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cation. Some of these proper vessels are root of rhubarb. Citric acid is found in situated between the epidermis and the the juice of oranges and lemons, in the bark, which are readily detected in the berries of two species of vaccinium, &c. spring. Some are situated in the interior Malic acid exists, unmixed with other part of the bark, forming oval rings, and acids, in the apple, the barberry, plum, filled with the peculiar juices of the sloe, elder, &c. In the gooseberry, in the plant Another set of proper vessels is cherry, strawberry, currants, and some placed in the alburnum, near the centre other fruits, malic and citric acids are of the stock or trunk, and sometimes in found nearly in equal proportions. Malic the perfect wood. The utriculi or cells acid has been found mixed with tartaric constitute another set of vessels, which acid in the agave Americana, and in the seem to resemble a flexible tube, slightly pulp of tamarinds, along with citric acid. interrupted with ligatures at nearly equal Vauquelin found it combined with lime, distances, but still preserving a free com
forming a malate of lime, in the semper, munication through its whole length. vivum tectorum,or house-leek. Gallic acid They vary in form, colour, and magnitude, is found in a great number of plants, in different vegetables, and exist in the and in them it exists chiefly in the bark. roots, the bark, leaves and flowers. The Benzoic acid is found in benzoin, balsam trachea, or spiral vessels, which are readi. of Tolu and Peru, liquid styrax, cinnaly detected in succulent plants, appear in mon and vanilla. Fourcroy and Vauthe form of fine threads, and may be quelin suspect that it exists in the anthoxdrawn out to a considerable length with. anthum odoratum, or sweet-scented out breaking These vessels are very grass, which communicates the aroma. numerous in all plants, especially under tic Havour to hay. Prussic acid has been the bark where they form a kind of ring, found in the leaves of the lauro-cerasus and are disposed in distinct bundles, in and peach, in bitter almonds, in the kertrees, shrubs, and stalks of herbaceous nels of apricots; and it is supposed that plants.
it exists also in the kernels of peaches, of VEGETABLE aciils, in chemistry. The plums, and cherries. It is obtained from acids which exist in many vegetables are
the kernels of apricots, by distilling waat once recognised by their taste. These ter off them with a moderate heat; and if acids were formerly denominated essen
lime be added to the concentrated infusion tial salts of vegetables, and it was sup
of bitter almonds, a prussiate of lime is posed that all essential salts were the formed. Phosphoric acid has been found sane, and were composed of tartar, or in different parts of plants; but it is genevinegar. But Scheele's discovery of the rally combined with lime, forming a phos. citric, malic, and gallic acids, which, pos. phate of lime. sessing distinct properties from those of VEIN, in anatomy, a vessel which tartarıc and acetic acids, proved the con
carries the blood from the several parts trary. Some vegetables contain only one of the body to the heart. The veins are acid, as oranges, and lemons, which con. composed principally of a membranace. tain citric acid only. In other vegetables ous, a vasculous and a musculous tunic; two acids are found, as in gooseberries and but these are vastly thinner than in the currants, the malic and citric acids; and arteries. See ARTERY. sometimes three, as the tartaric, citric, VELESIA, in botany, so named from and malic acids, which exist together in Christoval Velesius, examiner, first phythe pulp of the tamarind. As the acids sician, and demonstrator of botany, in the which exist in vegetables have been al- College of Apothecaries at Madrid, a ge. ready described, under their respective nus of the Pentandria Digynia class and heads, it is now only necessary to enume- order. Natural order of Caryophyllei. rate the vegetable acids, specifying at Caryophyllez, Jussieu. Essential charac. the same time some of the plants from ter; calyx filiform, five-toothed; corolla which they are obtained.
five-petalled, small; capsule one-celled ; Acetic acid has been discovered in the seeds numerous, and a single row. There sap of some trees, and in the acid juice of is but one species, viz. V. rigida, a native cicer arictinum. Oxalic acid exists in of the South of Europe. combmation with potash, in the leaves of VELLA, in botany, a genus of the Te. the oxalis acetosella, or wood-sorrel. In tradynamia Siliculosa class and order other species belonging to the same ge. Natural order of Siliquosæ or Cruciformes. nus, and in some species of rumex, it is in Cruciferæ, Jussieu. Essential character: the state of acidulous oxalate of potash. silicle with a partition twice as large as Oxalate of lime has been found in the the valves, ovate on the outside. There
are two species, viz. V.annua, annual vella, a fall through the same perpendicular or cress rocket; and V. pseudo cytisus, height. shrubby vella.
