ever might be the designs of the conqueror, the holy cities of Mecca and Medina 36 were protected by the Arabian desert; but the Moguls spread beyond the Tigris and Euphrates, pillaged Aleppo and Damascus, and threatened to join the Franks in the deliverance of Jerusalem. Egypt was lost, had she been defended only by her feeble offspring; but the Mamalukes had breathed in their infancy the keenness of a Scythian air: equal in valour, superior in discipline, they met the Moguls in many a well-fought field; and drove back the stream of hostility to the eastward of the Euphrates. But it overflowed with resistless violence the kingdoms of Armenia and Anatolia, of which the of Anaformer was possessed by the Christians, and the latter by the 1942-1972 Turks. The sultans of Iconium opposed some resistance to the Mogul arms, till Azzadin sought a refuge among the Greeks of (Izz-al-Din, Constantinople, and his feeble successors, the last of the Sel- 1257) jukian dynasty, were finally extirpated by the khans of Persia. (A.D. 1300]

III. No sooner had Octai subverted the northern empire of of Kipzak. China, than he resolved to visit with his arms the most remote land, Huncountries of the West.37

37 Fifteen hundred thousand Moguls and A.D. 1235 Tartars were inscribed on the military roll; of these the Great Khan selected a third 38 which he entrusted to the command of his nephew Batou, the son of Tuli; 39 who reigned over his father's conquests to the north of the Caspian Sea. After a festival of forty days, Batou set forwards on this great expedition; and such was the speed and ardour of his innumerable squadrons that in less than six years they had measured a line of ninety degrees of longitude, a fourth part of the circumference of the globe. The great rivers of Asia and Europe, the Volga and Kama, the Don and Borysthenes, the Vistula and Danube, they either swam with their horses, or passed on the ice, or


36 A8 & proof of the ignorance of the Chinese in foreign transactions, I must observe that some of their historians extend the conquests of Zingis himself to Medina, the country of Mahomet (Gaubil, p. 42).

57 (On the history of the Mongols in the West and the Golden Horde, see Hammer's Geschichte der goldenen Horde, 1840, and Howorth’s History of the Mongols, part ii. In May, 1334, the Moorish traveller Ibn Batūta visited the camp of Uzbeg Khan of the Golden Horde (Voyages, ed. and transl. Defrémery and Sanguinetti, vol. ii. 1877).]

* (The numbers given in the western sources are mere metaphors for immensity. Cp. Cahun, op. cit., p. 343-344; Strakosch-Grassmann, Der Einfall der Mongolen in Mitteleuropa, p. 182-184. The total number of the Mongols may have been about 100,000.)

39 (Bátū w&s son of Jūji (not of Tuluy).]


traversed in leathern boats, which followed the camp and trans-
ported their waggons and artillery. By the first victories of
Batou,40 the remains of national freedom were eradicated in
the immense plains of Turkestan and Kipzak.“

In his rapid
progress, he overran the kingdoms, as they are now styled, of
Astracan and Cazan; and the troops which he detached towards
Mount Caucasus explored the most secret recesses of Georgia
and Circassia. The civil discord of the great dukes or princes of
Russia betrayed their country to the Tartars. They spread from
Livonia to the Black Sea, and both Moscow and Kiow, the
modern and the ancient capitals, were reduced to ashes: a
temporary ruin, less fatal than the deep and perhaps indelible
mark which a servitude of two hundred years has imprinted on
the character of the Russians. 42 The Tartars ravaged with
equal fury the countries which they hoped to possess and those
which they were hastening to leave. From the permanent con-
quest of Russia, they made a deadly, though transient, inroad
into the heart of Poland and as far as the borders of Germany.
The cities of Lublin and Cracow were obliterated; they ap-

proached the shores of the Baltic; and in the battle of Lignitz, (Battle of they defeated the dukes of Silesia, the Polish palatines, and near Lieg- the great master of the Teutonic order, 43 and filled nine sacks April, A.D. with the right ears of the slain. From Lignitz, the extreme 1241)

point of their western march, they turned aside to the invasion
of Hungary; 44 and the presence or spirit of Batou inspired the

40[Bātū was only nominally the leader. The true commander was Subutai, who
deserves to be remembered among the great generals of the world for the brilliant
campaign of 1241. See Appendix 2.)

41 The Dashte Kipzak (Dasht-i-Kipchāk] or plain of Kipzak, extends on either side of the Volga, in a boundless space towards the Jaik and Borysthenes, and is supposed to contain the primitive name and nation of the Cossacks.

