« ForrigeFortsett »
countries of Transoxiana, Carizme, and Chorasan. The destructive hostilities of Attila and the Huns have long since been elucidated by the example of Zingis and the Moguls; and in this more proper place I shall be content to observe that, from the Caspian to the Indus, they ruined a tract of many hundred miles, which was adorned with the habitations and labours of mankind, and that five centuries have not been sufficient to repair the ravages of four years.
The Mogul emperor encouraged or indulged the fury of his troops; the hope of future possession was lost in the ardour of rapine and slaughter; and the cause of the war ex
asperated their native fierceness by the pretence of justice and [A.D. 1920) revenge. The downfall and death of the sultan Mohammed,
who expired unpitied and alone in a desert island of the Caspian Sea, is a poor atonement for the calamities of which he was
the author. Could the Carizmian empire have been saved by a (Jalal ad- single hero, it would have been saved by his son Gelaleddin,
whose active valour repeatedly checked the Moguls in the career of victory. Retreating, as he fought, to the banks of the Indus, he was oppressed by their innumerable host, till, in the last moment of despair, Gelaleddin spurred his horse into the waves, swam one of the broadest and most rapid rivers of Asia, and extorted the admiration and applause of Zingis himself. It was in this camp that the Mogul emperor yielded with reluctance to the murmurs of his weary and wealthy troops, who sighed for the enjoyment of their native land. Incumbered with the spoils of Asia, he slowly measured back his footsteps, betrayed some pity for the misery of the vanquished, and declared his intention of rebuilding the cities which had been swept away by the tempest of his arms. After he had repassed the Oxus and Jaxartes, he was joined by two generals, whom he had detached with thirty thousand horse, to subdue the western provinces of Persia. They had trampled on the nations which opposed their passage, penetrated through the gates of Derbend, traversed the Volga and the desert, and accomplished the circuit of the Caspian Sea, by an expedition which had never been attempted and has never been repeated. The return of Zingis was signalised by
the overthrow of the rebellious or independent kingdoms of His death, Tartary; and he died in the fulness of years and glory, with
his last breath exhorting and instructing his sons to achieve the conquest of the Chinese empire.
The barem of Zingis was composed of five hundred wives Conquests and concubines; and of his numerous progeny, four sons, illus- Moguls trious by their birth and merit, exercised under their father successors the principal offices of peace and war. Toushi his great A.D. 1927huntsman, Zagatai 29 his judge, Octai his minister, and Tuli his general; and their names and actions are often conspicuous in the history of his conquests. Firmly united for their own and the public interest, the three brothers and their families were content with dependent sceptres; and Octai, by general consent, (Ogotay] was proclaimed Great Khan, or emperor of the Moguls and Tartars. He was succeeded by his son Gayuk, after whose (Kuyuk, death the empire devolved to his cousins, Mangou and Cublai, 1248] the sons of Tuli, and the grandsons of Zingis.30 In the sixtyeight years of his four first successors, the Moguls subdued almost all Asia and a large portion of Europe. Without confining myself to the order of time, without expatiating on the detail of events, I shall present a general picture of the progress of their arms: I. In the East; II. in the South; III. in the West; and, IV. in the North.
I. Before the invasion of Zingis, China was divided into or the two empires or dynasties of the North and South 31; and the empire of difference of origin and interest was smoothed by a general 1234" conformity of laws, language, and national manners. The (The Kin Northern empire, which had been dismembered by Zingis, was Manchu
(Jūji received the realm of Kara-Khitay, and his son Bātū obtained possession of the Xhanate of Kipchak, see below, p. 16.]
23 Zagatai (Chagatāy) gave his name to his dominions of Maurenahar [Ma-warā1-nabr), or Transoxiana (along with part of Kashgar, Balkh, and Ghazna); and the Moguls of Hindostan, who emigrated from that country, are styled Zagatais by the Persians. This certain etymology, and the similar example of Uzbek, Nogai, &c. may warn us not absolutely to reject the derivations of a national, írom a personal, name. (The succession of the Chagatāy Khans of Transoxiana is very uncertain. On this branch see Oliver's monograph, “ The Chaghatai Mughals,” in Journal of Royal Asiatic Society, vol. xx. Cp. the list in Lane-Poole's Mohammadan Dynasties, p. 242.]
