Gneiss. A stratified primary rock, composed of the same materials as granite, but the mica is distributed in parallel layers, which give it a striped aspect.

Geode. Geodiferous. Gcodes are small cavities in rock, generally lined with quartzose or calcarcous chrystals.

Geology. A science which has for its object to investigate the structure of the earth, the materials of which it is composed, the manner in which these are arranged, with regard to each other : and it considers the action of all natural causes in producing changes, such as the effects of frost, rain, floods, tides, currents, winds, earthquakes and volcanoes.

Economical Geology refers to the applications of geological facts and observations to the useful purposes of civilized life.

Granite. An unstratified rock, composed generally of quartz, feldspar and mica, and it is usually associated with the oldest of the stratified rocks.

Graywacke, Grauwacke. A group of strata in the transition of rocks; but the term has been so indefinitely applied, that other names will probably be substituted.

Greenstone. A trap rock, composed of hornblende and feldspar.

Gril. A coarse-grained sandstone.

Gypsum. A mineral, composed of sulphuric acid and lime, and extensively used as a stimulant manure, and for making stucco and plaster casts, &c. It is also called Plaster of Paris.

Hornblende. A mineral of a dark green or black color, and which is a constituent part of greenstone.

Hornstone. A siliceous mineral, approaching to flint in its character.

In Situ. In their original position where they were formed.

Laminue. The thin lavers into which strata are divided, but to which they are not always parallel.

Lacustrine. Belonging to a lake. Depositions formed in ancient as well as modern lakes, are called lacustrine deposites.

Landslip. It is the removal of a portion of land down an inclined surface. It is in consequence of the presence of water beneath, which either washes away the support of the superincumbent mass, or so saturates the materials, that they become a slippery paste.

Line of bearing, is the direction of the intersection of the planes of the strata with the plane of the horizon.

Lignite. Wood naturally carbonized and converted into a kind of coal in the earth.

Littoral. Belonging to the shore.
Loam. A mixture of sand and clav.

Mural Escarpment. A rocky cliff' with a face nearly vertical like a wall.

Mammillary. A surface studded with smooth small segments of spheres like the swell of the breasts.

Mammoth. An extinct species of the elephant.

Marl. By this term an argillaceous carbonate of lime is usually implied. By custom, its signification is much more extended, and means mineral substances, which act as stimulating or fertilizing manures. There are clay marls, shell marls, and various others.

Marly clay. Clay containing carbonate of lime.

Mastodon. A genus of extinct fossil animals allied to the ele. phant. They are so called from the form of the grinders, which have their surfaces covered with conical mammillary crests.

Matrix. The mineral mass in which a simple mineral is imbedded, is called its Matrix or gangue.

Megatherium. A fossil extinct quadruped resembling a gigantic sloth.

Mechanical origin, Rocks of. Rocks composed of sand, pebbles or fragments, are so called, to distinguish them from those of a uniform crystalline texture, which are of chemical origin.

Mica. A simple mineral having a shining silvery surface, and capable of being split into very thin elastic leaves or scales The brilliant scales in granite and gneiss are mica.

Mica Slute. One of the stratified rocks belonging to the primary class. It is generally fissile, and is characterized by being composed of mica and quartz, of which the former either predominates, or is disposed in layers, so that its flat surfaces give it the appearance of predominating.

Miocene. One of the deposites of the tertiary epoch. It is more recent than the cocene, and older than the pliocene.

Mollusca. Molluscous animals. "Animals, such as shell fish, which being devoid of bones, have soft bodies.”

Mountain Limestone. A series of limestone strata, of which the geological position is immediately below the coal measures, and with which they also sometimes alternate.”

Muriate of Soda. Common salt.

Naphtha. A fluid, volatile, inflammable mineral, which is common in volcanic districts, and in the vicinity of the salt springs of the United States.

New Red Sandstone. "A series of sandy and argillaceous, and often calcareous strata, the prevailing color of which is brick red, but containing portions which are greenish grey. These occur often in spots and stripes, so that the series has sometimes been called, the variegated sandstone. The European, so called, lies in a geological position immediately above the coal mea


Nodule. A rounded irregular shaped lump or mass.

Old Red Sandstone. "A stratified rock, belonging to the carboniferous group of Europe."

Oolite, oolitic. “A limestone, so named, because it is composed of rounded particles like the roe or eggs of fish. The name is also applied to a large group of strata characterized by peculiar fossils."

Organic remains. See Fossils. .

Orthoceratite. The remains of an extinct genus of molluscous animals, called Cephalopoda. The orthoceratites are long straight conical chambered shells.

Out crop. See Crop out.

Out-liers. Hills or ranges of rock strata, occuring at some distance from the general mass of the formations to which they belong. Many of these have been caused by denudation, having removed parts of the strata which once connected the out-liers with the main mass of the formation.

Oxide. A combination of oxygen with another body. The term is usually limited to such combinations as do not present active acid or alkaline properties.

