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Chapels, where Cathedral Service is performed twice a Day, and the other, to the ParishChurch.
The last Church which deserves Attention, is that of St. John's; which is a handsome Gothic Building : But for further Particulars, we refer our Reader to Merton College; to which it seems more connected at present than to the Parish.
There is little left of the Castle except a square Tower, and some broken Walls of immense Thickness.
Near the Castle are the Ruins of the ancient Town-Hall, where, in 1577, was held the Black Allize, when the Lieutenant of the County, eight Esquires and Justices, and almost all the Gentlemen of the grand Jury, died of the poisonous Smell from the Jail. Above One Hundred Scholars, befides Townsmen, were seized with the Distemper, It lafted about a Month, when the Infection ceased. On the Top of the artificial Hill, near the Castle, is an Entry into a large arched Room, formerly used as a Magazine in Time of War.
The UNIVERSITY LIBRARY, usually called the Bodleian, from Sir Thomas Bodley, its principal Founder, is a large, lofty Structure, built of Stone, in the Form of a Roman H, and is said to contain the greatest Number of Books of any Library in Europe, (except that of the Vatican) á Catalogue whereof is printed, in two Folio Volumes.
To give some Account of the Foundation of the public Library from Campden. 'The Ground on
which the Divinity School was built was purchased by the University in the Year 1427, and upon several Contributions that Structure was soon after begun, but intermitted, till, by the Piety of Humphrey Duke of Glocefter, it was carried on and compleated.' This is esteemed a most elegant Piece of Gothic Architecture, surpassing every Thing of the Kind in the University ; being
well proportioned, and finished in the highest Taste; especially its Roof. The fame Duke, over the Divinity School, erected this Library, which he furnished with 129 choice Volumes he procured from Italy; besides which he gave 126 Volumes more in the Year 1440; and in the Year 1443 a much greater Number, besides confider
able Additions at his Death, three Years after :' But these Books have been long fince loft. : In the Year 1997, Sir Thomas Bodley, Knight, repaired the old Library of Humphrey Duke of Glocefter, and in 1599. fitted it for the Reception of Books. An additional Eastern Gallery was begun by him in the Year 1610, and another Gallery, projected by him, was erected afterwards. He furnished the Library with the best Books he could procure from all parts of the World, in Memory of which Benefaction, the Earl of Dorset caused the Bast of Sir Thomas to be erected in the Library
Sir Thomas Bodley died Fan 28. 1612, leaving a considerable Estate in Land and Money for Salaries to the Officers, and keeping the Library in Repair He also left Statutes for the Government of it; which were confirmed in Convocation; and he was declared by the University to be the Founder.
The Earl of Pembroke afterwards, by the Perfuafion of Archbishop Land; gave almost all the Collection of Greek Manuscripts, which Francis Barroccio a Venetian had collected which great Pains and Cost. The Earl reserved 22 of them for his own Ufe, which Cromwell bought, and gave after
and Sir Thomas Roe added another choice Parcel of Greek Manuscripts.
Sir Kenelm Digby also presented a great Number of Manuscripts, which he had gotten in his Travels; and Archbishop Land having fent into the East to buy Oriental Manuscripts, and to the Marts in Germany, procured thirteen hundred large volumes, written in above twenty Languages. By this Bifhop's Inftigation the University added another Building to Duke Humphrey's Library, which
brought it into the Shape of a Roman H, where, besides the Books before mentioned, the excellent Study of the Learned John Selden, of the InnerTemple, London, Esq; is placed. Underneath this additional Side of the Library is the Convocation House; in the Apodyterium of which the ViceChancellor's Court is held. Many other Benefactors have much increased this Library; General Fairfax, afterwards Lord Fairfax ; Dr. Marshall, Rector of Lincoln College ; Dr. Barlow, late Lord Bishop of Lincoln ;-Mr. Saint Amand, and Dr. Rawlinfon's Manuscripts, &c. which, with certain Libraries purchased by the University of Dr. Huntingdon, Mr. Greaves, and Dr. Pocock, have made it the largest University Library in Europe.
