History of Europe: From the Fall of Napoleon, in 1815, to the Accession of Louis Napoleon, in 1852, Volum 5

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W. Blackwood and sons, 1856

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Anomalous result of education on crime
12
Statistics of education and crime in Austria
13
Seeds of discontent arising out of this very prosperity
14
His versatility has rendered him rather universally popular than supremely great 108
15
after the peace
16
States established in Hanover Würtemberg and Baden but not
17
Prussia 18 Tardy promises of the Prussian government
18
Important resolution of the Diet regarding the internal affairs of
19
many
21
Resolution of the Diet on the propositions of Austria
22
Progress of 1844
23
Supreme Austregal Court 24 Assassination of Kotzebue
24
His execution and immense sensation it created
25
Consequences of this event highly injurious to freedom
26
2729 Circular of the cabinet of Berlin
27
Reflections on this picture of Germany
30
Circular of Metternich detailing the effect of the repressive measures
31
Circular of Metternich on the Neapolitan revolution e 33 Final Act of Confederation
32
Effect of this Final Act on German liberty
34
Illusory edict of Prussia regarding provincial diets
35
Refusal of the Diet to sanction the demand of Holstein for a consti tution
36
Import of the constitution of the provincial estates of Prussia by the edict of June 5 1823
37
Count Bernstorffs circular on the subject
38
Regulations against the secret societies in Prussia
39
The real worth of the provincial estates
40
Causes which prevented an outbreak
41
Wisdom of the internal government of Prussia
42
Specific measures introduced The ultimate effect of these changes would have favoured freedom Great effect of the French Revolution in checking ...
43
Decisive proof which the result afforded of the necessity and wisdom
44
WOL W u 229 665
49
Riot in Frankfort and its occupation by the Austrians
51
Congress of Sovereigns at Münchengratz
52
Fresh riot at Frankfort which is put under martial law
53
Decrees of 1835 in the Diet
54
Death of the Emperor Francis and his successors communication to the Diet
55
Change in the public mind in Germany towards material objects
56
Refusal of the Diet to restore the constitution of Hanover
57
Dispute between the Prussian government and the Pope regarding the Archbishop of Cologne
58
Immense sensation excited by this event
59
Wise internal regulations of the Prussian government
60
Amnesty on the 300th anniversary of the Reformation and treaty of reciprocity with Holland
61
Death of the King of Prussia and revival of the question of the consti tution
62
Answer of the King
63
Adjustment of the dispute with the See of Rome
64
Opening of the provincial estates and great excitement with which it was attended
65
Extension of the Zollverein and increasing intellectual strength
66
Prussia 67 Vast system of railways in Northern Germany
67
Inauguration of the Cathedral of Cologne and Kings speech at
68
Meeting of the general estates at Berlin
69
Secret views of the government in this step
70
Important religious movement in Germany in 1845
75
Increased demand for reform
76
Progress in 1847 and convocation of a general diet
77
Opening of the StatesGeneral of Prussia and Kings speech
78
Extraordinary political situation of Germany
79
Effect of the Revolutionary War on the two parties which divided
80
And in increasing the passion for freedom
81
Great effect of general education in increasing this desire
82
Great difficulties arising from the want of foreign commercial colonies
83
constitution of the Diet the Federal Union
84
Effect of the preponderance of Catholics in the Confederacy
85
The army is the expression of general opinion
86
Influence of Russia on Prussia and the lesser states
87
Influence of the want of employment in forcing men to become govern ment employés
88
Disastrous effects in Germany of the revolutions of 1820 and 1830
90
The triumph of the Conservatives left the seeds of revolution in all the European states
91
Influence of these causes on German literature
92
Advantages of the German Confederacy to the peace of Europe
93
Effect of the German Confederacy on domestic peace and the progress of freedom
94
What of a federal union for the interests of mankind
95
What may be hoped for federal unions in future 97 Cause which shipwrecked German liberty CHAPTER XXVIII
96
Literature is thus the index to general opinion
97
Cause of its romantic character in Germany
98
The Numidian horsemen 665
99
parallel between him and Goethe
100
Dawn of German literature 5 Causes of the backwardness of its literature 6 Science and learning in Germany before the middle of the eighteenth...
