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the Ottomans. But, as he practised in the field the exercise Death of of the jerid, Soliman was killed by a fall from his horse; ozon and the aged Orchan wept and expired on the tomb of his § valiant son. But the Greeks had not time to rejoice in the death of their *::::::. enemies; and the Turkish scymetar was wielded with the same pean con.

spirit by Amurath the First, the son of Orchan and the brother ## 1. of Soliman. By the pale and fainting light of the Byzantine too. annals,” we can discern that he subdued without resistance the whole province of Romania or Thrace, from the Hellespont to Mount Haemus and the verge of the capital; and that Hadrianople was chosen for the royal seat of his government and religion in Europe.” Constantinople, whose decline is almost coeval with her foundation, had often, in the lapse of a thousand years, been assaulted by the barbarians of the East and West; but never till this fatal hour had the Greeks been surrounded, both in Asia and Europe, by the arms of the same hostile monarchy. Yet the prudence or generosity of Amurath postponed for a while this easy conquest; and his pride was satisfied with the frequent and humble attendance of the emperor John Palaeologus and his four sons, who followed at his summons the court and camp of the Ottoman prince. He marched against the Sclavonian nations between the Danube and the Adriatic, the Bulgarians, Servians, Bosnians, and Albanians; and these warlike tribes who had so often insulted the majesty of the empire, were repeatedly broken by his destructive inroads. Their countries did not abound either in gold or silver; nor were their rustic hamlets and townships enriched by commerce or decorated by the arts of luxury. But the natives of the soil have been distinguished in every age by their hardiness of mind and body; and they were converted by a prudent institution into the firmest and most faithful supporters

* After the conclusion of Cantacuzene and Gregoras, there follows a dark interval of an hundred years. George Phranza, Michael Ducas, and Laonicus Chalcondyles, all three wrote after the taking of Constantinople.

* [Hadrianople was taken in 1361, Philippopolis in 1362. In the next year (1363) a federate army of the Servians (under Urosh V.), Bosnians and Walachians marched to deliver Hadrianople, but were defeated by a far inferior force on the banks of the Maritza. (Cp. Sad ad-Din, tr. Bratutti, i. p. 91 sqq.) In 1865 Murad established his residence at Hadrianople. In 1373-4 he pressed into Macedonia. In 1375 the Bulgarian prince Shishman became his vassal. In 1385 Sophia was captured. It should be noted that in 1365 Murad made a treaty with the important commercial city of Ragusa.]

vol. vii.-3

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of the Ottoman greatness.” The vizir of Amurath reminded his
sovereign that, according to the Mahometan law, he was entitled
to a fifth part of the spoil and captives; and that the duty might
easily be levied, if vigilant officers were stationed at Gallipoli, to
watch the passage, and to select for his use the stoutest and most
beautiful of the Christian youth. The advice was followed; the
edict was proclaimed; many thousands of the European captives
were educated in religion and arms; and the new militia was
consecrated and named by a celebrated dervish. Standing in
the front of their ranks, he stretched the sleeve of his gown over
the head of the foremost soldier, and his blessing was delivered
in these words: “Let them be called Janizaries (Yengi cheri, or
new soldiers); may their countenance be ever bright ! their hand
victorious ! their sword keen 1 may their spear always hang over
the heads of their enemies; and, wheresoever they go, may they
return with a white face l’” Such was the origin of these
haughty troops, the terror of the nations, and sometimes of the
Sultans themselves. Their valour has declined, their discipline
is relaxed, and their tumultuary array is incapable of contending
with the order and weapons of modern tactics; * but at the time
of their institution, they possessed a decisive superiority in war;
since a regular body of infantry, in constant exercise and pay,
was not maintained by any of the princes of Christendom. The
Janizaries fought with the zeal of proselytes against their idola-
trous countrymen; and in the battle of Cossova the league and
independence of the Sclavonian tribes was finally crushed.” As

