For England, the positive lesson seems to be the fatuity of withholding, or of not urging on, that universal Manhood-Development and consequent variety and fullness of character, and that political equality, which can alone complete our nationality, and enable it to hold its own amongst Democracies in the coming era.

For Her, also, the negative lesson seems to be that it is especially unstatesmanlike to yoke to the sovereign power another power—the Church,which is in its essence sovereign, and which in conflict with any other sovereignty must destroy or be destroyed. And that, moreover, that or any other corporate power of a certain immobility and closeness of nature, tends to anarchy, is an imperium in imperio, is another “Southern ” exaggeration of the rights of the parts, and against the interests and progress of the whole,– in fact, directly contravenes unity, magnifies forms against spirit, and minor organisations against the national organisation.

That the triumph of oligarchy and privilege over local self-Government resulted in centralisation, but Democracy balances centralisation with Equality, and combines the two for the best national uses, and the maximum national power,

. The battles of the future, whether of peace or war, will be fought and won, not so much by nations that are wielded by the strongest Governments, as by nations that are the more individually complete, by those that best deserve the name of national individualities.”

For England and the world the great lesson seems to be that, on a large scale, Federation is the only mode by which the rights and the progress of the whole and of the parts can be accommodated.

That for building on so vast a scale, the Atoms must be bound together by the adamantine cementof freedom. That nations can only obtain or qualify for freedom by securing its four-fold assertion in School, Press, Church, and Assembly ;-the first and second to educate universally, the third to guard religion against secular taint, or complicity of State craft; the last as the forum and Parliament of the actual People. That thus educated, man must associate for political action. That thus associating, he must win political equality. That a nation of such men is the only true national unity, and is alone. fit to enter with other such nations into those grander combinations of economy, of harmony, and of the progresses and ambitions of Peace, for which the world prepares.

Whilst, therefore, towards Federation is the tendency of Governments, universal manhood suffrage and equality is not only the right of educated Peoples, but the only Factor of Unity, and the Necessity, and the Conservatism, and the Balance of States, Democracy begins with the Individual. It ends only with the world.


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