ject are to be found in Memoires de WULFENIA, in botany, so named l'Academie des Inscriptions et des Belles from the Rev. Francis Xavier Wulfen, a Lettres, vol. 34, &c.

genus of the Diandria Monogynia class WRONG stamp. By 37 George III. c. and order. Essential character: corolla 136, any instrument (except bills of ex. tubular, ringent, with the upper lip short, change, promissory notes, or other notes, entire, the lower three-parted, with the drafts, or orders) liable to stamp-duty, aperture bearded; calyx five-parted; wbereon shall be impressed any stamp of capsule two-celled, four-valved. There a different denomination, but of an equal is only one species, viz. W. carinthiaca, or greater value than the stamp required, a native of Carinthia, on the highest may be stamped with the proper stamp Alps. after the execution, on payment of duty and five pounds penalty, but without any bonour of Frederick Baron Van Wurmb,

WURMBEA, in botany, so named in allowance for the wrong stamp. Likewise any such instrument (except and order. Natural order of Coronariz.

a genus of the Hexandria T'rigynia class as aforesaid) being engrossed without

Junci, Jussieu. Essential character: calyx having been first stamped, or having a stamp thereon of less value than required, gular tube; filaments inserted into the

none; corolla six-parted, with a hexan. the same may be stamped after the execution, on payment of the duty and ten

throat. There are three species. pounds penalty only, for each skin there. WYTE, or WITE, in our ancient cusof: but in case it shall be satisfactorily toms, a pecuniary penalty or mulct. The proved to the commissioners of stamps, Saxons had two kinds of punishments, that the same hath been so engrossed, ei- were and wyte; the first for the more griether by accident or inadvertency, or from vous offences. The wyte was for the urgent necessity, or unavoidable circum. less heinous ones. It was not fixed to stances, and without any intention of any certain sum, but left at liberty to be fraud, the Commissioners are authorized varied according to the nature of the case. to stamp the same within sixty days after Hence also wyte, or wittree, one of the the execution, to remit the penalty in terms of privilege granted to our sports. part, or in all, and to indemnify persons men, signifying a freedom or immunity so engrossing the same.

from fines or amercements.



or r, is the twenty-second letter of made of two V's placed one over the

our alphabet, and a double conso. other. When a dash is added over it, thus nant.

It was not used by the Hebrews X, it signifies ten thousand. or ancient Greeks; for, as it is a compound XANTHE, in botany, a genus of the letter, the ancients, who used great sim- Dioecia Syngenesia class and order. Esplicity in their writings, made use of, and sential character: flowers dioecious; caexpressed this letter by its component lyx five, six-parted, permanent; corolla letters cs. Neither have the Italians this five, six-petalled; males with one filaletter, but express it by 83. X begins no word in our language but such as care of ment, bearing five anthers, collected into

a shield-shaped bead: females with five Greek original, and is in few others but barren anthers; capsule globose, crowned what are of Latin derivation, as perplex, with the stigma, five-striated, five-valved; reflexion, defluxion, &c. We often express seeds very many, involved in the pulp. this sound by single letters, as cks in There are two species, viz. X. quapoya, backs, necks; by ks in books, breaks; by and X. panari. cc in access, accident ; by ct in action, unc- XANTHIUM, in botany, a genus of the tion, &c. In numerals it expresses 10, Monoecia Pentandria class and order. Nawhence in old Roman manuscripts it is tural order of Compositæ Nucamentaceæ. used for denarius ; and as such seems to be Corymbiferæ, Jussieu. Essential charac

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ter : male, calyx common, imbricate; co. X. platypterus, or the broad.finned rolla one-petalled, five-cleft, funnel-form; sword-fish, is found in the Northern, At. receptacle chaffy; female, calyx involucre, lantic, and Indian Seas, and is considered two-leaved, two flowered : corolla none; as one of the most fatal enemies of the drupe dry, muricated, two-cleft; nucleus whale tribe. Its strength is so great, that two-celled. There are five species. it is said to have pervaded with its snout,

XANTHORIZA, in botany, a genus or sword, the plank of an East Indiaman ; of the Pentandria Polygynia class and or- and a plank and snout, in attestation of this der. Natural order of Ranunculaceæ, circumstance, the latter closely driven Jussieu. Essential character: calyx none; into the former, are to be seen in the petals five; nectary five, pedicellecl ; cap- British Museum, having been communi. sule five, one-seeded. There is only one; cated to Sir Joseph Banks by an East species, viz. X. apitiolia, a native of North India captain, of honour and veracity. America.