This conclusion continued to be acqui. VELOCITY, swiftness, or that affec- esced in till the year 1672, when it was tion of motion, whereby a moving body is demonstrated to be false, by James Gre. disposed to run over a certain space in a gory, who shows what the real velocity is, certain time.
which a body acquires by descending In the doctrine of fluxions it is usual to down two contiguous inclined planes, consider the velocity with which magni. forming an obtuse angle, and that it is tudes flow, or are generated. Thus, the different from the velocity which a body velocity with which a line flows is the acquires by descending perpendicularly same as that of the point, which is suppos- through the same height ; also that the ed to describe or generate the line. The velocity in quitting the first plane is to velocity with which a surface flows is that with which it enters the second, and the same as the velocity of a given right in this latter direction, as radius to the co. line, that, by moving parallel to itself, is sine of the angle of inclination between supposed to generate a rectangle, always the two planes. equal to the surface. The velocity with This conclusion, however, it is observ. which a solid flows may be measured by ed, does not apply to the motions of de. the velocity of a given plane surface, that scent down any curve lines, because the by moving parallel to itself
, is supposed contiguous parts of curve lines do not to generate an erect prism, or cylinder, form any angle between them, and consealways equal to the solid. The velocity quently no part of the velocity is lost by with which an angle flows is measured passing from one part of the curve to by the velocity of a point, supposed to the other; and hence he infers, that the describe the arc of a given circle, wluch velocities acquired in descending down a subtends the angle and measures it. All continued curve line are the same as by these velocities are measured at any term falling perpendicularly through the same of the time of the motion, by the spaces height. This principle is then applied, by which would be described in a given time the author, to the motion of pendulums by these points, lines, or surfaces, with and projectiles. their motions continued uniformly from Varignon too, in the year 1693, followthat term. The velocity with which a ed in the same track, showing, that the quantity flows, at any term of the time velocity lost in passing from one right while it is supposed to be generated, is lined direction to another, becomes in. called its fluxion. See FLUXIONS. definitely small in the course of a curve VELOCITY of bodies moving in curves.
line : and that therefore the doctrine of According to Galileo's system of the fall Galileo holds good for the descent of bo. of heavy bodies, which is now universally dies down a curve line, viz. that the velo. admitted among philosophers, the veloci. city acquired at any point of the curve is ties of a body falling vertically are, at equal to that which would be acquired by each moment of its fall, as the square a fall through the same perpendicular al. roots of the heights from whence it has titude fallen; reckoning from the beginning of VELVET, a rich kind of stuff, all silk, the descent. And hence he inferred, that covered on the outside with a close, short, if a body descend along an inclined plane, fine, soft shag, the other side being a very the velocities it has, at the different times, strong close tissue. The nap, or shag, will be in the same ratio: for since its ve- called also the velveting, of this stuff is locity is all owing to its fall, and it only formed of a part of the threads of the falls as much as there is perpendicular warp, which the workmen puts on a long height in the inclined plane, the velocity narrow-channelled ruler or needle, which should be still measured by that height, he afterwards cuts by drawing a sharp the same as if the fall were vertical. The steel tool along the channel of the needle same principle led him also to conclude, to the ends of the warp. that if a body fall through several conti- VENEERING, or VANEERING, a kind guous inclined planes, making any angles of inlaying, whereby several thin slices or with each other, much like a stick when leaves of fine woods, of different kinds, broken, the