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and House of Representatives as provided in the act.

Where no mode is pointed out by law for the removal of an officer, a repeal of the law creating the office is suflicient to vacate the same; but where the mode is specifically pointed out in the act creating the office, for the removal of officers appointed and holding under the provisions of such act, such officer can only be reinoved in the manner prescribed.

The act creating the office of state printer distinctly declares that he "shall hold his office until removed,” by a like vote by which he was appointed, viz: a concurrent vote of the Senate and House of Representatives; a repeal of the act therefore would not vacate the office, but would merely take away the powers and duties from the state printer, which are prescribed in that act.

But conceding that the legislature may legally remove the state printer by a repeal of the act by which he now holds his appointment, your committee are of the opinion, that it would be doing that officer injustice to do so, unless it be first shown that he has failed to discharge his duties, or that the public interest requires bis removal.

The office of public printer is in one important respect different from other offices. "In general, nothing is required of a public officer but the abilities requisite to enable hiin to discharge his duties, while in that of public printer, extensive preparations are necessary in the purchase of stock, paper, &c., which inust be obtained before the 1 eeting of the legislature, in order to be prepared for a prompt execution of the public work.

If the object aimed at by the repeal of the present law be to provide that each house shall select its own printer, your committee would urge still stronger the inexpediency of the repeal. Until the present law authorizing the appointment of a state printer was enacted, each branch of the legislature was in the practice of selecting its own printer. Under that system, the expenses of the state for public printing were liable to be increased far beyond what is incurred under the presen: law, for the same amount of work done. Suppose for instance, at the present session, each house had its separate printer, the annual message of the Executive, and the voluminous reports of our public officers, which are now printed for both houses, from the same type, would in that case, have to be set up in each office, which would greatly increase the expense beyond what it now is.

Section thirteen of the act declares that for the services per. formed for the state under the provisions of this act, the state printer shall receive such compensation as shall be provided for in the annual appropriation bill or bills of each session, provided, said compensation shall not exceed the amount to which printers would be entitled, by th: current prices of printing.”

This section of the act proposed to be repealed, it will be seen, leaves the whole matter with the legislature to say how much the state printer shall receive. Unless we distrust ourselves, we ought to rest satisfied with the right which the legislature have, under the act in question, to pay a fair and reasonable price for the public printing, and no more.

The present state printer has been at great expense in preparing to do the public printing with neatness and despatch, and in furnishing stock, materials, &c. for that purpose. He has a bindery attached to his printing office, which affords great facilities for preparing the laws of each session for distribution among the people, and your committee can see no good reason why the act should be repealed; nor do they believe that the public interest requires his removal from office.

Entertaining these views, your committee are of the opinion that the bill referred to them ought not to pass ; and they ask leave to be discharged from the further consideration of the subject. All which is respectfully submitted.

E. B. HARRINGTON, Chairman,

(No. 11.) Report of the Committee on the Judiciary on the pe

tition for an increase of Masters in Chancery in Wayne county

The committee on the judiciary, to whom was referred the petition of Alex. D. Frazer and others, for the passage of an act to increase the number of masters in chancery in the county of Wayne, respectfully report :

That they can see no good reason why the number of Masters in chancery in the county of Wayne, or in any other county in the state, should be confined to three.

They therefore recommend a repeal of the proviso to section 24, chapter 6, title 1 of part 3d of the revised statutes, and bring in a bill for that purpose.

(No. 12.)
Second Annual Report of the State Geologists

Detroit, Feb. 4, 1839.
To the Hon. President of the Senate :

Sir, I have the honor to transmit to the legislature the accompanying reports and documents, setting forth the progress which has been made in the geological survey for the current year, ending February 3, 1839. I am, very respectfully,

Your ob't serv't,
DOUGLASS HOUGHTON,

State Geologist.

OFFICE OF STATE GEOLOGIST,

Detroit, Feb. 4, 1839. To the Hon. Senate and House of Representatives of Michigan :

In conformily with the requisitions of your honorable body, I herewith transmit such information, touching the progress and general results of the works placed under my charge, as would appear to be called for in an annual report; reserving the great mass of matter which has been accumulated, with the view to an elucidation of the condition and resources of our state, for a final report.

Immediately upon the reception of an act "relative to the geological survey," approved March 22, 1838, I proceeded, in conformity with the instructions contained in said act, to organize a geological board, and to divide the complete work in such a manner as to constitute a geological and mineralogical, a zoological, a botanical, and a topographical departmerit.

At as early a day as circumstances would permit, the heads of each of these departments took the field, and continued their arduous duties until the inclemency of the season compelled a suspension of labor; since which time they have been busily engaged in arranging the great amount of information which has been obtained in such a manner that it may eventually be made available.