101
Wieland 9 His defects and excellencies 10 Goethe
102
Capture of Tlemson by AbdelKader and its recovery by Clausel
103
Faust His marvellous contradictions His moral and religious deficiencies
104
Character of his dramas 1 10
105
Preparations for the siege of Constantine
106
14
107
March on Constantine and its extreme hardships
108
Description of Constantine
109
Repulse of the French
110
His powers of the pathetic and of rhetoric
111
His merits as a lyric poet
112
As a historian ib 22 Klopstock The Messiah
113
His merits as a lyric poet
114
Oehlenschlager
115
His elevated picture of love
116
Grillparzer
117
Kotzebue
118
Werner
119
its defects
120
structure of its society ib 31 Tieck
121
Körner
122
Körner as a dramatic poet
123
Burger
124
Freiligrath
125
Uhland ib 37 Ruckhärt
126
Redwitz
127
Kinkel
128
its character
129
The youth of their literature is the cause of this ib 42 Causes of this defect
130
Niebuhr
131
Heeren
132
Müller
133
Von Hammer
134
Herder
135
Schlosser
136
Ranke
137
the Archduke Charles
138
Clausewitz
139
Progress of constitutional ideas in 1843
140
German autobiographies
141
their general character
142
The philosophic novelists
143
Countess HahnHahn
144
IIaklander ib 60 Andersen
146
Jean Paul Richter
147
Philosophic school of Germany ib 63 Kant
148
Fichte and Schelling
149
Frederick Schlegel
150
Jacobi
151
its origin
152
rationalism
153
Strausss Life of Jesus Christ
154
The alarm thence arising is unfounded
155
Reflections on German literature
156
General character of German literature
157
Its romantic and sentimental character
158
Object of the fine arts in Germany
159
Thorwaldsen
160
Danneker and Kiss
161
Painting in Germany
162
Its romantic character ib 79 German architecture
163
General passion for music in Germany
164
Beethoven ib 82 Mozart
165
Haydn
166
Handel
167
Mendelssohn ib 86 Spohr and Glück
168
Reflections on the influence of recent disasters on the German mind
169
CHAPTER XXIX
170
Social dangers of the Government of France 71
172
Miserable condition of the working classes
173
Wretchedness of the working classes and their consequent profligacy
174
The Revolution was not the cause of these evils but it aggravated them
175
Commencement of the Lyons insurrection and condition of the workmen there
176
Absurd measures of the governor and prefect for fixing a tariff
177
Progress of the strife between the masters and workmen
178
Commencement of the insurrection
179
The insurrection spreads and proves successful ib 12 Half the national guard join the insurgents who make the prefect prisoner
180
Desperate strife in the streets of Lyons
181
Extreme alarm at Paris and vigorous measures of the Government
182
Extraordinary state of Lyons after the revolt
183
Arrival of Marshal Soult and the Duke of Orléans and submission of Lyons
184
False views on this insurrection generally entertained in France
185
Renewed efforts of the Republicans Armand Carrel
186
his character
187
Strength of the republican press and extravagance of the Court
188
Extravagance of the Civil List
189
Great increase of the general expenditure
190
Conspiracy of Notre Dame and the Rue Prouvaires
191
Conspiracy at Grenoble
192
Expedition to Ancona resolved on and its reasons
193
State of affairs in Italy
194
Disturbances in Romagna and Austrian interference
195
Intervention of the Austrians and their entry into Bologna
196
Effects of this stroke in Italy and Europe
197
First appearance of the cholera in Paris
198
Its extraordinary and unlookedfor symptoms
199
Uncertainty in its mode of treatment
200
Commissions in Paris on the subject
201
Real ravages of the epidemic
202
Noble instances of fortitude and benevolence
203
Death of Casimir Périer and Cuvier
205
Character of Casimir Périer
206
Attempt of the Duchess de Berri to raise the west
207
The Duchess de Berri determines on an effort in France and repairs to Massa
208
She leaves Massa and makes a descent on France ib 42 Landing of the Princess
210
The Duchess resolves to cross France to La Vendée
211
She escapes into La Vendée
212
Disquietude and measures of the Royalists at these events
213
Wain attempt at an insurrection
215
The Princess resolves on a rising which proves abortive ib 49 Incidents of the civil war
216
Adventures of the Duchess de Berri and extinction of the insurrection
217
The Princess takes refuge in Nantes
