over immense armies chiefly organized according to European tactics, had been fully demonstrated a just dread of its invincible character had repressed the reckless ambition and rapacity of the native princes and chieftains, whose predatory wars had laid waste the fairest provinces of India. A general confidence was established, both at home and abroad, in the vigour of our arms, and the extent of our military resources'; while the advantages so rapidly and brilliantly obtained were likely to prove permanent from the happy experience, and the consequent just and general opinion entertained by the natives themselves, of the integrity and mildness

of British sway



Sir Arthur Wellesley's return to England--Elected a mem

ber of the House of Commons-Marriage--Chief Secretary for Ireland-Danish Expedition--Affair at Ki

bardment of Copenhagen-Negociations. Sir Arthur WELLESLEY returned to England in 1805. His success in India sufficiently proved that he was well fitted to serve his country with honour and profit ; in November, therefore, he was appointed to command a brigade in the army of Lord Cathcart, and sailed with it for Hanover. But the battle of Austerlitz rendered it prudent to recall the expedition without any advantage having been gained. On his return, Sir Arthur was appointed to the command of a home district ; and upon the death of Marquis Cornwallis, was made Colonel of the 33rd Regiment, in which he had served for

thirteen years as Lieutenant Colonel. In 1806, he became a member of the House of Commons, having been elected representative for Newport, in the Isle of Wight. In the same year, he married the Hon. Catherine Pakenham, sister to the Earl of Longford

The experience he had acquired by military and civil transactions in India, enabled him to tender beneficial advice to the Government, respecting the affairs of that country. He demonstrated the evil and dangerous consequences of the ministerial project, for transferring negro troops from the West to the East Indies, and replacing them by seapoys ; so as to dispense with the aid of British soldiers. He showed that the plan was not only impracticable, but unjust ; and in doing so, he took care to give due praise to the high character of the English, as well as of the native troops. He likewise took part with much earnestness and good feeling, in the discussions arising from certain motions made py the opposition, respecting his brother's conduct in the Indian government ; and his disposal of its

Even while as yet unpractised in parliamentary proceedings, his speeches displayed that direct and clear reasoning, and enumeration of dates and facts, which have since been so signally manifested.

In April, 1807, he was appointed Chief Secretary for Ireland, and a Privy Councillor under the Duke of Richmond. One of the chief measures introduced by him in the former capacity, was the establishment of a police in the city of Dublin ; which though violently opposed, was at length carried ; and has since proved an important benefit. Several other arrangements of a civil and municipal nature, were likewise adopted at his suggestion.


But his exertions in the military service of his country, were now to be claimed anew. The restless ambition of Napoleon, incessantly directed against the commerce and prosperity of Britain, was bent upon the creation of a power that might rival her upon the seas. In furtherance of his object,-by the establishment of a continental system to place England in a state of blockade, by all the European powers,—he had resolved to close the Baltic ports against our ships. seems to have formed the design of seizing the Danish fleet, probably to make it the basis of a future navy; with which, not only to blockade the ports, but also to be used in the invasion of England. It appeared necessary, therefore, that this formidable weapon of mischief should be taken out of his hands. Yet the measure was harsh, and in ordinary seasons could not justly have been effected. Denmark was then at peace with England, and remained so, till the fatal expedition was seen before her capital ; the only pleas that could be used for this invasion of the Danes, were, political necessities, and selfpreservation. The condition of England,” says Sir Walter Scott,“ was that of an individual, who, threatened by the approach of a superior force of mortal enemies, sees close beside him, and with arms in his hands, one, of whom he had a right to be suspicious, as having co-operated against him on two former occasions ; and who, he has reason to believe, is at the very moment engaged in a similar alliance to his prejudice. The individual, in the case supposed, would certainly be warranted in requiring to know this third party's intention ; nay, in disarming him, if he had strength to do so ; and detaining his weapons, as the best pledge of his neutrality.” On the other hand, the terms proposed, were so humiliating, that no high-spirited sovereign could be expected to submit to them without a struggle. It was in effect to say, “Surrender your ships to us, for you know you cannot defend them against Napoleon, who will use them to our damage ; therefore intrust them to us, and we will hold them in pledge, until a general peace, when we will restore them to you. If you do not give them up peaceably, we will seize tliem by force." Tame indeed must have been the spirit, that would have yielded passively to this ; and it was only when his capital was in flames, and the cries of his subjects rose on high, that the Crown Prince did succumb to it; and give up a contest which prudence and reflection must have shewn, could only be ended by the discomfiture of the weaker party.

The armament, consisting of twenty-seven slips of the line, got ready in secresy, was wisely planned upon a large scale. The troops amounting to 20,000 men, were commanded by Lord Cathcart. Sir Arthur Wellesley was at the head of the reserve. The fleet was under Admiral Gambier ; one division sailed by the Great Belt, in order to blockade Zealand ; the other with the army on board, having arrived in the Sound, prepared for active operations.

In the only combat of any importance, which took place near Kioge, Sir Arthur Wellesley commanded. He attacked a body of Danish troops, which contested the position ; pursued them to a strong entrenchment in their rear ; again driving them from this by assault, he forced into the town, and routed them with considerable loss. This ac. tion accelerated the conclusion of the campaign, by depriving the Governor of Copenhagen of all hopes of assistance from the army.

Although the subject of this memoir was not present during the bombardment of Copenhagen, we cannot refrain from alluding to the gallantry of the Danes, displayed in the defence of their capital. With the army all classes and ranks, the citizens, the students, and the peasantry, united in its defence. Various vigorous, though unsuccessful sorties were made ; for what could these brave, though raw defenders, do against experienced generals and veteran battalions? On the 2nd September the land batteries, with the bomb and mortar vessels, opened their tremendous fire ; which soon appeared to be followed by a general conflagration of the town. The Danish ramparts, citadel,

and crown batteries, replied to this, but their fire speedily slackened. Many of the public edifices were in ruins, and life and property fearfully destroyed ; yet it was not till the 7th, that the unavailing struggle terminated : the Crown Prince could now, without disgrace give up his fleet.

As soon as the Danes showed a disposition to treat, Sir Arthur Wellesley was sent, along with Sir Home Popham and Colonel Murray, to fix the terms of the capitulation. Sir Arthur displayed the same promptitude in diplomacy, as in war ; the terms were discussed, settled, and signed, in one night ; all the demands of our government agreed to ; and the gates of the citadel, capital, and dockyards, were given up to the British.

On his return to England, Major-General Wellesley, having resumed his seat in the House of Commons, was addressed by the Speaker, who returned the thanks of the country to himself, and his brave coadjutors, in the following terms :-“I should be wanting in the full expression of those sentiments which animate this House, and the whole

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