Birds are distinguished from quadru. cent, but others have fangs, by which they peds by their laying eggs; they are also instil a poisonous Auid into the wounds generally feathered, although some few that they make. In England, the viper is are rather hairy, and, instead of hands or the only venomous serpent; it is known fore-legs, they have wings. Their eggs by its dark brown colour, and by a stripe are covered by a calcareous shell; and of whitish spots running along its back : they consist of a white, or albumen, but to mankind its bite is seldom, if ever, which nourishes the chick during incuba. fatal. tion, and a yolk, which is so suspended The first three classes of animals have within it, as to preserve the side on which lungs, as we have already seen, for respi. the little rudiment of a chicken is situa. ration, and receive air' by the mouth ; ted continually uppermost, and next to those which have gills, and red blood, the mother that is sitting on it. T'he yolk are fishes, residing either in fresh or in is, in great measure, received into the salt water, or indifferently in both : their abdomen of the chicken a little before the eggs are involved in a membrane, and time of its being hatched, and serves for have no albumen. its support, like the milk of a quadruped, Of the six orders of fishes, four have and like the cotyledons of young plants, regular gills, supported by little bones; until the system is become sufficiently and they are distinguished according to strong for extracting its own food out of the place of their ventral fins, into Apodes, the ordinary nutriment of the species. as the eel and lamprey : Jugulares, as the

Birds are divided, according to the cod: Thoracici, as the sole and perch: form of their bills, into six orders: Acci. and Abdominales, as the salmon and pike: pitres; as eagles, vultures, and hawks. distinctions which appear to be perfectly Picæ; as crows, jackdaws, humming- artificial, although useful in a systematic birds, and parrots. Anseres; as ducks, arrangement. The two remaining orders swans, and gulls. Grallæ ; as herons, are without bones in the gills, those of woodcocks, and ostriches. Gallinæ; as the one being soft, and of the other carti. peacocks, pheasants, turkies, and com laginous or gristly. These are, the Branmon fowls. And, lastly, Passeres; com chiostegi and Chondropterygii of Artedi, prehending sparrows, Jarks, swallows, which Linnæus, from a mistake, classed ibrushes, and doves. The amphibia are among the Amphibia. The sun fish, the in some respects very nearly allied to Jump fish, the fishing frog, and the sea. birds; but their blood is little warmer than horse, are of the former; and the sturthe surrounding medium. Their respi- geon, the skate, and the shark of the latration is not necessarily performed in a ter order. continual succession of alternations, since Insects derive their name from being the whole of their blood does not pass almost always divided, into a head, tho. through the lungs, and the circulation rox, and abdomen, with very slender inmay continue without interruption in tervening portions: although these diviother parts, although it may be impeded sions do not exist in all insects. They in these organs for want of the motion of are usually oviparous; they respire, but respiration. They are very tenacious of not by the mouth; they have a number of life; it has been asserted on good autho. little orifices on each side of the abdomen, rity, that some of them have lived many by which the air is received into their years without food, inclosed in hollow ramified trachea; and if these are stoptrees, and even in the middle of stones : ped with oil, they are suffocated. Instead and they often retain vestiges of life some of bones, they have a hard integument or days after the loss of their hearts. Their shell. Their mouths are formed on coneggs are generally covered with a mem. structions extremely various, but gene. brane only. They have sometimes an in- rally very complicated: Fabricius has termediate stage of existence, in which all made these parts the basis of his classifitheir parts are not yet developed, as we cation ; but from their minuteness in most observe in the tadpole ; and in this re. species, the method is, in practice, insu. spect they resemble the class of insects. perably inconvenient: and the only way They are now universally considered as in which such characters can be rendered divided into two orders only: Reptilia; as really useful is, when they are employed the tortoise, the dragon, or flying lizard, in the subdivisions of the genera, as deter. the frog, and the toad; all these have mined from more conspicuous distinctions. four feet; but the animals which belong Insects have most frequently jaws, and to the order Serpenies are without feet. often several pairs, but they are always Most of the serpentes are perfectly inno so placed as to open laterally or horizon.


tally. Sometimes, instead of jaws, they polype, imitating, by its extended arms, have a trunk or proboscis. In general the appearance of an imperfect flower. they pass through four stages of existence, The last order, Infusoria, is scarcely disthe egg, the larva, or stage of growth, tinguished from the Intestina and Mollus. the pupa, or chrysalis, which is usually ca by any other character than the miin a state of torpor or complete inactivity, nuteness of the individuals belonging to and the imago, or perfect insect, in its it, and their spontaneous appearance in nuptial capacity. After the last change, animal and vegetable infusions, where we the insect most frequently takes no food can discover no traces of the manner in till its death.

