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est son, had formed, at Hadrianople, an intimate and guilty friendship with Sauzes, the son of Amurath; and the two youths conspired against the authority and lives of their parents. The presence of Amurath in Europe soon discovered and dissipated their rash counsels; and, after depriving Sauzes of his sight,” the Ottoman threatened his vassal with the treatment of an accomplice and an enemy, unless he inflicted a similar punishment on his own son. Palaeologus trembled and obeyed; and a cruel precaution involved in the same sentence the childhood and innocence of John, the son of the criminal. But the operation was so mildly, or so unskilfully, performed that the one retained the sight of an eye and the other was afflicted only with the infirmity of squinting. Thus excluded from the succession, the two princes Discord of were confined in the tower of Anema; and the piety of Manuel, the Greeks the second son of the reigning monarch, was rewarded with the gift of the Imperial crown. But at the end of two years the turbulence of the Latins and the levity of the Greeks produced a revolution; and the two emperors were buried in the tower from whence the two prisoners were exalted to the throne. Another period of two years afforded Palaeologus and Manuel the means of escape. It was contrived by the magic or subtlety of a monk, who was alternately named the angel or the devil. They fled to Scutari; their adherents armed in their cause; and the two Byzantine factions displayed the ambition and animosity with which Caesar and Pompey had disputed the empire of the world. The Roman world was now contracted to a corner of Thrace, between the Propontis and the Black Sea, about fifty miles in length and thirty in breadth: a space of ground not more extensive than the lesser principalities of Germany or Italy, if the remains of Constantinople had not still represented the wealth and populousness of a kingdom. To restore the public peace, it was found necessary to divide this fragment of the empire; and, while Palaeologus and Manuel said. 1881) were left in possession of the capital, almost all that lay without the walls was ceded to the blind princes, who fixed their residence at Rhodosto and Selybria.” In the tranquil slum-(Rhaedes.

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ber of royalty, the passions of John Palaeologus survived his rea-toj

* [And beheading him. The prince's name, Saudshi, is given rightly by Chalcondyles: Saúzes, but Ducas and Phrantzes give wrong names.]

”[A confirmation of this treaty by the Patriarch Nilus (1380-8) is published in the Sitzungsberichte of the Vienna Academy, 1851, p. 345.]

The emperor Manuel, A.D. 13911425, 25th July

son and his strength; he deprived his favourite and heir of a
blooming princess of Trebizond; and, while the feeble emperor
laboured to consummate his nuptials, Manuel, with an hundred
of the noblest Greeks, was sent on a peremptory summons to
the Ottoman porte. They served with honour in the wars of
Bajazet; but a plan of fortifying Constantinople excited his
jealousy; he threatened their lives; the new works were in-
stantly demolished; and we shall bestow a praise, perhaps
above the merit of Palaeologus, if we impute this last humilia-
tion as the cause of his death.
The earliest intelligence of that event was communicated to
Manuel, who escaped with speed and secrecy from the palace of
Boursa to the Byzantine throne. Bajazet affected a proud in-
difference at the loss of this valuable pledge; and, while he
pursued his conquests in Europe and Asia, he left the emperor
to struggle with his blind cousin, John of Selybria, who, in eight
years of civil war, asserted his right of primogeniture. At length
the ambition of the victorious sultan pointed to the conquest of
Constantinople; but he listened to the advice of his vizir, who
represented that such an enterprise might unite the powers of
Christendom in a second and more formidable crusade. His

Distress of epistle to the emperor was conceived in these words: “By the

Constantinople, A.D. 13951402

divine clemency, our invincible scymetar has reduced to our obedience almost all Asia, with many and large countries in Europe, excepting only the city of Constantinople; for beyond the walls thou hast nothing left. Resign that city; stipulate thy reward; or tremble for thyself and thy unhappy people at the consequences of a rash refusal.” But his ambassadors were instructed to soften their tone, and to propose a treaty, which was subscribed with submission and gratitude. A truce of ten years was purchased by an annual tribute of thirty thousand crowns of gold; the Greeks deplored the public toleration of the law of Mahomet; and Bajazet enjoyed the glory of establishing a Turkish cadhi and founding a royal mosque in the metropolis of the Eastern church.” Yet this truce was soon violated by the restless sultan. In the cause of the prince of Selybria, the lawful emperor,” an army of Ottomans again threatened Con* Cantemir, p. 50-53. Of the Greeks, Ducas alone (c. 18, 15) acknowledges the Turkish cadhi at Constantinople. Yet even Ducas dissembles the mosque.