218
When she is at length discovered
219
Treachery of Deutz towards the Princess
220
Her arrest
221
Her imprisonment in the chateau of Blaye ib 56 Extreme discontent and democratic movement in Paris
222
Death of General Lamarque
223
His funeral and commencement of the insurrection
224
Preparations of the Government
225
6061 Commencement of the insurrection 226227
226
The insurrection breaks out
228
Vigorous measures on the part of the Government
229
Mysterious meeting at Lafittes at night
230
Progress and alarming aspect of the insurrection
231
Moral chances on either side ib 67 Measures and forces of the Government
232
Marshal Soults military measures
233
Great successes of the insurgents and consternation of the military chiefs
235
55
239
IN THE CLoISTER of
268
Licentiousness of the romances and theatres of Paris
273
Trial of the St Simonians
274
Changes in the Ministry and creation of peers
276
Marshal Soults circular to the prefects ib 11 State and views of the Republicans
277
Death of the Duke of Reichstadt
278
Opening of the Chambers and Kings speech
280
Trials of strength in the Chamber ib 15 Project for the fortification of Paris
282
Violent opposition which it encountered and it is adjourned
283
Large grants for public works
284
Distribution of the grant
285
Income and expenditure of 1833
286
ib 57
287
Kings journey to Normandy and felicitous answers to addresses
288
New form which the spirit of propagandism assumed
289
Remonstrances of Russia and Prussia against the Polish commit tees
290
Revolutionary organisation in Germany 1832 and 1833
291
Efforts of the propagandists in Switzerland and Italy
292
Congress of MuntzGraetz between Russia Prussia and Austria
293
Real objects of that Congress
294
Resolution of the Congress regarding the propagandism
295
Affairs of Algeria
296
Origin of the Zouaves in Algeria
297
Military successes and establishment of the colony
298
Extreme violence of the press in Paris in 1833 and 1834
299
Opening of the Chamber of 1834 and violence of parties
300
Correspondence between France and the allied Powers on the subject of a general disarming
302
Laws against public criers and imposing a stamp duty on pamphlets
303
Law against associations ib 36 Violent debates on it in the Chamber
306
Answer of the Ministerialists
307
Rejoinder of the Opposition ib 40 Passing of the repressive measures and changes in the Cabinet
308
General resistance to the law against secret societies
310
Secret societies their organisation and objects
311
An insurrection is resolved on at Lyons
312
Second insurrection at Lyons and its causes
313
Its commencement with the trial of the leaders of the violent strike ib 46 Balanced successes on the opposite side
314
General insurrectionary movements in France
316
Insurrection in Paris
317
Defensive measures of the Government 3 18
318
Victory of the Government and Massacre in the Rue Transnonain
319
Measures of the Government upon its victory
320
Death of M de Lafayette
321
his rise and character in public life 323324
323
His qualities as a statesman and orator
325
Dissolution of the Chamber and result of the elections
326
Results of the Revolution of July
327
Change for the worse which it had induced ib 61 Error of the explanation of these changes given by the Liberal party
328
How the Revolution of July failed
329
Schism between the proprietors and prolétaires
330
CHAPTER XXXI
332
Assault on the Duke of Wellington and the King
333
Immense power at the disposal of Ministers
334
Influence of the practical turn of the English mind at this crisis
335
The nobility were at the head of the English movement
336
Reflections on their recommendation ib 1516 Valuable facts brought out in the evidence and the debate 346347
346
Government plan on the subject and Mr OConnells opposition
347
Increased agitation and violence in the country
348
Frightful murders and burnings in the country
349
Ineffectual efforts of the Government
350
Renewed efforts of the agitators and their gross falsehoods
351
Small amount of the arrears to each and its irrecoverable nature
352
Speech of the King on proroguing Parliament
353
Success of the registration of electors law
354
System of requiring pledges from candidates
355
Result of the new elections
357
Opening of Parliament
358
Extreme wordiness of the new House and new regulations in conse quence