In one of Public Schools is the Collection of Greek Marbles, Statues, Bustos, &c. which were many Years at Easton, the Seat of the Earl of Pomfret, and were lately presented to the University by the Countess of Pomfret. They are at present kept there till a proper Building is erected to receive this invaluable Treasure. The Catalogue and Character of them in Dr. Stukeley's Itinerarium Curiosum is as follows:
An entire Column of Marble in two Pieces, fluted, taken from among the Ruins of the Tema ple of Apollo at the Idle of Delos, where many now lie. This is set upon a proper Base and Pedestal made purposely for it. The Capital is unusual, but very beautiful, and seems perfectly to answer that Description which Vitruvius gives us IV. I. of the Origin of the Corinthian Capital from the Conceit of Čallimachus, who was pleased with the Appearance of a Basket covered with a Tile, and luckily set upon the Middle of a Root of Acanthus, or Brank Ursin, which shot up its curled Leaves around it in a delicate and render Manner. Upon it stands a Statue, the upper Part naked. Several broken Statues of Goddesses, naked or in fine Drapery, where the Mind is divided between
the Pleasure of seeing what remains, and the . Grief for what is loft. A great many whole and
broken Statues, Pieces of Balso Relievo, Altars, Urns, Tombs, fr. such as the Destruction of Troy, represented in the Trojan Horse; the Merriment of the Trojans; the Slaughter of Priamus'; Achilles driving his Chariot with He&tor tied to it. There is another Bas-relief of a Battle. A Figure recumbent at Dinner. Two Figures in Proceflion. Four Figures, two with Phrygian Bonnets. Good Pieces of Cornish-work, with Moldings of Ovolos, Bed-moulds, &c. A Tomb, the Husband and
Wife, with the Son between. A Piece of Bacchanalians. The End of a Tomb or Vase. A Mask and revelling Figures. An Horseman and Footman engaging: Most of these Antiquities feem of the highest Greek Times. Two Ægyptian Sphynxes mitred, and two Mufes fitting. A Seahorfe in Bafo. A Capital of a Pillar made of a Horse's Head, with Branches coming out of his Mouth, like those at Persepolis, a Dog's Head on one Angle, and Lion's on the other ; upon it are Busts and Heads; over that is a Portal of a Monumental Stone, with a Woman and two Children. The Tomb of fome Player, with fine Baffos of Masks, the Bufto of the Deceased. Four Geniti. Two Lions devouring Horses, finely
cut. Over it a Priestess by the side of a Temple. Eight round Altars or Pedestals adorned with Bulls Heads, Feftoons, dia. which stand upon
the Piers of the Stairs. Upon and about them are other Antiquities, such as the Bottom Part of
Three Monsters like Dogs devouring three Men. A Receiver for an Urn. Cupid asleep lies upon this. A Tomb. Another Capital of a Horse's Head, foc. Over it a Baffo of Venus riding on a Sea-horse, a Cupid driving a Lion over it. Two Cupids alto relievo. A young Nero, Faunus, &c. . A Tomb of a Boy wrought in Channel-work, his Busto in Baffo upon it. A.' nother Capital from the Temple of Apollo at Deo
los. A Greek Mask. Four Greek Statues very incire, bigger than the Life, of most admirable
Art. They are drest in Matron-like Robes or outer Garments, in most comely Folds; yet cut fo exquisitely, that the Folds of the inner Drapery appear, and the whole Shape of the Body, as if transparent: they cannot be sufficiently commend
ed. - That celebratod Statue of Cicero intire, with his Sudarium in his Right, and a Scroll in hís Left
Hand; the Sight of the Eyes is cut hollow. I could not poflibly excuse myself half a Quarter of an Hour's serious View of this Master-piece, frequently going round it ; where fo much seeming Simplicity of the Carver has called forth all the Fire of that divine. Genius that could make Statues hear, as this Artist has made them speak, and left an eternal Monument of Contention between him and the great Orator. It grieved me to think it should stand a Day longer in the open Air. Another Statue of a more robuft Shape and Workmanship; his Left Hand holds a Scroll, his Right is laid in a passionate Manner upon his Breast. If finewy Muscles denote one that worked on the Anvil, it may possibly be Demofthenes. "The two next that correspond beyond the Fountain, are Scipio Africanus and Afiaticus, in an he
roic Dress. Two Colofla, Fabius Maximus the Cunctator, and Archimedes with a Square in his
Hand. The Tomb of the famous Germanicus, adorned with Carving of Bas-relief. Upon it two admirable Bufts of him and Agrippina bis Wife. Between these upon the Tomb stands an Altar-like Pedestal with a small and ancient Statue of Jupiter fitting. In the Pediment over the Arch is a curious Piece of Marble, whereon is
raised the upper Part of a Man with his Arms and Hands extended, and the Impression like
wise of a Foot. This I suppose the original Standard of the Greek Measure. Upon the Apex of the Pediment is a fine Statue of Apollo, with the Right Arm naked, the other covered with a Man