*[The Sultan had forced John to come forward as pretender to the throne, extorting a secret promise that he would hand over Constantinople to himself.]

stantinople; and the distress of Manuel implored the protection of the king of France. His plaintive embassy obtained much pity, and some relief; and the conduct of the succour was entrusted to the marshal Boucicault,” whose religious chivalry was inflamed by the desire of revenging his captivity on the infidels.

He sailed with four ships of war from Aiguesmortes to the Lad. 1899)

Hellespont; forced the passage, which was guarded by seventeen Turkish galleys; landed at Constantinople a supply of six hundred men at arms and sixteen hundred archers; and reviewed them in the adjacent plain, without condescending to number or array the multitude of Greeks. By his presence, the blockade was raised both by sea and land; the flying squadrons of Bajazet were driven to a more respectful distance; and several castles in Europe and Asia were stormed by the emperor and the marshal, who fought with equal valour by each other's side. But the Ottomans soon returned with an increase of numbers; and the intrepid Boucicault, after a year's struggle, resolved to evacuate a country which could no longer afford either pay or provisions for his soldiers. The marshal offered to conduct Manuel to the French court, where he might solicit in person a supply of men and money; and advised in the meanwhile that, to extinguish all domestic discord, he should leave his blind competitor on the throne. The proposal was embraced ; the prince of Selybria was introduced to the capital; and such was the public misery that the lot of the exile seemed more fortunate than that of the sovereign. Instead of applauding the success of his vassal, the Turkish sultan claimed the city as his own; and, on the refusal of the emperor John, Constantinople was more closely pressed by the calamities of war and famine. Against such an enemy prayers and resistance were alike unavailing; and the savage would have devoured his prey, if, in the fatal moment, he had not been overthrown by another savage stronger than himself. By the victory of Timour, or Tamerlane, the fall of Constantinople was delayed about fifty years; and this important though accidental service may justly introduce the life and character of the Mogul conqueror.

* Mémoires du hon Messire Jean le Maingre, dit Boucicault, Maréchal de France, partie i. c. 30-35.

Histories of Timour, or Tamerlane

CHAPTER LXV

Elevation of Timowr, or Tamerlane, to the throne of Samar-
cand—His Conquests in Persia, Georgia, Tartary,
Russia, India, Syria, and Amatolia—His Twrkish War
—Defeat and Captivity of Bajazet—Death of Timowr—
Civil War of the Sons of Bajazet—Restoration of the
Turkish Monarchy by Mahomet the First–Siege of
Constantinople by Amwrath the Second

HE conquest and monarchy of the world was the first object of the ambition of TIMOUR. To live in the memory and esteem of future ages was the second wish of his magnanimous spirit. All the civil and military transactions of his reign were diligently recorded in the journals of his secretaries"; the authentic narrative was revised by the persons best informed of each particular transaction; and it is believed in the empire and family of Timour that the monarch himself composed the commentaries * of his life and the institutions”

1 These journals were communicated to Sherefeddin, or Cherefeddin Ali, a native of Yezd, who composed in the Persian language a history of Timour Beg [entitled Zafar Nāma = Book of Victory] which has been translated into French by M. Petis de la Croix (Paris, 1722, in 4 vols. . and has always been my faithful guide. [Translated into English under the title, The History of Timur Beg (in 2 vols.) 1723.] His geography and chronology are wonderfully accurate; and he may be trusted for public facts, though he servilely praises the virtue and fortune of the hero. Timour's attention to procure intelligence from his own and foreign countries may be seen in the Institutions, p. 215, 217, 349, 351. [There is an older Life of Timur, bearing the same title as that of Sheref ad-Din (Book of Victory). It was written by Nizām Shāmi, at the command of Timur himself. The work has never been published, but an edition is promised by Professor E. Denison Ross from a Ms. in the British Museum dated 1434. See note in Skrine and Ross, The Heart of Asia, p. 168.]

* These commentaries are yet unknown in Europe; but Mr. White gives some hope that they may be imported and translated by his friend Major Davy, who had read in the East this “minute and faithful narrative of an interesting and eventful period”. [See Appendix 1.]

* I am ignorant whether the original institution, in the Turkish or Mogul language, be still extant. The Persic version, with an English translation and most valuable index, was published (Oxford, 1783, in 4to) by the joint labours of Major Davy and Mr. White, the Arabic professor. This work has been since translated from the Persic into French (Paris, 1787) by M. Langlès, a learned Orientalist, who has added the Life of Timour and many curious notes.

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PORTRAIT OF A MONGOL, BY SOME CONSIDERED TO REPRESENT TIMUR, FROM A PERSIAN MS. OF THE 16th CENTURY collection of J. P. Morgan, Esq.

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