not think it advisable to attack them here, as this would have cost him much loss; and he was not like Bonaparte, a general, as Kleber said, who spent at the rate of 10,000 men a week. Massena chiefly relied upon the advance of a French army into Alentejo ; but this Lord Wellington had provided against, by preparing lines from the Tagus into Setubal, thus securing the heights of Almada, from which Lisbon might be bombarded. Massena had shewn great ability and judgment in occupying Santarem, or rather he had taken a lesson from his great adversary ; without this measure he could not long have maintained the struggle ; by means of it he was enabled to protract the war during the winter months ; for the position could not be assailed in front without great loss, and on account of the state of the roads, could not be turned during the heavy rains of winter.

Massena kept his position as long as he could ; but on the 14th November, his army broke up, and commenced the retreat ; he made his preparations for it with prudence and skill. Lord Wellington's troops were immediately put in motion ; but, as Massena's intention was not known yet, for a precaution General Picton's division remained at Torres Vedras, while the rest of the army was brought opposite Santarem. Lord Wellington cantoned his troops in such a manner that should the enemy, reinforced, attempt to advance, he could fall back upon the lines, and remain equally ready to grasp any advantages which circumstances might offer. At Lisbon, in spite of the French, almost uniform tranquillity and security prevailed. Measures were adopted for the support of the multitude that had flocked in from the surrounding country, hospitals and other public buildings being allotted for their accommodation. During the remainder of the year no farther occurrence of importance took place ; both armies remained quiet in cantonments, and owing to the carelessness of the inhabitants, the French were much less incommoded by the want of provisions. Massena sent to Napoleon, earnestly demanding reinforcements.

Lord Wellington still met with embarrassments from the Portuguese Government. His utmost efforts failed to call forth the full energie of the state, and excite the sluggish authorities to proper activity. He had received hitherto but a small accession of force from England. But confident in his resources, he effected all that was in his power, and calmly waited the issue. In the preceding spring, while Massena was collecting his forces, he thus wrote to a friend in England :-“ I suppose the people at home think me in a scrape. I do not think so myself ; but if I am, I'll get out of it."

With the same calm feeling did he hear of the overwrought expectations in England when Massena began his retreat; he was prepared for the re-action when they now taxed him with inactivity. He was gratified, however, by the arrival of a fresh body of troops at Lisbon, which he had before solicited in vain.

We must now glance for a moment at the state of matters in Spain. Cadiz had been saved by the vigour and decision of the Duke de Albuquerque, who vigorously superintended its fortifications. He drew a line of contravallation of twenty-five miles, and fortified with care, a city which enjoyed natural advantages. British and Portuguese troops to the number of 6,000, under Sir Thomas Graham, were admitted ; and by his orders incessant labours were carried on to improve the defences. Only

one of the French batteries could cast a few shells into the town. Soult, during the spring, overran Murcia and Granada, establishing his temporary triumph, by the most savage executions. Every patriot, taken in arms, was shot, and his body left on the highway ; but these deeds of blood were amply revenged. If the French, in spite of reinforcements, had no success at Cadiz, they yet gained a number of fortresses, having taken Hostalrich, Las Medas, Lerida, and Mequinenza. Suchet however was compelled to return to the Ebro. The Cortes of Spain, under a new and enlarged constitution, met on the 24th of September, 1810. Some of their measures were liberal, and at another period would have caused much good ; but they showed their jealousy of the executive, by dissolving the Regency, and appointing another, of which General Blake was president.

Many acts of the Cortes were capricious and rash, and though popular at first, they soon lost the favour of the people. They wasted their time in idle or pernicious disputes, neglecting means of defence, while the enemy was at their gates. Lord Wellington's interference was more than once called for, to prevent more hurtful measures from being passed. The Colonies in Spanish America revolted.

About the end of December, Soult advanced into Estramadura at the head of 13,000 men ; driving the Spaniards, under Ballasteros and Mendizabal, before him. Romana's army, which, after the death of its leader, had been detached foz the relief of Badajos, under Mendizabal, was surprised and almost destroyed ; and the city itself disgracefully surrendered, not without suspicion of treachery. By the death of Romana, said Lord Wellington, so the Spanish army have lost their brightest ornament, his country its most upright patriot, and the world the most zealous defender of the cause in which we are engaged ; and I shall always acknowledge with gratitude, the assistance I have received from him, as well by his operations, as by his counsel, since he had been joined with this army."

Massena now perceived that nothing but a retreat could preserve his troops, and his immediate wants rendered it impossible for him to await the result of Soult's operations for his relief. His army was now sickly and dispirited. Having, therefore, gradually removed his sick and wounded to the rear, with his baggage, and almost all his artillery, he retained in the cantonments only the men and horses fit for active duty. He advanced by three routes to the frontier ; and as these converged towards one common centre, he had it in his power to offer battle. On the 6th of March, the British commenced the pursuit, and the French seemed determined to contest their advance at Pombal. Lord Wellington attacked them, drove in the advanced posts, and took 200 prisoners ; but the enemy, after setting fire to the town, fell back on Redinha, where they posted a strong rear-guard.

The march of the British was thus retarded for several hours, and the French baggage and artillery conveyed across the Soure in safety. At Condeixa, they again made a demonstration; as their position was strong, Lord Wellington did not choose to attack them in front ; a flank movement of Picton's division, however, caused them to fall back. The French continued their retreat on the frontier of the road leading to the Ponte de Marcella ; but Lord Wellington's skilful movements prevented them from entering the yet unexhausted counti'y beyond the Mondego, and enabled the British to hold communication with the northern provinces. Yet they were much retarded in the pursuit by the enemy selecting for the line of retreat, a country presenting a succession of admirable defensive positions. Nevertheless, the French rear corps sustained a series of repulses from the advancing columns of the British. On one occasion, part of their troops were pressed so hard in flank, as they were crossing the Ceira, that they were driven back upon the bridge in confusion, many of them being trodden down and drowned, in the darkness and terror. Lord Wellington, however, was now compelled to relax his pursuit, by the scarcity of provisions. The Portuguese troops, destitute of food, required to be supplied from the British stores. A halt was there. fore needed, to give time for the arrival of forage and provisions from the rear. Lord Wellington, meanwhile, followed the enemy with the cavalry and light troops, supported by two divisions. Massena, instead of falling back on Ciudad Rodrigo and Almeida, determined to take up a strong position near Guarda ; which is situated on a steep mountain, commanding the plain. The French, not expecting to be attacked in a situation so strong, had thought the pursuit over, and relaxed in their vigilance ; their consternation, therefore, was great, when they saw five attacking columns simultaneously appear on the different sides of the mountain, and almost at the summit. The mere sight was enough : the French precipitately retreated

without firing a shot, and rushed across the Coa.

Thus driven from Guarda, they resolved to make a last effort to maintain themselves within the frontier. They were strongly posted along the banks of the river ; their right flank at Ruivina, their

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