*See Cantemir, p. 37-41, with his own large and curious annotations. [The
institution of the Janissaries is here wrongly ascribed to Murad; it belongs to the
reign of Orchan. See above, p. 26, note 67.]
* White and black face are common and proverbial expressions of praise and
reproach in the Turkish language. Hic niger est, hunc tu Romane caveto, was
likewise a Latin sentence.
*[They were abolished (massacred) by the sultan Mahmūd II. in 1826.]
* [Lazarus, the Kral of Servia, won important successes over Ottoman invaders
of Bosnia in 1387. This emboldened the other Slavs of the Balkan peninsula.
Shishman of Bulgaria revolted, and this led to the direct incorporation of Bulgaria
in the Ottoman empire. The Servian Kral, who was the leader of the Slavs in
their struggle to maintain their independence, took the field at the head of a
federate army in spring, 1889. He was supported by the King of Bosnia, the princes
of Croatia, Albania and Chlum (afterwards Herzegovina) and Walachia; and there
were some Bulgarians (who had escaped the wreck of their country) and Hungarian
auxiliaries in his army. The battle was fought, 15th June, on the Kosovo-polje or
Amselfeld (blackbird field) on the banks of the Lab, west of Pristina. The name of
the Servian who stabbed Murad was Milosh Obilić (or Kobilović). See the Turkish
historian Nesri's account of the campaign (Hungarian translation by Thúry in
Török tērténetirók, i. p. 32 sqq.). For the general history of the Slavonic struggles

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the conqueror walked over the field, he observed that the greatest part of the slain consisted of beardless youths; and listened to the flattering reply of his vizir, that age and wisdom would have taught them not to oppose his irresistible arms. But the sword of his Janizaries could not defend him from the dagger of despair; a Servian soldier started from the crowd of dead bodies, and Amurath was pierced in the belly with a mortal wound. The grandson of Othman was mild in his temper, modest in his apparel, and a lover of learning and virtue; but the Moslems were scandalized at his absence from public worship; and he was corrected by the firmness of the mufti, who dared to reject his testimony in a civil cause: a mixture of servitude and freedom not unfrequent in Oriental history.” The character of Bajazet, the son and successor of Amurath, The reign is strongly expressed in his surname of Ilderim or the lightning;#: and he might glory in an epithet which was drawn from the tão fiery energy of his soul and the rapidity of his destructive” march. In the fourteenth year of his reign,” he incessantly moved at the head of his armies, from Boursa to Hadrianople, [Bruss= from the Danube to the Euphrates; and, though he strenu- Prusa) ously laboured for the propagation of the law, he invaded, with impartial ambition, the Christian and Mahometan princes of Europe and Asia. From Angora to Amasia and Erzeroum, the His connorthern regions of Anatolia were reduced to his obedience; oth, he stripped of their hereditary possessions his brother emirs, #." of Ghermian and Caramania, of Aidin and Sarukhan; and after” the conquest of Iconium the ancient kingdom of the Seljukians again revived in the Ottoman dynasty. Nor were the conquests of Bajazet less rapid or important in Europe. No sooner had he imposed a regular form of servitude on the Servians and Bulgarians, than he passed the Danube to seek new enemies

against the Turks see Rački's articles in the Rad (South Slavonic Journal), vols.

* See the life and death of Morad, or Amurath I., in Cantemir (p. 33-45), the 1st book of Chalcondyles, and the Annales Turcici of Leunclavius. According to another story, the sultan was stabbed by a Croat in his tent: and this accident was alleged to Busbequius (Epist. i. p. 98), as an excuse for the unworthy precaution of pinioning, as it were, between two attendants, an ambassador's arms when he is introduced to the royal presence.

*7 The reign of Bajazet I. or Ilderim Bayazid, is contained in Cantemir (p. 46), the iid book of Chalcondyles, and the Annales Turcici. The surname of Ilderim, or lightning, is an example that the conquerors and poets of every age have felt the truth of a system which derives the sublime from the principle of terror.

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