the real heir to uphold the puppet appointed by them in his stead. They had killed 300 natives, seized all their cattle and goats, and lost two Arabs and sixty slaves. A severe defeat occurred while we were there, Snay, the chief Arab, and six others, with followers, being killed. A panic ensued, and Speke was requested to patch up a peace by inviting the rebel Manua Sera into Kazeh to attend a conference. “Once,” they said, “at our mercy, we can murder him !” We were shocked at hearing this, but Moossah assured us that it was no uncommon occurrence with them. The news of their defeat was brought us by a man who may be allowed to tell his own story :-“I was one of five in charge of cattle; the rebel himself killed three of us; and as I never fight, but run, I threw away everything, and saved my life by coming here.” He had a very good sword by him.

“Where did you get that sword ?“Oh! it belongs to an Arab who was killed ; I picked it up."

It seems that Snay was a very brave fellow, who in the midst of every fight whipped his slaves to prevent them from running away; but this time they got dispersed after plunder: he was left unprotected; and being old and too proud to run like his slaves, he fell a victim. After this severe defeat many plans were proposed for affording relief. “ The single cannon must be sent in the morning.” Moossah was tired of assisting them. “The Arabs stick at nothing; they had expended twenty barrels of his gunpowder and lost him five slaves; a beautiful gun of his was lost by his late partner Jaffir in this last fight. Jaffir had just been killed, and yet they still ask for aid !” So with true Indian parsimony he despatched



five slaves to the war, with only ten rounds of wrought-iron bullets each, to fight the powerful rebel chief!

This long-continued war had driven the natives of the country away from the Arab settlement; the bazaar supplied almost nothing-only one tobaccoshop and one or two depots for grain; the most common iron-work could not be made. The villages around had no inhabitants but the sick, aged, dying, and starving, or idiots. We were told not to walk out alone, as a man had been killed the previous month; the country had been made dangerous, and the people were getting exterminated. But when one of our men cut through his hut and ran away one night, having been suspected of theft, Moossah said with confidence, “The Wezees will not harm him, neither will they give him shelter; he'll be found ;” and so he was, rifle and bayonet untouched. All the natives were Hywans—that is, unable to count, write, or tell their own ages. Some practised medicine, giving one of our men, who suffered from weakness in the limbs after fever, a black ointment made of roots. The black art of the Damars and the chipping of the Oovamba's teeth are practised here, as noticed in Andersson's Travels. During the illness of the late chief, witchcraft was suspected to be the cause. A fowl was placed in the hands of the suspected, dissected by a seer, and verdict given accordingly. Similar fancies, differing only a little in detail, long prevailed in the Highlands of Scotland, a very common form being to bury a black fowl in the exact spot where a person had been first seized with illness. Moossah had never heard of fowls being thrown up in the air to discover



the sorcerer; and but one woman was killed to be placed in the grave with the old king.

Our exploration of the northern kingdoms enabled us to ascertain how far the mass of information gleaned from our good friend Moossah was correct. I can honestly say that, though he had never visited Uganda,* his hearsay, on the whole, was a marvel of accuracy:-“The Egyptian river flowed from the Lake Nyanza. Copper and gold are found in Uganda. [We discovered neither, however.] The king alone wears clothes, killing all others who do so.

He keeps slaves, and has 3000 women. The people have 100 each, and the youngest fellow 10 to 20, whom they steal or kidnap in war. The Karague people live entirely on milk diet, yet they are men fit for war. M’tezia, the king of Uganda, is a ‘boorra admi,' bad man; but being great friends with Rumanika (of Karague), he will send you from 300 to 400 men to escort you. Smallpox is rife in Uganda yearly. The king has Zanzibar guns. At Uganda and Karague the sultans do not, as in other countries, claim one tusk of the killed elephant. Karague people carry


grog in calabashes; one sort being an intoxicating, fiery liquor, the other mild and good. Rhinoceros (white)

The king of Uganda makes people kneel in front of him, commanding them not to expose their skin or feet before his 400 or 500 women.

The reed-grass' huts of Karague and Uganda are so high that strong fires may be burned in them. Musicians of every sort there; king has five clocks sent him

are numerous.

* At Kazeh I understood that Moossah had never travelled farther than Karague ; but I observe that Speke, in his Journal, states that Moossah (or “Mūsa," as he writes the name) had reached Uganda.



from Kazeh. At Karague they have three crops yearly of murwa and sorghum. King of Uganda has a menagerie of 200 wild buffaloes; will give as many cheetah (leopard) skins as you like.

. The Wahumah of Karague have the most enormous arms, bodies, and legs ; cannot walk; always rest on their elbows and knees; hands and feet very small; good noses and fair skins. Karague sultan cannot write, but sends a string of bark-cloth with knots upon it corresponding with the number of elephant-tusks sent.”

All this exciting information made us eager for a move, but Moossah kept delaying. However, by the middle of March we had finished maps from observations, made collections, boiled thermometers, inspected newly-purchased presents for the kings ahead, sketched, written reports and letters to wait any chance opportunity for the coast, and recovered from sickness. The rivers would soon be fordable, and a fourth of our porters had arrived ; the remainder dreaded coming to us, as war was waging. We pitched camp on the 15th, and marched north without Moossah on the 16th March 1861, leaving the bulk of our kit behind, in charge of Bombay. In return for Moossah's hospitality, Speke gave him five hundred dollars and a beautifully chased gold watch made to order by M‘Cabe. We experienced one great privation here, never receiving letters from home; but, odd enough, those despatched by us reached their destination.




HOWEVER great was our desire to push on with the journey, we could not impress the Africans with this feeling Porters would be ordered, and two days afterwards

you found no one had gone for them. A general panic had seized the natives that the plundering Watuta race were on the wing. The villages to the north were busy making defences, or a report had reached them that the Arabs had killed two of their clan; how, therefore, could they take service with us, who might do the same ? Everything seemed to be against us; they would accept no bribe. None of the slaves of the Arabs would take service, though offered it, first by Baraka, and then by Speke in person, who walked 80 miles to induce them to accompany us. Ultimately we moved off by detachments, and accomplished 90 miles, with 110 men's loads, in 75 days.

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