Palaeontology. A science which treats of fossil remains.

Pisolite. A calcareous mineral, composed of rounded concretions like peas.

Pliocene. The upper, or more recent tertiary strata. This group of strata is divided into the older and newer pliocene rocks.

Petroleum. A liquid mineral pitch. It is common in the region of salt springs in the United States.

Porphyry. A term applied to every species of unstratified rock, in which detatched crystals of feldspar are diffused through a compact base of other mineral composition.

Productus. An extinct genus of fossil bivalve shells.

Plastic clay. One of the beds of the Eocene period. The plastic clay formation is mostly composed of sands with associate beds of clay.

Pudding stone. See Conglomerate.

Pyrites. A mineral composed of sulphur and iron. It is usually of a brass yellow, brilliant, often crystalized, and frequently mistaken for gold.

Quartz. A simple mineral, composed of silex. Rock crystal is an example of this mineral.

Rock. All mineral beds, whether of sand, clay, or firmly aggregated masses, are called rocks. Sandstone. A rock composed of aggregated grains of sand. Saurians. Animals belonging to the lizard tribe. Schist. Slate.

Seams. "Thin layers which separate strata of greater magnitude."

Secondary Strata. “An extensive series of the stratified rocks, which compose the crust of the globe, with certain characters in common, which distinguish them from another series below them, called primary, and another above them, called tertiary.”

Sedimentary Rocks-Are those which have been formed by their materials having been thrown down from a state of suspension or solution in water.

Selenite. Crystalized gypsum.

Septaria. Flattened balls of stone, which have been more or less cracked in different directions, and cemented together by mineral matter which fills the fissures.

Serpentine. A rock composed principally of hydrated silicate of magnesia. It is generally an unstraiified rock.

Shale. An indurated slaty clay, which is very fissile.

Shell Marl-Fresh water Shell Marl. A deposite of fresh water shells, which have disintegrated into a grey or white pulverulent mass.

Shingle. The loose water-worn gravel and pebbles on shores and coasts.

Silex. The name of one of the pure earths which is the base of flint, quartz, and most sands and sandstone.

Siliceous. Containing silex.

Silt. “ The more comminuted sand, clay and earth, which is transported by running water."

Simple Minerals-Are composed of a single mineral substance. Rocks are generally aggregates of several simple minerals cemented together.

Slate. A rock dividing into thin layers.

Stalactite. Concreted carbonate of lime, hanging from the roofs of caves, and like icicles in form.

Stalagmites. Crusts and irregular shaped masses of concreted carbonate of lime, formed on the floors of caves by deposites from the dripping of water.

Stratification. An arrangement of rocks in strata.
Strata. Layers of rock parallel to each other.
Stratum. A layer of rocks; one of the strata.

Strike. The direction in which the edges of strata crop out. It is synonymous with line of bearing.

Syenite and Sienite. A granitic rock, in which hornblende replaces the mica.

Sinclina linc and Synclinal axis. When the strata dip downward in opposite directions, like the sides of a gutter.

Talus. In gevlogy, a sloping heap of broken rocks and stones at the foot of many cliffs.

Tertiary Strata. " A series of sedimentary rocks, with characters which distinguish them from two other great series of strata—the secondary and primary-which lie beneath them."

Testacea. “Molluscous animals, having a shelly covering.”
Tepid. Warm.
Thermal. Hot.

Thin out. Strata which diminish in thickness until they disappear, are said to thin out.

Trap-Trappean Rocks. Ancient volcanic rocks, composed of feldspar, hornblende and angite. Basalt, greenstone, amygdaloid and dolomite, are trap rocks.

Travertin. A concretionary limestone, hard and semi-crystaline, depos ted from the water of springs.”

Tufa Calcareous. “A porous rock, deposited by calcareous waters on exposure to air, and usually containing portions of plants and other organic substances incrusted with carbonate of lime.”

Tufaceous. A texture of rock like that of tuff.

Tuff or Tufa.“ An Italian name for a volcanic rock of an earthy texture."

Unconformable. See conformable.

Veins. Cracks and fissures in rocks filled with stony or metallic matter. Most of the ores are obtained from metallic veins.

Zoophytes. Coral sponges and other aquatic animals allied to them.

(No. 13.) Communication from the President of the Michigan

State Bank, relative to moneys advanced Public Officers, &c.


Detroit, Feb’y 5, 1839. Sir : I have the honor herewith to present to the Senate, in obedience to a call made on the 30th ult., a statement of the amounts advanced public officers, and the circumstances attending each advance, as near as the same is known to me, as per statement annexed.

During the years 1837 and 38, the acting commissioners of internal improvement were allowed from time to time to draw their drafts upon the bank to meet their payments, as commissioners, which drafts were generally made good by the check of the State Treasurer. This course was absolutely necessary in many cases, and considered by the bank officers perfectly justitiable.

For particulars in regard to the amount advanced J. B. Hunt,

« ForrigeFortsett »