which they are produced. The process The Linnæan orders of insects are, the by which their numbers are sometimes Coleoptera, with hard sheaths to their increased is no less astonishing than wings, generally called beetles; the Hem their first production ; for several of the iptera, of which the sheaths are of a softer genera often appear to divide, spontanenature, and cross each other, as grasshop- ously, into two or more parts, which bepers, bugs, and plant lice; the Lepidop come new and distinct animals, so that in tera, with dusty scales on their wings, as such a case the question respecting the butterflies and moths; the Neuroptera, as identity of an individual would be very the libellula, or dragon-fly, the may-fly, difficult to determine. The volvox, and and other insects with four transparent some of the vorticellæ, are remarkable wings, but without stings; the Hymenop- for their continual rotatory motion, probatera, which have stings, either poisonous bly intended for the purpose of straining or not, as bees, wasps, and ichneumons; their food out of the water : while some the Diptera with two wings, as common other species of the vorticellæ resemble Aies and gnats, which have halteres, or fungi or corallines in miniature. balancing rods, instead of the second pair ZOOPHYTA, in natural history, an orof wings; and, lastly, the Aptera, without der of the class Vermes. Zoophyta are any wings, which form the seventh order, composite animals, holding a medium be. comprehending crabs, lobsters, shrimps, tween animals and vegetables. Most of and prawns, for these are properly insects; them take root and grow up into stems, spiders,scorpions, millepedes, centipedes, multiplying life in their branches and decimites, and monoculi. The Monoculus is duous buds, and in the transformation of a genus including the little active insects their animated branches or polypes, which found in pond-water, which are scarcely are endowed with spontaneous motion. visible to the naked eye, as well as the Plants, therefore, resemble zoophyta, but Molucca crab, which is the largest of all are destitute of animation and the power insects, being sometimes six feet long. of locomotion; and zoophyta are, as it Besides these, there are several genera of were, plants, but furnished with sensation apterous insects, which are parasitical, and and the organs of spontaneous motion. infest the human race as well as other of these some are soft and naked, and animals.

others are covered with a hard shell : the The Vermes are the last and lowest of former are by some naturalists called animated beings, yet some of them are not zoophytes, and the latter are denominated deficient either in magnitude or in beau- lithophytes. There are fifteen genera, ty. The most natural division of vermes viz. is into five orders; the Intestina, as earthworms and ascarides, which are distin Aleyonium

Madrepora guished by the want of moveable appen Antipathes

Millepora dages, or tentacula, from the Mollusca, Cellepora

Pennatula such as the dew snail, the cuttle fish, the Corallina

Sertularia sea anemone, and the hydra, or fresh wa. Flustra

Spongia ter polype. The Testacea have shells of Gorgonia

Tubipora one or more pieces, and most of them in Hydra

Tubularia habit the sea, and are called shell fish, as

Isis the limpet, the periwinkle, the snail, the muscle, the oyster, and the barnacle. The coral reefs that surround many The order Zoophyta contains corallines, islands, particularly those in the Indian sponges, and other compound animals, Archipelago and round New Holland, are united by a common habitation, which formed by various tribes of these animals, has the general appearance of a vegeta- particularly by the Cellepora, Isis, Madreble, although of animal origin; each of the pora, Millepora, and Tubipora. The anilittle inhabitants resembling a hydra, or mals form these corals with such rapidity,

that enormous masses of them very spee. ZYGOPHYLLUM, in botany, bean cadily appear where there were scarcely per, a genus of the Decandria Monogynia any marks of such reefs before.

class and order. Natural order of GruiZOSTERA, in botany, a genus of the nales. Rutaceæ, Jussieu. Essential chaMonandria Monogynia class and order. racter: calyx five-leaved; petals five; Natural order of Inundatæ Aroideæ, Jus. nectary ten-leaved, covering the germ, sieu. Essential character: spadix linear, and bearing the stamens; capsule five. within the sheath of the leaves ; flower celled. There are fourteen species, of bearing on one side ; calyx none; corolla these the following may be noticed: Z. none ; anther sessile, opposite to the fætidum, fetid bean-caper : the leaves of germ; stigmas two, linear; capsule one. this plant stand on long footstalks, and seeded. There is but one species, viz. 2. diffuse widely a strong foxy smell : it marina, grase wrack, and many varieties. flowers from July to September. The