My individual labor has been chiefly devoted to an examination of the coast of those portions of our state bordering on lakes Huron and Michigan, together with so much of the interior of the peninsula as circumstances would permit. I have also devoted a portion of the past season to a general examination of some of the southern and central counties of the state, preparatory to the more minute examination which has been commenced and which it is proposed to renew with the first opening of spring.

The geographical information respecting the northern portion of this peninsula is so imperfectly understood, that, were it at this time desirable, it would be impossible to lay before you the minute results of the examination in that portion of the state, in such a manner as to be intelligible, unless accompanied with complete new maps, which could not be expected to be forwarded in a report, that at most, can only be looked upon as setting forth, in a general manner, the progress of the work placed under my charge. NORTHERN PART OF THE PENINSULA.

Topography and General Character. The country under consideration, lying west of Saginaw bay; and extending north from townships ten and eleven north, to the straits of Mackinac, has been so imperfectly known to the citizens of our state that no estimate of its value could be made. No circumstances have occurred to aid in developing its resources, and from the forbidding character of most of the coast, it has very naturally been considered as a flat country, worthless, except for the immense tracts of pine timber which were supposed to exist in it; both of which suppositions are, to a great extent, without foundation. It is true, however, that the northern portions of the peninsula are characterized by a larger proportion of irreclaimable marsh than is to be found in the southern counties, yet notwithstanding this, many portions are not inferior to the other parts of the state.

Several streams of considerable size occur on the northern part of the peninsula ; among the most important of which are the Maskego, White, Pere Marquette, Manistee and Platte on the west ; Cheboigan on the north, and Thunder Bay, Au Sable, Pere and Tittabawassa rivers on the cast.

The Maskego river, which is the largest of the streams enumerated, has its principal source in a group of large inland lakes situated west of the meridian, in about ranges three and four west, and towns twenty-two and twenty-three north. These lakes are almost completely surrounded by nearly impenetrable swamps, covering a large portion of the area of from seven to eight townships, the chief portions of which may safely be said to be utterly irreclaimable. From one of the principal lakes of the group mentioned, the Maskego river runs southwesterly in a line partially parallel with the coast of Lake Michigan, receiving numerous tributaries, until it finally discharges its waters into the last mentioned lake, in town ten north, range seventeen west. The stream through its whole course is extremely crooked, and its total length, including its windings, may be estimated at about two hundred miles. The waters descend with an extremely rapid, though for the most part uniform current, and their depth is very regular. The stream is capable of being easily made nåvi. gable for steamboats, nearly, if not quite, to the lake which forms its source. Large portions of the lands situated upon this stream are well adapted to the purposes of agriculture, and although the great majority are timbered lands, there is, nevertheless, a sufficient amount of prairie to greatly facilitate the settlement of the surrounding country.

The Maskego, like almost all the streams on the western side of Lake Michigan, first discharges its waters into a small lake that is separated only by a very slight distance from the main lake. The Maskego river may be said to furnish one of the best natural stream" harbors which is found upon Lake Michigan.

The Tittabawassa on the east, which is one of the branches of the Saginaw river, has its source not very far distant from that of the Maskego, and the upper portion of its course is nearly parallel to the latter stream, the Maskego being upon the west side of the summit, while the Tittabawassa is upo: the eastern side. The latter streamn, gradually curving to the east, discharges its waters through the Saginaw river into Saginaw bay of Lake Huron.

The Tittaba wassa is navigable for boats of light draught for a distance of from forty to fifty miles, above which it is obstructed by numerous rapids, that will furnish, if properly applied, an abundance of hydraulic power. The surrounding country is considerably clevated, and the banks of the stream sometimes rise quite abruptly to a height of from twenty to forly or even fifty feet. Portions of the lands in the vicinity of the river are of good quality and well adapted to agriculture; but other portions occur where the soil is of a light sandy character and will require inuch Jabor to render it productive. Some valuable tracts of white pine exist in the vicinity of the Tittabawassa, but in consequence of the ravages of fire, which has been communicated froin Indian camps, pine in quantities is rarely seen upon the immediate banks of the river.

The Au Sable and Thunder Bay rivers are both capable of being made excellent harbors for lake shipping, and they are streams of considerable magnitude. The former may be rendered navigable, but to what distance I am not able to say. The navi. gation of the latter stream is obstructed near its mouth by a series of rapids, the bed of the stream being composed of limestone in place.

The water of most of the other streams enumerated, like those already mentioned, flows with a brisk current and sometimes with great rapidity. The beds of the streams are chiefly composed of a yellow sand, and the depth is remarkably uniform. An abun

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