velocity would still be regu- are applied and fastened on a ground of Jated after the same manner, by the ver- some common wood. There are two kinds tical heights of the different planes taken of inlaying; the one which is the most together, considering the last velocity as common and more ordinary, goes no fur. the same that the body would acquire by ther than the making of compartments of different woods; the other requires much mination to be made, whether the womore art, in representing flowers, birds, man is with child or not; and if with and the like figures. The first kind is child, then about what time it will be properly called veneering; the latter is born; and that he certify the same to the more properly called marquetry. The justices of the assize, or at Westminster, wood used in veneering is first sawed out under his seal and under the seals of two into slices or leaves about a line in thickof the men present. Cro. Elizabeth, 506. ness: i. e. the twelth part of an inch. In This writ is now granted, not only to an order to saw them, the blocks, or planks, heir at law, but to a devisee, whether for are placed upright in a kind of sawing life, in tail, or in fee. press. These slices are afterwards cut VENTRILOQUISM, an art of speakinto narrow slips, and fashioned divers ing, by means of which the human voice ways, according to the design proposed: and other sounds are rendered audible, as then, the joints having been exactly and if they proceeded from various different nicely adjusted, and the pieces brought places; though the utterer does not down to their proper thickness, with seve, change his place, and in many instances ral planes for the purpose, they are glued does not appear to speak. It has been down on a ground or block, with good supposed to be a natural peculiarity, bestrong glue. The pieces being thus join- cause few, if any persons, have learned it ed and glued, the work, if small, is in by being taught; and we have had no a press; if large it is laid on a bench co- rules laid down for acquiring it. It seems vered with a board, and pressed down to have been in consequence of this nowith poles on pieces of wood, one end of tion, that the name ventriloquism has been which reaches to the ceiling of the room, applied to it, from a supposition that the and the other bears on the board. When voice proceeds from the thorax or chest. the glue is thoroughly dry it is taken out It has seldom been practised but by perof the press and finished; first with little sons of the lower classes of society; and planes, then with divers scrapers, some as it does not seem to present any advanof which resemble rasps, which take off tages beyond that of causing surprise and the dents, &c. left by the planes. After it entertainment, and cannot be exhibited has been sufficiently scraped they polish on an extended theatre, the probability is it with the skin of a sea-dog, wax, and a that it will continue amongst them. brush, or polisher, of shave grass ; which Mr. Gough, in the Manchester Me. is the last operation.
moirs, and in various parts of Nicholson's VENTER, is used in the law for the Journal, has entertained the opinion, that children by a woman of one marriage. the voice of ventriloquists is made to proThere is a first and second venter, &c. ceed, in appearance, from different parts where a man hath children by several of a room by the management of an echo. wives.
But the facts themselves do not support VENTILAGO, in botany, a genus of this hypothesis, as a great and sudden the Pentandria Monogynia class and or- variety and change of echoes would be der. Essential character: calyx tubular; required ; and his own judicious remarks, corolla scales protecting the stamens, in the same work, on the facility with which are inserted into the calyx; sa- which we are deceived as to the direcmara winged at the top, and one seeded. tion of sound are adverse to his theory. There is only one species, viz. V. made. From numerous attentive observations, it raspatana.
appears manifest that the art is not peVENTILATOR, a machine by which culiar to certain individuals, but may the noxious air of any close place, as an with facility be acquired by any person of hospital, jail, ship, chamber, &c. may be accurate observation. It consists merely changed for fresh air.