ZWINGERA, in botany, so named from fruiting peduncle turns back, whence its Theodorus Zwinger, Professor of anatomy trivial name retrofractum. It is a native and botany at Basil, a genus of the De. of the Cape of Good Hope. Z. morgsana, candria Monogynia class and order. four-leaved bean-caper, bas a shrubby Natural order of Terebintaceæ, Jussieu. stem, divided into many irregular-jointed Essential character:calyx five-parted; pe. branches, rising four or six feet high; tals five ; filaments widened at the base, leaves thick and succulent, and placed by hairy ; capsule five, coriaceous, one-seed- fours at each joint, two on each side the ed, inserted into a feshy receptacle. stalk, opposite; the fruit has four membraThere is but one species, viz. Z. amara, a naceous wings, resembling the sails of a native of the woods of Guiana.

mill. Z. arboreum, tree bean-caper, is a ZYGIA, in natural history, a genus of very handsome tree, forty feet high, with insects of the order Coleoptera: antennæ a very large, thick, elegant head: trunk moniliform ; feelers equal, filiform; lip upright, dividing into numerous opposite elongated, membranaceous; jaw one- branches; flowers inodorous, large, handtoothed. There is only one species, viz. some, which give the tree a most beauti2. oblonga, which is found in the East. ful appearance when in bloom.


A ,

about the same time, read about the flies, either on the surface of the water, year 1713.

or a little underneath it. In angling for ARIANS. For defence of low Arian- roach, dace, &c. the fly should be allow. ism, read defence of Arianism.

ed to glide down the stream to the fish ; ASTRONOMY. In the fourteenth but in very still water the bait may be page of this article, near the top of the drawn by the fish, which will make him first column, read, instead of what is there eagerly pursue it. found, “ The diameter at the poles is There are many sorts of artificial flies 7,893 English miles; at the equator it is to be had at the shops; they are made in 7,928 miles.”

imitation of natural flies, and the rules for CAULIS is referred to from AcauLOSE; using them are as follow. Keep as far the reference should have been made to from the water's edge as may be, and fish the article BOTANY.

down the stream with the sun at your CONCHA. Instead of this, the refer. back ; the line must not touch the water. ence should have been to SHELL.

In clear rivers the angler must use small Corn laws is referred to from the arti- fies with slender wings, but in muddy cle BOUNTY ; the reference should have waters a larger fly may be used. After been to the article Corn trade.

rain, when the waters are muddy, an COUTCHOUC. Read CAOUTCHOUC. orange coloured Ay may be used with

CYCLE is referred to from CALENDAR, advantage : in a clear day, the fly must but the reference should have been made be light coloured, and in dark waters the to CHRONOLOGY, where an account of the fly must be dark. The line should in geseveral cycles will be found.

neral be twice as long as the rod : but, EQUATONAL. Read EQUATORIAL. after all, much will depend on a quick

FISHING flies have been referred to eye and active hand. Flies made for from the article ANGLING, and being omit. ' catching salmon must have their wings ted in the alphabetical order, we add in standing one behind the other. This fisha this place, that a fishing fly is a bait used is said to be attracted by the gaudiest co. in angling for various kinds of fish. The lours that can be obtained; the wings and fly is either natural or artificial. The tail should be long and spreading. chief of the natural flies are the “stone FRANKS, or franking letters, which fly," found under hollow stones at the ought to have been included in the article sides of rivers, between April and July; Post-Office, is a privilege that has been It is brown, with yellow streaks, and has enjoyed by members of parliament from large wings; the“ green drake,” found the first institution of the post-office. The among stones by river sides ; it has a original design of this exemption was, that yellow body ribbed with green, it is long they might correspond freely with their and slender, with wings like a butterfly, constituents on the business of the nation. and is common in the spring : “the oak For many years it was sufficient to frank fly,” found in the body of an oak or ash, a letter or packet, that any member of is of a brown colour, and common during parliament subscribed his name at the the summer months; the “ palmer fly," bottom of the cover. By degrees, how. or worm, found on the leaves of plants, ever, this privilege was so much abused, when it assumes the fly state from that of that it was enacted, that no letter should the caterpillar ; it is much used in trout pass free, unless the whole direction was fishing : the “ ant fly,” found in ant hills in the hand writing of the member, 'and from June to September: the “ May his subscription annexed: a subsequent fly” is to be found playing at the river act obliges the member to write not only side, especially before rain : and the the full direction, but to note the town át “ black Ay,” which is to be found upon

which the office is where the letter is every hawthorn after the buds are off. sent from. A member of parliament can



frank only ten letters on each day, and PERSICA was referred to from NECTAreceive fifteen free of postage : each of Rile, but the reference should have been which must weigh less ihan one ounce. to AMYGDALUS, of wbich genus the per

