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the Ottomans. But, as he practised in the field the exercise Death of of the jerid, Soliman was killed by a fall from his horse; ozon and the aged Orchan wept and expired on the tomb of his § valiant son. But the Greeks had not time to rejoice in the death of their *::::::. enemies; and the Turkish scymetar was wielded with the same pean con.
spirit by Amurath the First, the son of Orchan and the brother ## 1. of Soliman. By the pale and fainting light of the Byzantine too. annals,” we can discern that he subdued without resistance the whole province of Romania or Thrace, from the Hellespont to Mount Haemus and the verge of the capital; and that Hadrianople was chosen for the royal seat of his government and religion in Europe.” Constantinople, whose decline is almost coeval with her foundation, had often, in the lapse of a thousand years, been assaulted by the barbarians of the East and West; but never till this fatal hour had the Greeks been surrounded, both in Asia and Europe, by the arms of the same hostile monarchy. Yet the prudence or generosity of Amurath postponed for a while this easy conquest; and his pride was satisfied with the frequent and humble attendance of the emperor John Palaeologus and his four sons, who followed at his summons the court and camp of the Ottoman prince. He marched against the Sclavonian nations between the Danube and the Adriatic, the Bulgarians, Servians, Bosnians, and Albanians; and these warlike tribes who had so often insulted the majesty of the empire, were repeatedly broken by his destructive inroads. Their countries did not abound either in gold or silver; nor were their rustic hamlets and townships enriched by commerce or decorated by the arts of luxury. But the natives of the soil have been distinguished in every age by their hardiness of mind and body; and they were converted by a prudent institution into the firmest and most faithful supporters
* After the conclusion of Cantacuzene and Gregoras, there follows a dark interval of an hundred years. George Phranza, Michael Ducas, and Laonicus Chalcondyles, all three wrote after the taking of Constantinople.
* [Hadrianople was taken in 1361, Philippopolis in 1362. In the next year (1363) a federate army of the Servians (under Urosh V.), Bosnians and Walachians marched to deliver Hadrianople, but were defeated by a far inferior force on the banks of the Maritza. (Cp. Sad ad-Din, tr. Bratutti, i. p. 91 sqq.) In 1865 Murad established his residence at Hadrianople. In 1373-4 he pressed into Macedonia. In 1375 the Bulgarian prince Shishman became his vassal. In 1385 Sophia was captured. It should be noted that in 1365 Murad made a treaty with the important commercial city of Ragusa.]
of the Ottoman greatness.” The vizir of Amurath reminded his
*See Cantemir, p. 37-41, with his own large and curious annotations. [The
the conqueror walked over the field, he observed that the greatest part of the slain consisted of beardless youths; and listened to the flattering reply of his vizir, that age and wisdom would have taught them not to oppose his irresistible arms. But the sword of his Janizaries could not defend him from the dagger of despair; a Servian soldier started from the crowd of dead bodies, and Amurath was pierced in the belly with a mortal wound. The grandson of Othman was mild in his temper, modest in his apparel, and a lover of learning and virtue; but the Moslems were scandalized at his absence from public worship; and he was corrected by the firmness of the mufti, who dared to reject his testimony in a civil cause: a mixture of servitude and freedom not unfrequent in Oriental history.” The character of Bajazet, the son and successor of Amurath, The reign is strongly expressed in his surname of Ilderim or the lightning;#: and he might glory in an epithet which was drawn from the tão fiery energy of his soul and the rapidity of his destructive” march. In the fourteenth year of his reign,” he incessantly moved at the head of his armies, from Boursa to Hadrianople, [Bruss= from the Danube to the Euphrates; and, though he strenu- Prusa) ously laboured for the propagation of the law, he invaded, with impartial ambition, the Christian and Mahometan princes of Europe and Asia. From Angora to Amasia and Erzeroum, the His connorthern regions of Anatolia were reduced to his obedience; oth, he stripped of their hereditary possessions his brother emirs, #." of Ghermian and Caramania, of Aidin and Sarukhan; and after” the conquest of Iconium the ancient kingdom of the Seljukians again revived in the Ottoman dynasty. Nor were the conquests of Bajazet less rapid or important in Europe. No sooner had he imposed a regular form of servitude on the Servians and Bulgarians, than he passed the Danube to seek new enemies
against the Turks see Rački's articles in the Rad (South Slavonic Journal), vols.
* See the life and death of Morad, or Amurath I., in Cantemir (p. 33-45), the 1st book of Chalcondyles, and the Annales Turcici of Leunclavius. According to another story, the sultan was stabbed by a Croat in his tent: and this accident was alleged to Busbequius (Epist. i. p. 98), as an excuse for the unworthy precaution of pinioning, as it were, between two attendants, an ambassador's arms when he is introduced to the royal presence.
*7 The reign of Bajazet I. or Ilderim Bayazid, is contained in Cantemir (p. 46), the iid book of Chalcondyles, and the Annales Turcici. The surname of Ilderim, or lightning, is an example that the conquerors and poets of every age have felt the truth of a system which derives the sublime from the principle of terror.