When young this fish is used for food, XANTHOXYLUM, in botany, a genus but not after it exceeds four or five feet of the Dioecia Pentandria class and order. in length. Natural order of Hederaceæ. Terebinta- XIPHIDIUM, in botany, a genus of the cex, Jussieu. Essential character: calyx Triandria Monogynia class and order. five-parted; corolla none; female, pistil Natural order of Ensatæ. Irides, Jussieu. five; capsule five, one-seeded. There is Essential character: corolla six-petalled, but one species, viz. X clava herculis, equal; capsule superior, three-celled, tooth-ache tree; it grows naturally in many-seeded. There are two species, Pennsylvania and Maryland.

viz. X. album and X. cæruleum. XERANTHEMUM, in botany, a genus

XYLOCARPUS, in botany, a genus of of the Syngenesia Polygamia Superflua the Octandria Monogynia class and order. class and order. Natural order of Com. Essential character: calyx four-toothed; positæ Discoideæ. Corymbiferæ, Jussieu. corolla four-petalled; nectary eight-cleft; Essential character: calyx imbricate, ray- filaments inserted into the nectary; drupe ed, with the ray coloured: down bristle- juiceless, large, four or five-grooved; nuts shaped : receptacle chaffy. There are eight or ten, difform. There is but one twenty-seven species.

species, viz. X. granatum, a native of the XIMENIA, in botany, so named in ho. East Indies. nour of the Rev. Father Francis Ximenes, XYLOMELUM, in botany, a genus of a Spaniard, a genus of the Octandria Mo. the Tetrandria Monogynia class and nogynia class and order. Natural order of order. Natural order of Proteæ, Jussieu. Aurantia, Jussieu. Essential character: Essential character:ament with a simple calyx four-cleft; petals four, hairy, rolled scale; petalis four, staminiferous ; stigma back; drupe one-seeded. There are

club-shaped; obtuse This is one of three species.

twenty new genera from the South Seas; XIPHIAS, the swordfish, in natural the characters of which are given by Dr. history, a genus of fishes of the order Smith. Apodes. Generic character: head with XYLON. See GOSSIPIUM. the upper jaw ending in a sword-shaped XYLOPHYLLA, in botany, sea-side lansnout; mouth without teeth; gill-mem- rel, a genus of the Pentandria Trigynia brane eight-rayed ; body roundish, with. class and order. Natural order of Tricoc. out scales. There are three species : X. cæ. Euphorbiæ, Jussieu. Essential chagladeus, or the common sword-fish, is of racter: calyx five-parted, coloured; cothe length of twenty feet, and is particu- rolla none; stigmas jagged; capsule larly distinguished by its upper jaw being three-celled; seeds two. There are se. stretched to a considerable distance be. ven species. yond the lower, flat above and beneath, XYLOPIA, in botany, bitter-wood, a gebut edges at the sides, and of a bony sub- nus of the Polyandria

Polygynia class and stance, covered by a strong epidermis. order. Natural order of Coadunatæ. It is a fish extremely rapacious, and finds Anonæ, Jussieu. Essential character: in the above instrument a weapon of at. calyx three-leaved ; petals six; capsule tack and destruction, able to procure it one or two.seeded, four-cornered, twothe most ample supplies. It first trans- valved; seeds arilled. There are three fixes its prey with this snout, and then species. devours it. It is found in the Mediterra. XYLOSMA, in botany, a genus of the nean, chiefly about Sicily, and is used as Dioecia Polyandria class and order. Esfood by the Sicilians, who preserve it for sential character: calyx four or five-parta long time by salting it in small pieces. ed; corolla none, but a smail annular See Pisces, Plate VI. fig. 5.

crenulate nectary surrounding the stamens: male, stamens twenty to fifty; fe- andria Monogynia class and order. Natu. male, style scarcely any; stigma trifid; ral order of Ensatz. Junci, Jussieu. berry dry, subbilocular ; seeds two, three. Essential character: corolla three-pesided. There are two species, viz. X. talled, equal, crenate; glumes, two-valved suaveolens and X orbiculatum.

in a bead; capsule superior. There are XYRIS, in botany, a genus of the Tri- four species.


Y, , then the top-sail


alphabet: its sound is formed by ex. sheets will top them. pressing the breath with a sudden expan- Yard arm, is that half of the yard that sion of the lips from that configuration by is on either side of the mast, when it lies which we express the vowel u. It is a athwart the ship. consonant in the beginning of words, and Yards also denote places belonging to placed before all vowels, as in yard, yield, the navy, where the ships of war, &c. are. young, &c. but before no consonant. At laid up in harbour. There are, belongthe end of words it is a vowel, and is sub. ing to his Majesty's navy, six great yards, stituted for the sound of i, as in try, descry, viz. Chatham, Deptford, Woolwich, Ports&c. In the middle of words it is not used mouth, Sheerness, and Plymouth; these so frequently as i is, unless in words de. yards are fitted with several docks, wharfs, rived from the Greek, as in chyle, empy launches, and graving, places, for the real, &c. though it is admitted into ihe

building, repairing, and cleaning of his middle of some pure English words, as in Majesty's ships; and therein are lodged dying, flying, &c. Y is also a numeral, great quantities of timber, masts, planks, signifying 150, or according to Baronius, anchors, and other materials: there are 159; and with a dash a-top, as Y, it signi- also convenient store houses in each fied 150,000.

