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T, demith consonante, of cure alphabet, plain surface, supposed to be transparent
Ort, letter, and fif
, the sound whereof is formed by a strong and perpendicular to the horizon. It is alexpulsion of the breath through the ways imagined to be placed at a certain mouth, upon a sudden drawing back of distance between the eye and the objects, the tongue from the fore part of the pa. for the objects to be represented therelate, with the lips at the same time open. on, by means of the visual rays passing The proper sound of this letter is that in from every point thereof through the tatan, ten, tin, &c. When it comes before i, ble to the eye; whence it is called perfollowed by a vowel, it is sounded likes, spective plane. as in nation, potion, &c.
When h comes Table, among the jewellers. A table. after it, it has a twofold sound; one clear diamond, or rather precious stone, is that and acute, as in thin, thief, &c. the other whose upper surface is quite flat, and more obtuse and obscure, as in then, there, only the sides cut in angles; in which &c.
sense a diamond, cut table-wise, is used TABBYING, the passing a silk or stuff in opposition to a rose-diamond. under a calendar, the rolls of which are TABLE, is also used for an index or remade of iron or copper, variously en pertory, put at the beginning or end of a graven, which, bearing unequally on the book, to direct the reader to any passage stuff, renders the surface thereof unequal, he may have occasion for : thus we say, so as to reflect the rays of light different table of matters, table of authors quoted, ly, making the representation of waves &c. Tables of the Bible are called conthereon.
cordances. TABERNÆMONTANA, in botany, so Table, in mathematics, a system of numnamed in honour of James Theodore bers calculated to be ready at hand for surnamed Tabernæmontanus, from Berg the expediting astronomical, geometrical, Zabern, the place where he was born ; a and other operations: thus we say, tables genus of the Pentandria Monogynia class of the stars ; tables of sines, tangents, and order. Natural order of Contortæ. and secants; tables of logarithms, rhumbs, Apocinæ, Jussieu. Essential character: &c.; sexagenary tables; loxodromic tacontorted; follicles two, horizontal; seeds bles, &c. immersed in pulp. There are nineteen TACCA, in botany, a genus of the Hexspecies, among which we shall notice the andria Monogynia class and order. NatuT. cymosa, cyme-flowered tabernæmon ral order of Coronariæ. Narcissi, Jussieu. tana; this is an elegant upright little Essential character: calyx six-parted; tree, or shrub, about six feet in height; corolla six-petalled, inserted into the ca. leaves acute, quite entire, scarcely wav. lyx; anther bearing ; stigma stellate; ed, half a foot long Cymes ample, hand- berry dry, hexangular, many-seeded, in. some, convex, axillary; flowers without ferior. There is only one species, viz. scent, dirty white, or reddish brown, T. pinnatifida; the root of which is tu. about forty in a cyme; tube of the corol. berous, composed of many tubers heaped la quinquangular, ventricose at the base; together, here and there'emitting fibres ; stamens in the enlarged base of the tube; radical leaf, subsolitary, petioled, ternate, stigma margined at the base; follicles or biternate ; leaflets laciniate pinnatioblong, very blunt, curved in, very large, fied, acute, spreading, decurrent a little reddish, with rust coloured spots; one of along the sides of the petiole, a foot in each pair is commonly abortive; the pulp length; scape half a fathom in height is orange coloured. It is found in the herbaceous, fistular, grooved towards the woods and coppices about Carthagena in top, erect; umbel terminating, sessile ; New Spain, Aowering in July and Au. peduncles four to eight; anthers twelve, gust.
on short filaments; germs three, or one TABES dorsales, in medicine, a distem- three-lobed; styles three, short; stigma per which, according to a late author, is obcordate, two-lobed ; berry black, seeds a particular species of a consumption, the brown. It is a native of the East Indies, proximate cause of which is a debility of China, Cochin China, Banda, and the Sothe nerves.
TACK, in a ship, a great rope, having to prevent her from falling off, and re2 wale-knot at one end, which is seized turning to her former situation. These or fastened into the clew of the sail; so are accordingly laid aback on the lee. is reefed first through the chesse-trees, side, to push the vessel's fore-part toand then is brought through a hole in the wards the appointed side, till she has ship's side. Its use is to carry forward fallen into the line of her course thereon, the clew of the sail, and to make it stand and fixed her sails to conform with that close by a wind; and whenever the sails situation. are thus trimmed, the main-tack, the fore TACKLE, or TACKLING, among seatack, and mizen-tack, are brought close men, denotes all the ropes or cordage of by the board, and haled as much forward a ship, used in managing the sails, &c. on as they can be. The bowlings also In a more restrained sense, tackles are are so on the weather-side; the lee-sheets small ropes running in three parts, having are haled close aft, and the lee-braces of at one end a pendant and a block; and at all the sails are likewise braced aft. the other end a block and hook, to hang Hence they say, a ship sails or stands goods upon that are to be heaved into the close upon a tack, i. e. close by the wind. ship, or out of it. See Ship. The words of command are, hale aboard TACTICS, in their general acceptation, the tacks, i. e. bring the tack down close relate to those evolutions, manæuvres, to the chesse-trees. Ease the tack, i. e. and positions, which constitute the mainslacken it, or let it go, or run out. Let spring of military and naval finesse: they rise the tack, i. e. let all go out.