in an imitation of sounds, as they occur in VENTRE inspiciendo, a writ to search a nature, accompanied with appropriate woman that saith she is with child, and action, of such a description as may best therebywithholds lands from the next heir. concur in leading the minds of the obAs if a man, having lands in fee-simple, servers to favour the deception. die, and his widow soon after marry Any one who shall try, will be a little again, and say she is with child by her surprised to find how easy it is to imitate former husband; in this case, this writ the noise made by a saw, or by a snuffde ventre inspiciendo lies for the heir box when opened or shut, or by a large against her ; by which writ the sheriff is hand-bell, or a cork-cutter's' knife, a commanded, that in presence of twelve watch while
going, and numberless other men, and as many women, he cause exa- inanimate objects; or the voices of ani
mals in their various situations and neces. sides a dog, who sometimes raised his sities, such as a cat, a dog, or an hen en- voice, and was checked for his unneces. raged, intimidated, confined, &c.; or to sary exertions. It appears, from traditionvary the character of the human voice by al narrative, that the calf was heard to be shrillness or depth of tone, rapidity or dragged in, not without some efforts and drawling of execution, and distinctness conversation on the part of the butchers, or imperfection of articulating, which and noisy resistance from the calf; that may be instantly changed by holding the they ,conversed on the qualities of the mouth a little more open or more closed animal, and the profits to be expected than usual, altering the position of the from the veal; and that, as they proceedjaw, keeping the tongue in any determi- ed, all the noises of knife and steel, of nate situation, &c. And every one of suspending the creature, and of the last the imitations of the ventriloquists will be fatal catastrophe, were heard in rapid rendered more perfect by practising succession, to the never-failing satisfacthem at the very time the sounds are tion of the attendants ; who, upon the heard, instead of depending on the me. rise of the curtain, saw that all these mory. The leading condition of per- imaginary personages had vanished, and formance is, that the voices and sounds of Tom King alone remained to claim the the dramatic dialogue to be exhibited applause. should succeed each other so rapidly, that A similar fact may be quoted in the the audience should lose sight of the pro- person of that facetious gentleman, who bability that one actor gives effect to the has assumed 'and given celebrity to the wbole, and that where the business is name of Peter Pindar. This great poet, simple, the aid of scenery or local cir- laughing at the proverbial poverty of his cumstance should be called in.
profession, is sometimes pleased to enWe have seen an eminent philosopher tertain his friends with unexpected effuof our own time, who had no previous sions of the art we speak of. One of practice of this art, but when speaking these is managed by a messenger an. on the subject in a mixed company, took nouncing to the Doctor (in the midst of up an hat, and folding the flaps together, company) that a person wants to speak said, by way of example, "Suppose I with him; he accordingly goes out, leavhad a small monkey in this hat;" and then ing the door a-jar, and immediately a fe. cautiously putting his hand in, as if to male voice is heard, which, from the nacatch it, he imitated the chatter of the ture of the subject, appears to be that of supposed struggling animal, at the same the poet's laundress, who complains of time that his own efforts to secure it had her pressing wants, disappointed claims, a momentary impression on the specta- and of broken promises, no longer to be tors, which left no time for them to ques. borne with patience. It is more easy to tion whether there was a monkey in it imagine than describe the mixed emoor not: this impression was completed, tions of the audience. The scene, howwhen, the instant afterwards, he pulled ever, goes on by the Doctor's reply, who out his hand, as if hurt, and exclaimed, remonstrates, promises, and is rather an"he has bit me." It was not till then gry at the time and place of this unwelthat the impression of reality gave way come visit. His antagonist unfortunately to the diversion arising from the mimic is neither mollified nor disposed to quit art; and one of the company, even then, her ground. Passion increases on both cried out, “Is there really a monkey in sides, and the Doctor forgets himself so the hat?"
