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ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION FOR THE

YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1897.

SUBJECTS.

1. Proceedings of the Board of Regents for the session of January,

1897.

2. Report of the Executive Committee, exhibiting the financial affairs of the Institution, including a statement of the Smithson fund, and receipts and expenditures for the year ending June 30, 1897.

3. Annual report of the Secretary, giving an account of the operations and condition of the Institution for the year ending June 30, 1897, with statistics of exchanges, etc.

4. General appendix, comprising a selection of miscellaneous memoirs of interest to collaborators and correspondents of the Institution, teachers, and others engaged in the promotion of knowledge. These memoirs relate chiefly to the calendar year 1897.

IV

V. Report on the Astrophysical Observatory

VI. Report of the Librarian.

VII. Report of the Editor....

GENERAL APPENDIX.

85

101

109

125

137

157

169

183

207

219

Aspects of American Astronomy, by Simon Newcomb....

The Beginnings of American Astronomy, by Edward S. Holden...

The Evolution of Satellites, by G. H. Darwin...

Electrical Advance in the Past Ten Years, by Elihu Thomson

The X-Rays, by W. C. Röntgen...

Cathode Rays, by J. J. Thomson

Story of Experiments in Mechanical Flight, by S. P. Langley..

On Soaring Flight, by E. C. Huffaker.....

The Revival of Alchemy, by H. C. Bolton.

Diamonds, by William Crookes...

The Discovery of New Elements within the Last Twenty-Five Years, by

Clemons Winkler

An Undiscovered Gas, by William Ramsay

Fluorine, by Henri Moissan

Light, and its Artificial Production, by 0. Lummer..

Explorations of the Upper Atmosphere, by Henri de Graffigny..

The Exploration of the Free Air by Means of Kites at Blue Hill Observatory,

by A. Lawrence Rotch

The Debt of the World to Pure Science, by John J. Stevenson.

The Age of the Earth as an Abode Fitted for Life, by Lord Kelvin...

Rising of the Land Around Hudson Bay, by Robert Bell....

Crater Lake, Oregon, by J. S. Diller....

The Function and Field of Geography, by J. Scott Keltie.

Letters from the Andrée Party ..

Scientific Advantages of an Antarctic Expedition, by John Murray and others.

Recent Progress in Physiology, by Michael Foster

The Factors of Organic Evolution from a Botanical Standpoint, by L. H. Bailey

237

247

259

273

301

317

325

337

359

369

381

401

413

437

453

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

162

SECRETARY'S REPORT:

Page. Bridge in Zoological Park

56 Zebu House in Zoological Park. 58 Pronghorn Antelope in Zoological Park.....

60 Infra-red spectrum of a rock-salt prism (a).....

66 Infra-red spectrum of a rock-salt prism (b).....

67 EVOLUTION OF SATELLITES: Text figure....

111 THE X-RAYS: Text figuro....

146 CATHODE Rays (Thomson): Plate I..

158 Plate II.

160 Plate III MECHANICAL Flight (Langley): Plate I....

180 LIGHT AND ITS ARTIFICIAL PRODUCTION (Luimer): Text figure....

276 Text figure.

281 Text figure.

288 EXPLORATION OF AIR

BY KITES
(Rotch):
Plate I.

318 Plate II..

320 Plate III

322 EXPLORATIONS OF UPPER ATMOSPHERE (Graffigny): Plate I.

306 Plate II.

308 Plate III.

310 CRATER LAKE (Diller): Plate I..

370 Plates II-XVI..

380

Page. LETTERS FROM ANDRÉE PARTY: Plates I-VII

412 PROTECTIVE COLORATION (Thayer): Plate I......

478 Plate II.

480 Plates III-V

482 OMAHA TOTEM (Fletcher): Plate I...

578 Plate II.

580 Plate III...

582 STONE IMPLEMENTS (Phillips): Plate I-X

600 ARCHEOLOGICAL WORK IN ARIZONA (Fewkes): Plate I..

602 Plate II

603 Plate III

605 Plate IV

606 Plate V

607 Plates VI, VII.

608 Plates VIII, IX

609 Plates X, XI.

610 Plate XII

611 Plate XIII

612 Plate XIV.

613 Plate XV

614 Plate XVI.

615 Plate XVII.

619 Plate XVIII.

620 Plate XIX

621 Plate XX.

624 Plates XXI-XXIII (colored). 624 LIBRARY OF CONGRESS (Green): Plate I..

626 Plate II.

628 Plate III.

630 Plates IV-XIII.

632

VINI

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