are the means whereby discipline is made The tacks of a ship are usually belayed to support the operations of a campaign, to the bitts, or else there is a chevil on and are, in every regular service, studied, purpose to fasten them.
for the purpose of training all the compo. Tack about, in the sea-language, is to nent parts according to one regular plan turn the ship about, or bring her head or system ; whereby celerity, precision, about, so as to lie the contrary way. In and strength, are combined, and the whole order to explain the theory of tacking a rendered completely efficient. Of militaship, it may be necessary to premise a ry tactics, the Romans may be considered known asiomin natural philosophy, “that the first nation whose military array could every body will persevere in a state of be termed regular, and whose forces mainrest, or of moving uniformly in a right tained that order, which rendered each line, unless it be compelled to change its inferior individual subject to the control state by forces impressed ; and that the of certain subaltern officers commanding change of motion is proportional to the small bodies, corresponding with our secmoving force impressed, and is made ac tions; which being again compacted uncording to the right line in which that der officers of a second class, formed small force is exerted.” By this principle it is divisions, as in our platoons, or compaeasy to conceive how a ship is compell. nies; and which divisions being collecto ed to turn in any direction, by the force ed under a third class of officers, consti. of the wind acting upon her sails in hori. tuted what we term battalions. The sol. zontal lines. For the sails may be so ar diers of ancient Italy were not only in. ranged as to receive the current of air ured to great hardships, as a part of their either directly, or more or less obliquely; usual exercise, but were taught many hence the motion communicated to the evolutions suited to the modes of warfare sails must of necessity conspire with that
in those days. of the wind upon their surfaces. To make Time has occasioned a considerable the ship tack, or turn round with her change in that particular; for since the head to the windward, it is therefore ne invention of gunpowder, our battles have cessary, after she has received the first frequently been decided by distant can. impression from the helm, that the head. nonades; and by no means resembles sails should be so disposed as to diminish those arduous conflicts in which the he. the effort of the wind, in the first instant roes of old used to engage, individually of her motion, and that the whole force of contending for the day, and causing the wind should be exerted on the after the whole field to resemble an infinity of sails, which, operating on the ship's stem, single combats. In this practice all barcarries it round like a weathercock. But barous nations seem uniformly to agree; since the action of the after-sails, to turn the sword, the tomakawk, the club, &c. the ship, will unavoidably cease when being the chief instruments; thongh, in her head points to the windward, it then some instances, the javelin, or spear, or becomes necessary to use the liead-sails, the bow and arrow, may be primarily reVOL. XII.
sorted to. Hence such warfare is far more serious consequence; the same as is causa sanguinary than that carried on with fire. ed by the want of a cog, or tooth, of any arms; which rarely do much execution, wheel in a piece of machinery. From this unless when aided by artillery, and then it may be seen how great a superiority only when at such distances as to be with that commander must possess, who, by in reach of case-shot. It will no doubt means of this science, fully comprehends surprise most of our readers, but is strict the most ready arrangement of troops, ly true, that, taking the average quantity where change of position becomes necesof musket ammunition expended, as a sary; and who has, in the first instance, so sim to be divided by the number of kill. disposed them as to be able to make those ed and wounded, not more than one shot changes (even under the disadvantages in fifty will be found to take effect. Thus, ever attendant upon such necessity) with after a battalion of 1000 men may have celerity, and in good order. fired 20 rounds per man, making in all But, however skilful the commander, 20,000 discharges of musketry, they will the whole of his good qualities will be have made terrible havoc, if 400 of the abortive, unless the materials wherewith enemy be disabled.