359
Regulations for forenoon hours in the House of Commons
360
60
361
3135 Argument of Ministers for the Coercion Bill 362366
362
ib 62
366
3641 Argument of the Roman Catholics against the bill 367371
367
Progress of the bill in both Houses
372
Reflections on the Coercion Act
373
of the act
374
Bill for the reduction of the Irish Church Establishment
375
4647 Argument against it by Conservatives 376377
376
Mr OConnells speech on the bill
378
4950 Argument of Ministers in its support
379
Progress of the bill through both Houses
380
New ministerial project regarding tithes
381
Reflections on these bills
382
Wise measures in general meet with no support in a popular legislature
384
General distress which prevailed in the country
386
Mr Attwoods picture of the state of the country
388
Answer of Ministers
389
The budget for 1833
390
Repeal of onehalf of the malttax carried against Ministers
391
Ministers by a sidewind get the vote rescinded
392
Results of these votes on public opinion
393
Rapid decline in the popularity of Ministers
394
Patriotic conduct of both Government and the Conservative Opposi tion
395
Renewal of the Bank Charter
396
Argument against the bill by Sir R Peel
397
Answer of the Government
398
Reflections on this debate
399
feeling of the country on it
400
Government plan on the subject
401
7072 Argument of Ministers in support of the bill 402403
402
The bill passes both Houses
404
His prodigious versatility 105
405
The West India Question
406
Sketch of the early settlement of the negroes in the West Indies
407
Necessity gave rise to the vast translation of the negro race
408
Beneficial results which this transference of mankind will ultimately effect
409
The slave trade brought the African to civilisation ib 80 Beneficial effect of the fixing of negroes on particular estates
410
Salutary effect of fixing the negroes on their estates from the cessation of the slave trade
411
Prosperous general condition of the negroes
412
What should have been done by the Government
413
Necessity of slavery in early times
414
Progressive emancipation was rejected by the planters
415
The colonies refuse to act on the resolutions of Parliament 4 16
417
Insurrection in Jamaica
418
Resistance in the colonies to the Orders in Council
419
Universal transports in favour of immediate emancipation
420
9196 Mr Stanleys argument in favour of negro emancipation 421425
421
Result of the debate and parties by whom it was opposed
426
Resolution of the West India proprietors on the other side ib 99 Compromise effected by the grant of 20000000 to the colonial pro prietors
428
Causes which had rendered the duty bearable during the war
430
What made the West India proprietors acquiesce in the change
431
Fatal effects of the measure on the West India Islands
432
Ruinous effects of emancipation to the negroes
434
Great increase of production in the foreign slave States
435
Disastrous effect on the foreign slave trade
436
Reflections on this subject
437
Bill regarding the shortening of infant labour in factories 4 38
439
Improved state of the commercial interests and continued depression of land
440
42
443
116120 Mr OConnells argument for the repeal of the Union 444446
444
121124 Answer of Mr Spring Rice 447450
447
Result of the debate
451
Increased agitation produced by this decision
452
Circumstances which gave it a great chance of success
453
Divisions of the Government on the Irish Church Question
454
Resignation of Mr Stanley Sir James Graham the Duke of Richmond and Lord Ripon
455
Effects of this secession upon the Government
456
Kings declaration on the Irish Church
457
Ministers hold on
458
The movement party resolve to force on Mr Wards motion
459
Question brought before the House of Lords
460
Effect of these declarations on the part of Government
461
its progress
462
Which is opposed by all parties
463
Division in the Cabinet on the Irish Coercion Bill renewal
464
Negotiation of Mr Littleton with Mr OConnell
465
Resignation of Mr Littleton Lord Althorpe and Lord Grey
466
Earl Greys parting address as Minister
467
Lord Melbourne appointed Prime Minister and changes in the Cabinet
468
Modified Coercion Bill
469
Fate of the Irish Church Bill
470
PoorLaw Amendment Bill
472
Vast effect of the contraction of the currency on this matter
473
Report of the PoorLaw Commissioners recommending a change