yard, in which are laid up vast quantities YACHT, or Yatch, a vessel with one of cables, rigging, sails, blocks, and all deck, carrying from four to twelve guns.

other sorts of stores, needful for the YARD, a measure of length used in royal navy. England and Spain, chiefly to measure YARE, among sailors, implies ready or cloth, stuffs, &c. See MEASURE.

quck; as, be yare at the helm ; that is, Yard land, is taken to signity a certain be quick, ready, and expeditious at the quantity of land, in some counties being helm. It is sometimes also use for bright fifteen acres, and in others twenty, in by seamen : as, to keep his arms are; some twenty-four, and in others thirty and that is, to keep them clean and bright. forty acres

YARN, wool or flax spun into thread, Yards of a ship, are those long pieces of which they weave cloth. of timber which are made a little taper

YFAR, the time that the sun takes to ing at each end, and are fitted each go through the twelve signs of the zodiathwart its proper mast, with the sails See CHRONOLOGY. made fast to them, so as to be hoisted up,

Year and Day, is a time that deteror lowered down, as occasion serves. mines a right in many cases; and in They have their names from the masts to some works an usurpation, and in others which they belong:

a prescription; as in case of an estray, if There are several sea terms relating to the owner, proclamation being made, the management of the yards; as, squiare challenge it not within the time, it is for the yards; that is, see that they hang feited. right across the ship, and no yard.arm So is the year and day given in case of traversed more than another : top the appeal ; in case of descent after entry or yards; that is, make them stand even. To claim; if no claim upon a fine or writ or top the main and fore yards, the clew. right at the common law; so of a villain lines are the most proper; but when the remaining in ancient demesne ; of a man



spre bruised or wounded; of protections; in the lessee, but only gives him a righe essoigns in respect to the King's service; of entry on the tenement, which right is of a wreck, and divers other cases.

called his interest in the term ; but when YEARs, estate for. Tenant for a term of he has actually so entered, and thereby years is, where a man letteth lands or te. accepted the grant, the estate is then, and nements to another for a certain term of not before, vested in him ; and he is pos. years, agreed upon between the lessor sessed not properly of the land, but of and lessee ; and when the lessee entereth the term of years, the possession or sei. by force of the lease, then he is tenant sin of the land remaining still in him who for term of years.

has the freehold. If tenements be let to a man for term YELLOW eurth, named by Werner, of half a year, or for a quarter of a year, gelberde, is of a yellow ochre colour, of or any less time, this lessee is respected various degrees of intensity. It is mas. as tenant for years, and is styled so in sive, soft, and friable : it adheres strongly some legal proceedings, a year being the to the tongue, and feels greasy.

It ocshortest term which the law in this case curs in beds with iron-stone in Upper takes notice of.

Saxony, and is employed as a yellow pig. Generally, every estate which must «lx. pire at a period certain and prefixed, by YELLOW, Naples, a fine pigment, so what ever words created, is an estate for called from the city in which it was long years, and therefore this estate is fre. prepared. It has the appearance of an quently called a term, because its duration earth, is very friable, heavy, porous, and or continuance is bounded, limited, and not altered by exposure to the air. The determined. For every such estate must preparation is kept a secret, but by anahave a certain beginning and certain end. İysis it is found to be a metallic oxide. A If no day of commencement be named in similar pigment may be produced by the creation of this estate, it begins from mixing twelve parts of ceruss, three of the making or delivery of the lease. A diaphoretic antimony, and of alum and lease for so many years as such an one sal ammoniac one part each; heat them, shall live is void from the beginning, for for some time to a temperature below it is neither certain, nor can it ever be re. redness, and afterwards in a red heat for duced to a certainty, during the continue three hours longer, after which the mass ance of the lease. And the same doc- will have acquired a beautiful yellow trine holds, if a parson make a lease of colour. his glebe for so many years as he shall YEOMAN, is defined to be one that continue parson of such a church, for this hath fee land of 40s. a year; who was is still more uncertain. But a lease for thereby, heretofore, qualified to serve on twenty or more years, if the parson shall juries, and can yet vote for knights of the so long live, or if he shall so long con- shire and do any other act, where the law tinue parson, is good; for there is a cer- requires one that is probus et legalis homo. tain period fixed, beyond which it cannot Below yeomen are ranked tradesmen, ar. last, though it may determine sooner, on tificers, and labourers. the parson's death, or his ceasing to be YEST, Yeast, or BARM, a head, or scum parson there.