42 (Riazan was taken 21st December, 1237; then Moscow; then Vladimir, the Grand Duke's capital, 7th January, 1238; then the Grand Duke's army was routed, 4th March. Subutai did not go farther north-westward than Torjok; he turned to subdue the Caucasian regions, the valley of the Don and the land of the Kipchaks. This occupied him till the end of 1239. Then he advanced on Kiev, and ruined it, with an exceptional and deliberate malice, which requires some explanation. Kiev was at this time a most prosperous and important centre of commerce with the East. From this time forward Venice had a monopoly of trade with the extreme East. Now the Venetian merchants of the Crimea were on very good terms with the Mongols. It has been plausibly suggested by M. Caban that in the destruction of Kiev the Mongols acted under Venetian influence (op. cit., p. 350).]

43 [And a band of Knights Templar of France.]

4+ [This is not correct. The battle of Liegnitz was gained by the right wing of the Mongol army. The advance into Hungary, under Batū and Subutai, was simul. taneous. See Appendix 2.]

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host of five hundred thousand men: the Carpathian hills could not be long impervious to their divided columns; and their ap- (Defeat of proach had been fondly disbelieved till it was irresistibly felt. battle of The king, Bela the Fourth, assembled the military force of his April

, A.D. counts and bishops; but he had alienated the nation by adopting a vagrant horde of forty thousand families of Comans; and these savage guests were provoked to revolt by the suspicion of treachery and the murder of their prince. The whole country north of the Danube was lost in a day, and depopulated in a summer; and the ruins of cities and churches were overspread with the bones of the natives, who expiated the sins of their Turkish ancestors. An ecclesiastic, who fled from the sack of (Roger of Waradin, describes the calamities which he had seen or suffered ; Wardoin) and the sanguinary rage of sieges and battles is far less atrocious than the treatment of the fugitives, who had been allured from the woods under a promise of peace and pardon, and who were coolly slaughtered as soon as they had performed the labours of the harvest and vintage. In the winter, the Tartars passed the Danube on the ice, and advanced to Gran or Strigonium, a German colony, and the metropolis of the kingdom. Thirty engines were planted against the walls; the ditches were filled with sacks of earth and dead bodies; and, after a promiscuous massacre, three hundred noble matrons were slain in the presence of the khan. Of all the cities and fortresses of Hungary, three alone survived the Tartar invasion, and the unfortunate Bela hid his head among the islands of the Adriatic.

The Latin world was darkened by this cloud of savage hostility; a Russian fugitive carried the alarm to Sweden; and the remote nations of the Baltic and the ocean trembled at the approach of the Tartars,45 whom their fear and ignorance were inclined to separate from the human species. Since the invasion of the Arabs in the eighth century, Europe had never been exposed to a similar calamity; and, if the disciples of Mahomet would have oppressed her religion and liberty, it might be apprehended that the shepherds of Scythia would

45 In the year 1238, the inhabitants of Gothia (Sweden) and Frise were prevented, by their fear of the Tartars, from sending, as usual, their ships to the herring fishery on the coast of England; and, as there was no exportation, forty or fifty of these fish were sold for a shilling (Matthew Paris, p. 396). It is whimsical enough that the orders of a Mogal Khan, who reigned on the borders of China, should have lowered the price of herrings in the English market.


extinguish her cities, her arts, and all the institutions of civil society. The Roman pontiff attempted to appease and convert these invincible pagans by a mission of Franciscan and Dominican friars; but he was astonished by the reply of the khan, that the sons of God and of Zingis were invested with a divine power to subdue or extirpate the nations; and that the Pope would be involved in the universal destruction, unless he visited in person, and as a suppliant, the royal horde. The emperor Frederic the Second embraced a more generous mode of defence; and his letters to the kings of France and England and the princes of Germany represented the common danger, and urged them to arm their vassals in this just and rational crusade.46 The Tartars themselves were awed by the fame and valour of the Franks; the town of Neustadt in Austria was bravely defended against them by fifty knights and twenty crossbows; and they raised the siege on the appearance of a German army. After wasting the adjacent kingdoms of Servia, Bosnia, and Bulgaria, Batou slowly retreated from the Danube to the Volga to enjoy the rewards of victory in the city and palace of Serai, which started at his command from the midst of the desert.47

