mense loss. Soult never recovered this false movement; the battle became general along the whole front of the height held by the 4th division; only in one point did the French succeed in establishing themselves upon the British line, and from that they were speedily dislodged. Every regiment of this brave corps charged with the bayonet; and four of them made four different charges. Soult now perceived that no impression could be made upon the allies' front; till he could do so in safety, he sent back his guns to France, and now determined to attempt the relief of Pampeluna, by attacking Sir Rowland Hill, and thus turning the allies' left.

The numerous and superior force which had caused Hill to retire, followed him, and arriving at Ortery on the 29th, brought a strong reinforcement to Soult. The position of the French, Lord Wellington considered, to be one of the strongest and most difficult of access that could be occupied ; but he resolved to attempt it; and as they were manœuvering upon the British left, and endeavouring to turn it, he attacked them on both flanks, and in front, and notwithstanding the extraordinary strength of the post, carried it. In proportion as he gained ground, he sent troops to assist Hill, who was thus enabled to attack in his turn; and Soult, now baffled on all points, began his retreat, which he accomplished in an orderly manner, but with severe loss. The loss of the French in these actions was estimated at 15,000; the British and Portuguese had 862 killed, 5,335 wounded, and 700 missing; the Spaniards, who were only slightly engaged, lost but 204. "The actions of the Pyrenees were remarkable for the extent on which the operations were carried on, the nature and celebrity of the ground, and the importance of the object at

stake. Lord Wellington had never more occasion for all his skill, and that skill was never more eminently displayed; his movements were all well-directed, well-timed, and well-executed; and the superiority of the British and Portuguese armies, generals and men, was never more decisively proved than on this occasion, when the French displayed their utmost talents and exerted their utmost courage.

No sooner had Soult retreated, than preparations were made for the renewal of the siege of St. Sebastian; the stores and besieging train were relanded, and more artillery arrived from England. The garrison had spent the interval in strengthening and adding to their defences. The plan now formed was to lay open the two round towers on each end of the first breach, and connect it with the second, which was to the right; add to it another on the left, and demolish a demi-bastion to the jeft of the whole, by which the approach was flanked. A mortar battery was also erected to annoy the castle across the bay. The siege recommenced on the 24th, and the batteries opened two days after; two unsuccessful sorties were attempted by the garrison, who endeavoured to repair at night the injury done during the day; cleared away the rubbish, and at the point to which the guns were directed, let down large solid beams, to break the force of the shot. On the 29th, the enemy's fire was nearly subdued, and they had lost many men by the spherical case-shot. On the 30th, the breaches seemed practicable, and men were invited to volunteer for the assault-" such men," it was said, "as knew how to show other troops the way to mount a breach." Sir Thomas Graham conducted the operations in person. The column

of attack was composed of the 2nd brigade of the 5th division, commanded by General Robinson, supported by 150 volunteers of the light division, 400 of the 1st, and 200 from the 4th, with the remainder of the 5th as a reserve, the whole under Sir James Leith's direction. About eleven o'clock on the 31st, the advanced parties moved out of the trenches, and the enemy almost instantly sprung two mines, to blow up the wall on the left of the breach, along which the troops moved; but as they were not in very close order, or very near the wall, not above twenty men were crushed by the ruins.

The garrison prepared to make a most formidable resistance, and from two batteries of the castle opened a fire of grape and shells on the columns. The forlorn hope was cut off to a man, the front of the following parties were swept away as by one shot; the breach, when the assailants reached it, was presently covered with their bodies; many as they ascended, were overthrown, by those above them rolling down, and the living, the wounded, and the dead, were hurled down the ruins together. From the Murador and Prince batteries, from the keep of the castle, from the high curtain to the left of the breach, from some ruined houses about 40 yards in front, loop-holed and lined with musketry, a concentrated fire was kept up; a line of intrenchments carried along the nearest parallel walls swept the summit of the breach; and the hornwork flanked and commanded the ascent; almost every possible point was manned.

All that the most determined courage could do, was repeatedly tried in vain by the troops, as they were successively brought forward from the trenches. "Nothing," says Sir Thomas Graham,

"could be more fallacious than the appearance of the breach. Notwithstanding its great extent, there was but one point where it was possible to enter, and that only by single files. All the inside of the wall to the right of the curtain formed a perpendicular scarp of at least 20 feet to the level of the streets, so that the narrow ridge of the curtain itself, formed by the breaching of its end and front, was the only accessible point. During the suspension of the preparations for the siege, the enemy had prepared every means of defence that art could devise, so that great numbers of men were covered by intrenchments and traverses in the hornwork, on the ramparts, and inside of the town opposite the breach, ready to form a most destructive fire of musketry on both flanks of the approach to the top of the narrow ridge of the curtain." No man outlived the attempt to gain the ridge. So severe and continuous a fire was kept up on the way to the breach, that orders were sent to remove the dead and dying, which prevented the progress of the troops. Under these desperate circumstances, Graham adopted the bold resolution of ordering the guns to be turned against the curtain. A heavy fire was immediately opened upon it, passing only a few feet above the heads of our own troops, and kept up with unexampled precision of practice. Meanwhile Snodgrass' Portuguese gallantly forded the Urumea near its mouth, and got possession of the small breach on the river face.

It was determined to renew the attack. Once more the troops were ordered to ascend and brave every hazard to gain the ridge; an attack was also made on the hornwork. Just as the men reached the breach, the fire of the artillery occasioned the explosion of a quantity of cartridges, behind one of

the traverses of the curtain, which threw the French into considerable confusion. The narrow pass was gained and kept; hats were waved from the terre plein of the curtain, the troops rushed forward, and drove the enemy down the steep flight of steps near the great gate leading from the works into the town. At the same time a detachment which occupied the right of the breach, forced the barricades on the top of the narrow line-wall, and entered some houses near it. In many places scaling ladders were needed, before the men could get down. The assailants now effected a lodgment on the summit of the breach, and the troops impetuously pushed forwards. The French dead lay heaped upon each other between a round tower and the right breach. The contest was still continued from barricades in the streets, and musketry from the houses; but between four and five in the afternoon, the French were driven from their last defences into the castle. By this time several parts of the town were on fire, and to add to the horrors of the scene, the vindictive enemy fired shells into it. About three in the afternoon, the day, which had been very sultry, became suddenly cold; the sky was over-cast, and with the blended gloom of the rain and the smoke, gave the appearance of a dusky evening; but the darkness of night was fearfully lighted by the flames of the burning town.

A dreadful storm of thunder, rain, and wind ensued; and man's wrath rendered it more dreadful than the elements. Many officers had fallen, and the few that remained, could not restrain the headlong fury, and license of the men, many of whom, their passions heated by the terrible assault, raged like demons. The spectacle was terrific; for as the garrison of the castle fired down the streets, the

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