rising upon beer or ale, while working or An estate for years, though never so fermenting in the vat. See BREWING, many, is inferior to an estate for life. For FERMENTATION, &c. an estate for life, though it be not only for It is used for a leaven or ferment in the the life of another person, is a freehold; baking of bread, as serving to swell or but an estate, though it be for a thousand puff it up very considerably in a little years, is only a chattel, and reckoned time, and to make it much lighter, softer, part of the personal estate. For no estate and more delicate. When there is too of freehold can commence in futuro, be much of it, it renders the bread bitter. cause it cannot be created at common See Baking and BREAD. Jaw without livery of seisin, or corporal Yeast consists of gluten, sugar, and possession of the land; and corporal pos. mucilage, with some alcohol, and a por. session cannot be given of an estate now tion of malic, acetic, and carbonic acids ; which is not to commence now, but here, but the essential parts of yeast are gluten after. And because no livery of seisin is mixed with a vegetable acid ; and there. necessary for a lease for years, such a les- fore dried yeast, which must have lost see is not said to be seised, or to have some of its component parts, is fit for fertrue legal seisin of the lands. Nor, in- mentation equally with that which is fresh deed, doth the bare lease vest any estate and new.

YEW. See Taxus.

ness, and even elegance. It makes no YTTRIA. See ITTRIA.

nest, but lays eight or ten eggs on the YUCCA, in botany, Adam's neeille, a ge. bare wood in hollow trees. In England nus of the Hexandria Monogynia class it is a bird of passage, generally appear. and order. Natural order of Coronariæ. ing about ten days before the cuckow. Lilia, Jussieu. Essential character: co- Its food consists chiefly of ants, which, rolla bell-shaped, spreading; style none; during incubation, the male may be obcapsule three-celled. There are four served carrying to the female. The young, species.

on experiencing any annoyance, utter a YUNX, the wry-neck, in natural history, bissing noise which excites the idea of a genus of birds of the order Picæ. Ge. some venomous reptile, and has fre. neric character; bill somewhat round, quently proved their security from deslightly incurvated and weak; nostrils struction. At the end of summer the bare and rather concave; tongue long, wry.neck is extremely plump and fat, slender, and armed at the point ; tail of and is considered by some as little infe. ten flexible feathers; feet formed for rior to the ortolan for the table. It is climbing; tocs two before and two be. never seen in flocks, and in pairs only hind. There is only one species. during the spring and summer, after

Y. torquilla, or the wry-neck, is allied which each individual has its solitary in some respects to the woodpecker, and haunt in that country, and withdraws unin others to the cuckow. It is about the accompanied in its flight in its winter misize of a lark, and its colours, though not gration. glaring, are mingled with extreme neat


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Or z, the twenty-fourth and last let. ZAFFER. See COBALT.

ZAMIA, in botany, a genus of the Ape of our alphabet ; the sound of which is pendix Palmæ class and order. Natural formed by a motion of the tongue from order of Palmæ. Filices, Jussieu. Essenthe palate downwards, and upwards to it tial character; male, ament strobile-shapagain, with a shutting and opening of the ed ; scales covered with pollen under. teeth at the same time. This letter has neath ; female, ament strobile-shaped, been reputed a double consonant, having with scales at each margin; berry solitathe sounds ds ; but some think with very ry. There are five species. little reason ; and, as if we thought other- ZANNICHELLIA, in botany, so named wise, we often double it, as in puzzle, in honour of Giov. Jeronymo Zannichelli, muzzle, &c. Among the ancients, Z a genus of the Monacia Monandria class

a numeral letter signifying two and order. Natural order of Inundatæ. thousand, and with a dash added a-top, Naiades, Jussieu. Essential character: Z signified two thousand times two thou- male, calix none; corolla none: female, sand or four millions. In abbreviations, calyx one-leafed; corolla none; germs this letter formerly stood as a mark for four or more ; seeds as many, pedicelled; several sorts of weights: sometimes it stigmas peltate. There is only one spesignified an ounce and a half, and, very cies, viz. Z. palustris, horned pondweed, frequently, it stood for half an ounce;

a native of Europe. sometimes for the eighth part of an ZANONIA, in botany, so nained in me ounce, or a drachm troy weight; and it mory of Giacomo Zanoni, prefect of the has, in earlier times, been used to ex- botanic garden at Bologna, a genus of the press the third part of one ounce, or Dioecia Pentandria class and order. Na. eight scruples. ZZ were used by some tural order of Cucurbitaceæ, Jussieu. of the ancient physicians to express Essential character: calyx three-leaved ; myrrh, and at present they are often used corolla five-paried: female, styles three; to signify zinziber, or ginger.

berry three-celled, inferior ; seeds two in

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