will be funded from air pollution control program grants-in-aid.
(6) Review and approval of grants.—This activity is concerned primarily with the legal, administrative, and technical requirements associated with the review, approval, and monitoring of the research grants, the training grants, the fellowships, the control program grants, and the survey and demonstration grant programs. The review and approval program through 1972 is geared to the anticipated levels of the related grant programs through that period.
1 Estimated on the basis of enactment of S. 3112, to include funds for maintenance grants and for required enforcement activities which cannot be funded under existing statutory limitations for 1967.
? Professional judgment estimates, not having official executive branch approval.
Mr. ROGERS of Florida. I am glad to see some emphasis being placed now by the Department and we are going to look to you for increased leadership in the whole area. I think people are very conscious now of the need for pollution control and certainly, I would hope we would have an effort to get greater cooperation from the industry, from the automobile industry, for instance, and with other industry which is contributing to the pollution problem.
Mr. MacKENZIE. May I say that we have had complete and excellent cooperation from the automobile industry in implementing the regulations under title II of the Act.
Mr. Rogers of Florida. That has been my impression and I think it is commendable.
Mr. MacKENZIE. I appreciate personally, Mr. Rogers, the interest of this committee and hope that this will continue.
Mr. ROGERS of Florida. It will.