far as to threaten the irritated female ; In this manner it was, that, at the be. she defies him, and this last promise, ginning of the last century, the famous very unlike the former one, is followed Tom King, who is said to have been the by payment; a severe slap on the face is first man who gave public lectures on ex- heard ; the poor woman falls down stairs, perimental philosophy in this country, with horrid outcries; the company, of was attended by the whole fashionable course, rises in alarm, and the Doctor is world, for a succession of many nights, found in a state of perfect tranquillity, to hear him “kill a calf." This per- apparently a stranger to the whole transformance was done in a separate part of action. the place of exhibition, into which the A very able ventriloquist, Fitz-James, exhibitor retired alone ; and the imagi- performed in public, in Soho Square, nation of his polite hearers was taxed to about four years ago. He personated vasupply the calf and three butchers, be. rious characters by appropriate dresses ; and by a command of the muscles of the tions, for injuries that may have happenface he could very much alter his appear. ed any where, as debt, detinue, slander, ance. He imitated many inanimate noises, or the like, the plaintiff may declare in and among others, the repetition of noises what county he pleases, and then the trial of the water-machine at Marli. He,con. must be in that county in which the deversed with some statues, which replied claration is laid. Though if the defendant to him; and also with some persons sup- will make affidavit that the cause of ac. posed to be in the room above, and on tion, if any, arose not in that, but in anoihe landing place; gave the watchman's thercounty, the court will direct a change cry, gradually approaching, and when of the venue, and oblige the plaintiff to he seemed opposite the window, Fitz- declare in the proper county. And the James opened it, and asked what the court will sometimes move the venue time was, received the answer, and dur- from the proper jurisdiction (especially ing the proceeding with his cry, Fitz- of the narrow and limited kind), upon a Jaines shut the window, immediately up- suggestion duly supported, that a fair and on which the sound became weaker, and impartial trial cannot be had therein. at last insensible. In the whole of his with respect to criminal cases, it is orperformance it was clear that the notions dained by statute 21 James 1. c. 4, that all of the audience were governed by the informations on penal statutes shall be auxiliary circumstances, as to direction, laid in the counties where the offences &c. This mimic had, at least, six differ. were committed. ent habitual modes of speaking, which VENUS, the most beautiful star in the he could instantly adopt, one after the heavens, known by the names of the other, and with so much rapitlity, that morning and evening star, likewise keeps when in a small closet, parted off in the near the sun, though she recedes from room, he gave a long, confused, and im- him almost double the distance of Merpassioned debate of Democrats (in cury. She is never seen in the eastern French, as almost the whole of his per- quarter of the heavens when the sun is formance was); it seemed to proceed in the western; but always seems to atfrom a multitude of speakers; and an in. tend him in the evening, or to give noaccurate observer might have thought tice of his approach in the morning. The that several were speaking at once. A planet Venus presents the same phenoludicrcus scene of drawing a tooth was mena with Mercury : but her different performed in the same manner.
phases are much more sensible, her os. These examples, and many more which cillations wider, and of longer duration. might be added, are sufficient, in proof, Her greatest distance from the sun varies that ventriloquism is the art of mimicry, from 45° to nearly 48°, and the mean duan imitation applied to sounds of every de- ration of a complete oscillation is 594 scription, and attended with circumstan- days. Venus has been sometimes seen ces which produce an entertaining decep moving across the sun's disk in the form tion, and lead the hearers to imagine that of a round black spot, with an apparent the voice proceeds from different situa. diameter of about 59". A few days after tions. When distant, and consequently this has been observed, Venus is seen in low voices are to be imitated, the articu- the morning, west of the sun, in the form lation may be given with sufficient dis- of a fine crescent, with the convexity tinctness, without moving the lips or al. turned toward the sun.
She moves gratering the countenance. It was by a sup- dually westward with a retarded motion, posed supernatural voice of this kind, and the crescent becomes more full. In from a ventriloquist, that the famous about ten weeks she has moved 46° west musical small-coal man, "Thomas Britton, of the sun, and is now a semicircle, and received a warning of his death, which so her diameter is 26'. She is now stationgreatly affected him, that he did not sur- ary. She then moves eastward, with a vive the affright.
motion gradually accelerated, and overVENUE, the neighbourhood from takes the sun about 9 months after hav. whence juries are to be summoned for ing been seen on bis disk. Some time after trial of causes. In local actions, as of she is seen in the evening, east of the trespass and ejectment, the venue is to sun, round, but very small. She moves be from the neighbourhood of the place eastward, and increases in diameter, but where the lands in question lie ; and in loses of her roundness till she gets about real actions the venue must be laid in the 46° east of the sun, when she is again a county where the thing is for which the semicircle. She now moves westward, action is brought; but in transitory ac- increasing in diameter, but becoming a