30 | Mangū (1251-1257) appointed his brother Khubilāy governor of the southern provinces. On Mangū’s death Khubilāy defeated the attempts of the line of Jūji to recover the chief Khanate, and reigned till 1294. He transferred the royal residence from Karakorum to Peking.)
31 In Marco Polo and the Oriental geographers, the names of Cathay and Mangi distinguish the Northern and Southern empires, which, from A.D. 1234 to 1279, were those of the Great Khan and of the Chinese. The search of Cathay, after China had been found, excited and misled our navigators of the sixteenth century, in their attempts to discover the north-east passage. [Cp. Cathay and the Way Thither : a collection of all minor notices of China previous to the sixteenth century, translated and edited by Col. H. Yule, 2 vols. 1866.]
finally subdued seven years after his death. After the loss of Pekin, the emperor had fixed his residence at Kaifong, a city many leagues in circumference, and which contained, according to the Chinese annals, fourteen hundred thousand families of inhabitants and fugitives. He escaped from thence with only seven horsemen, and made his last stand in a third capital, till at length the hopeless monarch, protesting his innocence and accusing his fortune, ascended a funeral pile, and gave orders that, as soon as he had stabbed himself, the
fire should be kindled by his attendants. The dynasty of the [The south-Song, the native and ancient sovereigns of the whole empire, Brative pire, survived above forty-five years the fall of the Northern usurpers ; dynasty) and the perfect conquest was reserved for the arms of Cublai.
During this interval, the Moguls were often diverted by foreign wars; and, if the Chinese seldom dared to meet their victors in the field, their passive courage presented an endless succession of cities to storm and of millions to slaughter. In the attack and defence of places, the engines of antiquity and the Greek fire were alternately employed; the use of gunpowder, in cannon and bombs, appears as a familiar practice ; 32 and the
sieges were conducted by the Mahometans and Franks, who (Khubilay) had been liberally invited into the service of Cublai. After
passing the great river, the troops and artillery were conveyed along a series of canals, till they invested the royal residence of Hamcheu, or Quinsay, in the country of silk, the most delicious climate of China. The emperor, a defenceless youth, surrendered his person and sceptre ; and, before he was sent in exile into Tartary, he struck nine times the ground with his forehead, to adore in prayer or thanksgiving the mercy of the
Great Khan. Yet the war (it was now styled a rebellion) was Southern still maintained in the southern provinces from Hamcheu to
Canton; and the obstinate remnant of independence and hos
32 I depend on the knowledge and fidelity of the Père Gaubil, who translates the Chinese text of the annals of the Moguls or Yuen (p. 71, 93, 153); but I am ignorant at what time these annals were composed and published. The two uncles of Marco Polo, who served as engineers at the siege of Siengyangfou (1. ii. c. 61, in Ramusio, tom. ii.; see Gaubil, p. 155, 157) must have felt and related the effects of this destructive powder, and their silence is a weighty and almost decisive objection. I entertain a suspicion that the recent discovery was carried from Europe to China by the caravans of the xvth century, and falsely adopted as an old national discovery before the arrival of the Portuguese and Jesuits in the xvith. Yet the Père Gaubil affirms that the use of gunpowder has been known to the Chinese above 1600 years. (For Chinese Annals see Appendix 1.)
tility was transported from the land to the sea. But, when the fleet of the Song was surrounded and oppressed by a superior armament, their last champion leaped into the waves with his infant emperor in his arms. “It is more glorious,” he cried, “to die a prince than to live a slave.” An hundred thousand Chinese imitated his example; and the whole empire, from Tonkin to the great wall, submitted to the dominion of Cublai. His boundless ambition aspired to the conquest of Japan; his fleet was twice shipwrecked ; and the lives of an hundred thousand Moguls and Chinese were sacrificed in the fruitless expedition. But the circumjacent kingdoms, Corea, (Corea Tonkin, Cochinchina, Pegu, Bengal and Thibet, were reduced 1241) in different degrees of tribute and obedience by the effort or terror of his arms. He explored the Indian Ocean with a fleet of a thousand ships; they sailed in sixty-eight days, most probably to the isle of Borneo, under the equinoctial line; and, though they returned not without spoil or glory, the emperor was dissatisfied that the savage king had escaped from their hands.
