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fatal to the mules and donkeys. Speke and our Tots would have known a tzetze fly had they seen one, and we therefore concluded that their deaths must have been caused by their eating deleterious grasses, for they lived on what they could themselves pick up, having neither corn nor hay. Here are the notes on one case : “30th Dec. '60. — Mule (the last red one) swollen all over the body for the last two days; breathing thickly; discoloured water oozing from the body ; on making incisions, blood and water came freely ; not relieved; half of tail cut off; no blood, only water came; on pressing the body with thumb, the impression remains. Miracle if he recovers ”—which he never did. The donkeys had much more spirit than the mules. We lost only three out of five during the march, though overladen with bundles, pots, and kettles. The wild zebra and donkeys mingled and fraternised by distant neighs.

Some of the daily incidents seemed so strange and interesting to me that I noted them rather fully, and think a few quotations from the Journal now and then may not be unacceptable. Extract: “8th Nov. 260.—Peters reported ill yesterday; teeth clenched, eyes rolling, body rigid, pulse 120; wouldn't speak; had been asleep in the sun. I recommended bleeding. To-day he had ridden the march on a donkey, but could not sit up; had to be lashed to the beast. He now lay on the ground seemingly unconscious, his stomach violently heaving. At 3 P.M. the caravan was under way again. Lashed Peters on the saddle like Mazeppa! Fever still upon me.” “November 9th.* The man is dead,' said the corporal, while we were busy painting. We were all shocked. He had died




calmly without the knowledge of his comrades. I had fever to-day.” “November 10th.—Funeral, 5 A.M. The body sewed up in an American cloth ; carried in a blanket, four Tots with a corner each. The corporal, Speke, and myself formed the procession, the corporal carrying a hatchet and two sword-bayonets to extend the grave if necessary

Found only a grave one foot deep, and partly filled in with grass. Hatchets and bayonets were used, and we got a place large enough. I read the service, and afterwards returned to camp. Sketched a 'Goodæ' tree. Had fever, no ague, but mind wandering; very drowsy; disturbed rest. All the niggers exceedingly jolly—singing, playing bells, horns, drums, &c.”

At our first camping-ground by the coast there was not a drop of water to be seen—a sad calamity! But Bombay, an old traveller, and always ready-witted, relieved the minds of the Tots by telling them that a well would be dug after the camp had settled down a bit, which literally was the case.

While near the Kingani—a true African-looking river, with its tall reed edges—we had abundance of water, but mawkish. It was a white, muddy, sluggish stream 40 to 50 yards across, with steep clay banks 16 feet above the water, and winding so much that no steamer could make its sharp turns. Canoes ferried it. One well, or puddle, a short distance from this river, made our plated spoons quite black, and turned blue test-paper red. In Ugogo the wells were from 11 to 15 feet deep, of bluish clay upon rock, the water nitrous, and nearly the price of beer. Sometimes, when there was no water for thirty miles, a small quantity would be carried in gourds, where, from the shaking and heat,



it soon became nauseous or insipid. Our Zanzibar Seedees have a very polite custom : when they see any one of the camp arriving fagged, done up, and parched with thirst after a long march, one's thoughts perhaps running on displays of fruit in shopwindows, ices, or lapping water in a stream, they run out, like good fellows, to meet you with a drink. Let it be hot, bitter, or black as ditch-water, thirst is allayed; and, on looking to see whence the luxury came, you observe the men standing in a miry pool, like dogs on the 12th of August, while the poor birds, disturbed by the intrusion, wait their turn in the trees overhead.

There is not a plough in the country; a broad hoe answers equally well. Men with small axes cut down the forest; the trees and rubbish are burned; the long-handled iron hoe, chiefly in the hands of the women, turns over the light soil ; and the seed is dropped into a hole made by the woman's toe, and covered up. Manure is seldom used ; six months' fallow would seem to be its substitute. Fields close to villages occasionally get manure, or red clay heaps are spread over the dry, drifting sand-soil of Ugogo. We had no opportunity of seeing the reaping. Copal holes are only found between the coast and the African chain of hills. The country produces chiefly sorghum, bajra, sweet potato, and Indian corn, with tobacco, pumpkins, a small quantity of rice, manioc, ground-nut, and grains mentioned in Appendix to Speke’s book. Mushrooms grow wild, and are eaten considerably. Tomato is not eaten.

Tomato is not eaten. Tamarind, figs, , honey in hollowed logs placed up trees in the forest, rich and good. The chief staff of life is stirabout,

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made from the sorghum, and from this grain they also produce a coarse, intoxicating, thick liquor, tasting like wort. In Ugogo they manufacture small pillars of salt by evaporation, but it is dirty in colour, with a disagreeable bitter taste. Fowls, eggs, and goats were occasionally brought into camp to be bartered for cloth, tobacco, or beads, as there was not a coincopper, silver, or gold—that they would take in exchange for their produce.

We met with no cattle, except those collected for export at the coast, until we had proceeded twenty marches into the interior, at which point, and farther on, we saw a small humped breed, the prevailing colours being white and red—the bulls with large humps and small horns. The goats were of the ordinary short-haired sort, never used as milkers; and sheep, though rarely seen, were of the “doomba” or fatty-tailed variety, the size of a year-old Leicester, costing nine yards cotton stuff. Small bandy-legged brindled dogs followed the Wagogo.

Food was not abundant. As it was the dry season, we had to trust to chance and our rifles. One night our entire dinner consisted of two ears of Indian corn, eaten with salt; nothing besides, neither bread nor rice. Bombay very kindly, in the middle of this repast (which was laid out on our “service” of reversed tin lids placed on the tops of wooden boxes as tables), went and brought a cold grilled chicken, very small, and awkwardly flattened out. Though our hunger prompted us to accept the offer, we declined with many thanks. But, while sitting rather silently over our empty tin covers, he again appeared, having foraged five live chickens—thus securing for us not

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only that night's supper, but food for the next two days. Our supplies of grain frequently ran out in camp, but the sportsman need never starve in the country we passed through ; for although we could not always find large game, there were sparrows, doves, or guinea-fowl to be had; while persons who do not sport may take note of the herbs gathered by the natives, and live upon them at a pinch. The spirit of our men sank, and a deep, gloomy silence hung over camp, when we had no grain, and continuous days of bad sport with our rifles. Not a man would obey orders ; they refused to march, and discipline had to be upheld in several instances by inflicting corporal punishment for the crime of stealing cloth to buy food. One Seedee, a powerful fellow, roared for mercy during the flogging, and disclosed to us who had been his accomplice in the theft. He was therefore excused the third dozen of lashes, and carried away bound, to be expelled from camp next morning.

We foraged zealously for the camp, and succeeded in giving to every one a little meat. The black rhinoceros would rarely charge, even though he saw us

1 standing close to him ; but they always afford considerable excitement by the feints they make, and by their deep hoarse grunt. Their ears were often torn and their tails mutilated, apparently in consequence of their fighting with each other. Our whole camp ate heartily of the rhinoceros; but the flesh, though sweet, requires very sharp teeth. Their young would seem to have great affection. Wounding a large female one night, I next day traced her spoor for four miles, and suddenly came on her squatting like a hare in her form, with her back towards me. There was a great

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