GAURS. This word having been re sica, or nectarine, is only a species. ferred 10, it is necessary to mention, that PRINTING, stereotype. In the second the Gaors are an ancieni sect of magicians' paragraph, for by the Jesuits, read say in Persia, where they are employed in the the Jesuits. See STEREOTYPE. meanest offices, and vilest drudgery. STAMP duties, a branch of the public They are said to be harmless in their revenue, raised by requiring that all deeds manners. zealous in their opinions, rigo. or documents, in order to be valid, shall rous in their morals, and exact in their be written on paper or parchment beardealings They profess the worship of ing a public seal, for which a tax is paid. one God alone, the belief of a resurrec. This mode of taxation was introduced into tion and a future judgment, and utterly England in 1671, by “ an act for laying an detest all idolatry. They perform their imposition on proceedings at law;" but acts of worship in the presence of fire, the act in 1694, for imposing several du. for which they have much veneration, ties upon vellum, parchment and paper, regarding it as the most perfect emblem may be considered as the commencement of the living and invisible God. They of the present Stamp Office, as a particu. exhibit the same marks of respect for lar set of commissioners was then apZoroaster that the Jews have for Moses, pointed for managing the duties These esteeming him as a prophet sent from God. duties at first were to continue only for a GUTAC. Read GrataCUM.

limited period, but about the year 1698 HOWITZ, or Howitzer, in military several new ones were granted, to contiaffarrs, a kind of mortar mounted upon a nue for ever, to which, additions, almost field carriage like a gun. The difference without end, have, at different times, bei ween a mortar and a howitzer is, that been since made, as will appear from the the trunnions of the first are at the end, following statement. The total gross and of the other in the middle. The in- produce of the stamp duties, in the year vention of howitzers is of much later date 1713, was 107.7791., the charges of mathan that of mortars. The construction nagement of which amounted to 14,2961., is various, but the chamber is alu ays cy- leaving a nett produce of only 93,40,31. lindrical. They are distinguished by the In 1723 the neit produce had increased diameter of the bore. A battery of to 1.50,409i. ; and it seldom exceeded this howitzers is formed in the same way as a

amount till 1757, when some new stamp gun-battery, only the embrazures are at duties were imposed, by which the total least a foot wider, on account of the short. nett amount of this revenue was increased ness of the howitzer.

to 267,7251 : In 1766 it amounted to JESUITS. In this article, for Loyoly 285,2661.: and no material additions were and 1738, read Loyola and 1538.

made till towards the conclusion of the LINARIA has been referred to from American war. In 1782, a duty was imLixvet, which is a species of Fringilla, posed on fire insurances, which, though and under that article the description will not actually collected by means of stamps, be found.

was classed with the stamp duties. In MUSTELA has been referred to from 1784, additional duties were laid on gold FERRET, &c. but the reference should and silver plate in 1785, duties were have been to VIVFRRA, where the princi. laid on post-horses, quack medicines, pal species are described.

game licenses, attorneys' licenses, and NAZARENES, in church history, has pawnbrokers; all of which were deemed been referred to from the article E10. stamp duties and considerably augmented NITES ; and being omitted in its proper the annual amount. But a far greater in. place, we may observe here, that it was a crease took place in the course of the war name originally applied to Christians in which began in 1793, during which new general, as followers of Jesus of Naza. stamp duties were imposed on receipts, reth ; but was afterwards restrained to bills of exchange, attorneys' articles, seathat sect, who endeavoured to blend the insurances, licenses to wear hair-powder, institutions of the mosaic law with those horse dealers' licenses, legacies, hats, which are peculiar to the gospel. st:ge-coaches, deeds, armorial bearings,

NECROMANCY being referred to, we small notes, medicines, and several other define the term as a species of pretended articles, which soon increased this branch divination, performed by raising the dead, of the revenue to more than double its and extorting answers from them.

former amount; and it is a mode of tax

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