II. The conquest of Hindostan by the Moguls was reserved of Persia, in a later period for the house of Timour; but that of Iran, or empire of Persia, was achieved by Holagou 33 Khan, the grandson of Zin-liphs, A.D. gis, the brother and lieutenant of the two successive emperors, Mangou and Cublai. I shall not enumerate the crowd of sultans, emirs, and atabeks, whom he trampled into dust; but the extirpation of the Assassins, or Ismaelians 34 of Persia, may be considered as a service to mankind. Among the hills to the south of the Caspian, these odious sectaries had reigned with impunity above an hundred and sixty years; and their prince, or imam, established his lieutenant to lead and govern the colony of
33 [Hūlāgū. His
reign in Persia began in a.d. 1256. His dynasty was called the Khāns, that is " Khāns of the Ils " or tribes (i.e. provincial). Hammer has made them the subject of a book : Geschichte der Ilchane, 1842. The Syriac Life (translated from the Persian) of the Nestorian Patriarch Jabalaha III., throws inter. esting light on the relation of the Il Khans to the surrounding powers. It has been edited in the Latin version by R. Hilgenfeld (Leipzig, 1896). See also J. B. Chabot, Histoire de Mar Jabalaha III. et du moine Rabban Cauma, 1895.]
34 All that can be known of the Assassins of Persia and Syria, is poured from the copious, and even profuse, erudition of M. Falconet, in two Mémoires read before the Academy of Inscriptions (tom. xvii. p. 127-170). [One of the princes Jelal ad-Din Hasan had sent his submission to Chingiz: it was his son Rukn ad-Din who fought with Hūlāgū. On the Assassins see Hammer's History of the Assassins, transl. by 0. C. Wood, 1835.]
Mount Libanus, so famous and formidable in the history of the crusades 35. With the fanaticism of the Koran, the Ismaelians had blended the Indian transmigration and the visions of their own prophets; and it was their first duty to devote their souls and bodies in blind obedience to the vicar of God.
The daggers of his missionaries were felt both in the East and West; the Christians and the Moslems enumerate, and perhaps multiply, the illustrious victims that were sacrificed to the zeal, avarice, or resentment of the old man (as he was corruptly styled) of the mountain. But these daggers, his only arms, were broken by the sword of Holagou, and not a vestige is left of the enemies of mankind, except the word assassin, which, in the most odious sense, has been adopted in the languages of Europe. The extinction of the Abbassides cannot be indifferent to the spectators of their greatness and decline. Since the fall of their Seljukian tyrants, the caliphs had recovered their lawful dominion of Bagdad and the Arabian Irak; but the city was distracted by theological factions, and the commander of the faithful was lost in a harem of seven hundred concubines. The invasion of the Moguls he encountered with feeble arms and haughty embassies. “On the divine decree," said the caliph Mostasem, “is founded the throne of the sons of Abbas: and their foes shall surely be destroyed in this world and in the next. Who is this Holagou that dares to arise against them? If he be desirous of peace, let him instantly depart from the sacred territory, and perhaps he may obtain from our clemency the pardon of his fault.” This presumption was cherished by a perfidious vizir, who assured his master that, even if the barbarians had entered the city, the women and children, from the terraces, would be sufficient to overwhelm them with stones. But, when Holagou touched the phantom, it instantly vanished into smoke. After a siege of two months, Bagdad was stormed and sacked by the Moguls; and their savage commander pronounced the death of the caliph Mostasem, the last of the temporal successors of Mahomet; whose noble kinsmen, of the race of Abbas, had reigned in Asia above five hundred years. What
35 The Ismaelians of Syria, 40,000 assassins, had acquired or founded ten castles in the hills above Tortosa. About the year 1280, they were extirpated by the Mamalukes. (See Guyard, Un grand-Maitre des Assassins, in the Journal asiatique, 1877.]