he is to perform his part be duly preparlience we find, that the great features ed in every respect.' It is indispensably in decisive actions are few inleed; and requisite, that every individual soldier they depend chiefly on tactics. Thus, should be so far trained, as to comprewhere a large force is brought to bear up hend fully the general intention of every on any particular point, while the enemy internal service of the company of which is kept in ignorance as to the object in he is a part. He must have a complete view; or where certain advantages of lo- knowledge of the parade duties, and concality are gained, merely by dint of superi- sider himself as a mere automaton, under or science in the art of conducting troops the guidance of a superior, or disposing by the sliortest means, and in the greatest power: he must be cool, obedient, and order; or wherc, by certain evolutions, a passive ; and he must possess a sufficient smull force is made to supply the purpose share of physical powers, and of activity, of a larger, or to resist, independently of to enable his participating in the moveentrenchiments, &c. a more numerous bo ments of the company at large. This, rily; all these evince the presence of the which is assuredly a most important matman of tactics, and qualify him for the ter, nevertheless, has been oniy within a designation of “an able General.” few years properly attended to: it was
We have also another branch, which is formerly considered fully sufficient if the in a degree secondary, because it depends soldier could wheel, face about, and fire greatly on the success of the former; with correctness; the conducting of a namely, the arrangement, or disposition, regiment through its evolutions during an of a line, in such manner as may allow engagement being left entirely to its comeach description of force to act with ef mander. It is true, the pageantry of home fect: this can be done only when the na duties was rather ostentatious, and wonture of the service to be performed is suit drous pains were taken to go through a ed to the nature of the troops by which it review with eclat; but the drum and fife is to be attempted. In this we necessarily were considered indispensable; without mean to restrict the operations of infantry them the soldier could not preserve the 10 storming parties, cavalry to campaign cadence; he had no regulated length of operations, and artillery to situations pace-no regulated time for various evowhere it can be duly protected, while lutions. Now, that we see how much the rendering essential service. Hence the whole depends on its parts, each indiviable tactician always arranges his force dual is trained systematically, and enters in such manner, as to allow each to the field fully qualified to act, without perform its duty without interfering with more instruction at the moment, than is the evolutions of any other class; and, in needful to convey to the corps at large what is called maneuvring his army, ne the general intention : ibis not only prever fails to estimate the distances, and the venis confusion, but gives to each a certime in which each may execuie the as tain confidence, both in his comrades and signed duty; so that the whole may coin. iu himself. Habituated to certain regucide with one great intention, and insure lated paces, independent of musical bias, success, by the accurate execution of its each soldier preserves his situation with respective functions: were it to be other. correctness, and feels himself, in all situvise, the whole must be subject to disor ations, fully competent to fulfil the orders der; one failure often leading to the most of his officer.
We shall endeavour to explain, in as In the soldier, an equal and cadenced brief terms as the subject may admit, the march, acquired and confirmed by liabit, manner in which the British forces are independently of music or sound in the now trained ; commencing with the first officer, precision and energy of command; stages of the recruit's tuition, and pro the preservation of just distances; and the ceeding, in a regular course, through the accurate leading of divisions on given operations of companies, battalions, and points of march and formation. These lines; whereby the chain of connection circumstances, together with the united will be best preserved, and the whole be exertions of all, will soon attain that preduly exhibited. The following preamble, cision of movement, which is so essential, taken from the “ Rules and Regulations and without which valour alone will not for Formation, Field Exercise, and Move avail.” ments, of his Majesty's Forces,” is so ad. After this, the work in question promirably suited to our purpose, that we ceeds to state: “The recruit must be present it to our readers as the best pre carried on progressively; he should comparation we can afford :
prehend one thing before he proceeds to “ The great object in view is, one another, and he should not be uselessly general and just system of movement, fatigued; he is to be trained singly and which, directing the government of great in squad ; nor is he to be allowed to join as well as of small bodies of troops, is to in battalion until he may be confirmed be rigidly conformed to, and practised by in every requisite ; for one awkward every regiment in his Majesty's service. man will frequently derange a whole To attain this important purpose, it is line.” The incipient parts of instruction, necessary to reconcile celerity to order ; however simple they may appear, are by to prevent hurry, which must always pro far the most difficult to inculcate; but duce confusion, loss of time, unsteadiness, they are of the most imperious conseirresolution, inattention to command, &c.; quence: when a good foundation is oband to insure precision and correctness, tained, the work will proceed with raby which alone great bodies will be able pidity and firmness, and the pupil will, to arrive at their object in good order, from being sensible how much he has and in the shortest space of time; to in- acquired at the onset, move and act, culcate, and to enforce, the necessity of throughout the ulterior stages, with military dependance, and of mutual sup- promptitude and confidence. Standing port in action, which are the great ends of perfectly silent and motionless, fixing discipline; to simplify the execution, and his eyes steadily either to the front, or to abridge the variety of movements, as to the right or left, as may be ordered ; much as possible, by adopting such only dressing up to the same line with others; as are necessary for combining exertions carrying his body erect, the toes turned in corps, and that can be required or ap out, the limbs firm, but pliant, erect, plied in service, regarding all matters of raised, and his weight rather borne on parade and show merely as secondary ob the fore than on the hind parts of the jects; to ascertain to all ranks the part feet, are all matters tending greatly to each will have to act in every change of his perfection. He learns to face to the situation that can happen, so that expla- right and left, or about; to move fornation may not retard at the moment ward in a perfectly straight line, without that execution should take place; to en losing squareness to the front; to move able the commanding officer of any body obliquely to the right or left, under the of troops, whether great or small, to re same precaution; and to mark time, to tain the whole relatively, as it were, in step out, or to step short ; to change feet his hand and management, at every in- when he does not move with the rest of stant, so as to be capable of restraining the company; to close, (or take room,) the bad effects of such ideas of indepen to the right or left by the side step ; to dent and individual exertion as are vision change from quick to ordinary time, or ary and hurtful, and of directing them to vice versa, with unerring readiness; to their true and proper objects, those of march in file ; to wheel either forward or order, of combined effort, and of regulat- backward; and, in general, to acquire a ed obedience, by the united force of all habitude of acting in concert with his which a well disciplined army can only be companions in arms, so as not only to defeated. The rules laid down will be avoid embarrasing them, but proving a found few, simple, and adapted to the un firm support, and becoming a manageable derstanding of every individual; but they tool in the hands of his officer. All these will require perfect attention in all ranks, are indispensably necessary to be fully
acquired; they must be so perfectly fa- every adverse argument, for the purpose miliar, as to seem rather the effect of in- of extending a front ; add to this, that stinct than of education.