IV. Even the poor and frozen regions of the north attracted the arms of the Moguls: Sheibani Khan, the brother of the great Batou, led an horde of fifteen thousand families into the wilds of Siberia ; and his descendants reigned at Tobolskoy above three centuries, till the Russian conquest. The spirit of enterprise which pursued the course of the Oby and Yenisei must

Of Siberia,
A.D. 1942,

48 I shall copy his characteristic or flattering epithets of the different countries of Europe: Furens ac fervens ad arma Germania, strenuæ militiæ genetrix et alumna Francia, bellicola et audax Hispania, virtuosa viris et classe munita fertilis Anglia, impetuosis bellatoribus referta Alemannia, navalis Dacia, indomita Italia, pacis ignara Burgundia, inquieta Apulia, cum maris Græci, Adriatici, et Tyrrheni insulis pyraticis et invictis, Creta, Cypro, Sicilia, cum Oceano conterminis insulis et regionibus, cruenta Hybernia, cum agili Walliâ, palustris Scotia, glacialis_Norwegia, suam electam militiam sub vexillo Crucis destinabunt, &c. (Matthew Paris, p. 498).

45 [The news of the death of the Grand Khan Ogotai recalled Bātū and Subutai to the East. The Mongols left Siebenbürgen in summer, 1242, Bulgaria in the following winter. Europe did not deceive itself. It was fully conscious that the Mongols could have extended their conquests if they had chosen. As Roger puts it, they disdained to conquer Germany-Tartari aspernabantur Theutomain expugnare (Miserabile Carmen, in M. G. H. 29, p. 564). On the position of the capital of the Golden Horde, Serai, the chief works are Grigoriev, O miestopolozhenii stolitsy zolotoi Ordy Saraia, 1845; and Brun, O rezidentsii chanov zolotoi Ordy do vremen Dzbanibeka (in the publications of the 3rd Archeological Congress at Kiev), 1878. Brun attempts to show that there were two (old) Serais,-the elder, nearer the Caspian Sea, not far from the village of Selitrian, the later at Tsarev.]


have led to the discovery of the Icy Sea. After brushing away the monstrous fables, of men with dogs' heads and cloven feet, we shall find that, fifteen years after the death of Zingis, the Moguls were informed of the name and manners of the Samoyedes in the neighbourhood of the polar circle, who dwelt in subterraneous huts, and derived their furs and their food from the sole occupation of hunting.48

While China, Syria, and Poland were invaded at the same the suctime by the Moguls and Tartars, the authors of the mighty Zingis, A.D. mischief were content with the knowledge and declaration that their word was the sword of death. Like the first caliphs, the first successors of Zingis seldom appeared in person at the head of their victorious armies. On the banks of the Onon and Selinga, the royal or golden horde exhibited the contrast of simplicity and greatness ; of the roasted sheep and mare's milk which composed their banquets; and of a distribution in one day of five hundred waggons of gold and silver. The ambassadors and princes of Europe and Asia were compelled to undertake this distant and laborious pilgrimage; and the life and reign of the great dukes of Russia, the kings of Gregoria and Armenia, the sultans of Iconium, and the emirs of Persia, were decided by the frown or smile of the Great Khan. The sons and grandsons of Zingis had been accustomed to the pastoral life; but the village of Caracorum 49 was gradually ennobled by their election and residence. A change of manners is implied in the removal of Octai and Mangou from a tent to an house; and their example was imitated by the princes of their family and the great officers of the empire. Instead of the boundless forest, the inclosure of a park afforded the more indolent pleasures of the chase; their new habitations were decorated with painting and sculpture; their superfluous treasures were cast in fountains, and

4 See Carpin's relation in Hakluyt, vol. i. p. 30. The pedigree of the khans of Siberia is given by Abulghazi (part viii. p. 485-495). Have the Russians found no Tartar chronicles at Tobolskoi ?

49 The Map of d'Anville and the Chinese Itineraries (de Guignes, tom. i. p. 57) seem to mark the position of Holin, or Caracorum, about six hundred miles to the north-west of Pekin. The distance between Selinginsky and Pekin is near 2000 Russian versts, between 1300 and 1400 English miles (Bell's Travels, vol. ii. p. 67). (For the situation of Caracorum, at & place still called Kara-Kharam, on the north bank of the Orcbon, see Geographical Magazine for July, 1874, p. 137; Yule's Marco Polo, vol. i. p. 228-229.]

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