both the round and the grape shots, from Thus much being duly attained, the re the enemy's artillery, do less execution cruit is instructed in the use of arms, in among two, than when three ranks are which he cannot be too perfect: the opposed to them. When a battalion is great difficulty is, to impress him, in a drawn up in two ranks, they both fire sufficient manner, with the advantages of standing; but when in three ranks, only close motion, and of preserving the the two rear ranks fire, whilst the front body from distortion, or change of po- kneels, and presents a formidable impe. sition, so far as relates to uprightness, diment to the charge of an enemy, both squareness to the front, and undeviating by its reserved fire, and by its line of attention to dressing in line. For it is sloped bayonets, to be observed, that unless very great According to our improved system of strictness be observed on the part of discipline, one officer and one covering the drill serjeant, the whole course serjeant perform all the evolutionary will be perverted by the handling of the duties of each company, when formed in musket. It would not suit our purpose, line; the rest being disposed of in the nor could it be equal to the views of rear, for the purposes of keeping the our readers, were we to enter upon all men to their duty, and of being in readi. the details regarding the motions of the ness to take command of those lesser firelock; or what is called the manual portions into which the companies occa. exercise : in the present posture of po- sionally break. By this arrangement the litical affairs, such would be perhaps un utmost precision is secured, especially necessary; it having, within these few
as select men are placed on the flanks of years, become the duty of many, and all the companies, also of their sub-divi. the amusement of all, to acquire some sions and sections, whose duty it is to reknowledge of that branch of discipline: gulate their wheelings, or changes of lowe shall therefore proceed to treat of cality, by constantly preserving the disthe firings, which constitute a very prin- tances and alignements of their respeccipal part of the soldier's duty, and greatly tive portions. interest both the officers commanding di. Perhaps among the greatest improvevisions, and those in charge of whole bat. ments of the day, we may count the mo. talions. We must, at the same time, ex dern method of marching by files ; for. press our hope, that the frivolous prac. merly this was effected in a kind of open tice of expending so many rounds of light order, the leaders gradually gaining dis. cartridges will be in time much curtailed; tance, so as to give a greater space be. in order to make way for a more extendtween the files, under the apprehension ed practice with ball; the propriety of of treading on each other's heels : but it enforcing a correctness of aim must be is now the practice to make every soldier self-evident; and is considerably enhance retain the same distance on all occasions ed by the little execution done by mus from his neighbours ; by which means, ketry, as has already been shown. the right leg of one crosses at the side of
Troops are drawn up in two or three the left leg of the other, and vice versa. ranks, according to the nature of the It is obvious, that while the leaders were service on which they are
to be em allowed to gain ground, so as to open the ployed, or the enemy to which they distances between the several files, some are to be opposed. To resist the charge time was required for the rear files to close of cavalry, it is found that three ranks up after the front has halted; and that, are preferable; as is also the case if the battalion were to be ordered to where an enemy advances en masse, or front while in the act of marching by files, bears down in column; in this arrange. under the old system, it would appear of ment, the front being diminished one. double its due extent; for they would third, many objections may be urged be so distant as to allow space for an adunder local circumstances, especially ditional file between every man in the when acting behind entrenchments, ranks. Our readers cannot fail to perwhen covered by morasses, or when the ceive the high importance of keeping enemy cannot advance with rapidity in troops always to the same extent of front compact heavy bodies. The mode of as when formed in line ; for if allowed to drawing up in two ranks is peculiarly vary, from any inattention to regularity, adapted to the foregoing, and on some it would be utterly impossible for the comoccasions must be adopted, in spite of mander to perform his evolutions upon 3