475
The bill is carried by a great majority
478
Farther progress of the bill ib 153 Regulation as to separating husband and wife
480
Effect of the bill has not been materially to lessen poorrates
481
Prorogation of Parliament
482
Financial state of the country
483
Weakness of Government and disturbances in Ireland
484
Riot at Rathcormack
485
Hostility of the press Lord Broughams journey in Scotland
486
The King dismisses the Ministry and sends for the Duke of Wel lington
487
Reflections on Earl Greys fall
488
Great merit of Earl Grey in resisting the movement after the bill was passed
489
Review of his administration
490
CHAPTER XXXII
491
Weakness of Turkey after the peace of Adrianople
492
his character and policy
493
His system of civil government
494
Origin of the war
495
Physical description of Syria
496
Military character of the country
498
Ibrahim lays siege to Acre
499
Skilful operations of Ibrahim and capture of Acre
500
Battle of Homs
501
The Egyptians enter Aleppo
502
Battle of Beylau ib 13 Results of the campaign and great preparations of the Porte
504
Preparations for a decisive battle
505
Forces on both sides
506
Decisive movement of Ibrahim on his right
507
Victory of the Egyptians
508
Immense effects of this victory
509
The Porte applies to England for succour and is refused
510
Reasons for not applying to France
511
The Porte applies to Russia for aid
512
Which is joyfully accorded
513
The Porte in vain seeks to countermand the succours and breach of the negotiations
514
Fresh Russian expedition sails from Odessa
515
Mission of Lord Durham to St Petersburg
516
Treaty between the Porte and Mehemet Ali
517
Treaty of UnkiarSkelessi
518
The important public provisions and secret articles
519
Remonstrances of the Western Powers
521
First settlement of Greece under the presidency of Capo dIstria
523
Otho is elected King of Greece
525
Great successes of the popular opposition in Greece and overthrow of the Government
526
Arrival of King Otho and joy of the inhabitants
527
Institutions and military force of the infant State
528
Causes of discord still remaining in the East
529
Jealousy awakened in the English Cabinet
530
Divergence of views on the Eastern Question between the Cabinets of London and Paris
531
Causes of the coldness of France and England Commercial treaty be tween the latter and Turkey
532
And with Austria
533
Mutual recriminations of the Porte and Mehemet Ali
534
Efforts of France and England to avert hostilities
535
Commencement of hostilities by the Sultan
536
Forces on both sides at the commencement of hostilities
537
Battle of Nezib
538
The Turkish fleet is treacherously given up to the Egyptians
539
Death of Sultan Mahmoud and his character 52 Revival of pacific views with the accession of the new Sultan
541
Farther reforms of the new Sultan ib 54 Revolution in Servia
542
Views of the European Powers at this juncture
543
Ultimate demands of both parties
544
Treaty of July 15 1840 for the settlement of the East
545
The Pacha refuses the terms and military arrangements of the Allies to enforce it
546
Conciliatory note of the allied Powers towards France
547
Extreme irritation in France
548
Imminent danger of a rupture between England and France
549
Allied plan of attack and forces on opposite side
551
Nature of Syria in a military point of view
552
Effect of this peculiar physical conformation on the war then waged ib 65 Bombardment of Beyrout
553
Immense sensation produced by this event over Europe
554
Views of Louis Philippe at this crisis ib 68 Conference of Louis Philippe and M Guizot at the Chateau dEu and its results
555
Thiers note of Nov 8 and its results
557
Fall of M Thiers who is succeeded by M Guizot
558
The British fleet steers for Acre and gains great successes
559
Bombardment of Acre
562
Important treaty of the whole European Powers regarding the navigation of the Dardanelles and Bosphorus
565
The advantages of the treaty were more apparent than real
566
The refusal of succour to the Turks in 1833 was the fatal step
567
Which arose from the Reform Bill and the contraction of the currency
568
Dangers of the nation in 1841 from the mania for reduction
569
CHAPTER XXXIII
571
Repeated defeats of the Republicans 57 1
572
Marshal Gérard succeeds Marshal Soult
573
Declaration of the new Ministers in favour of economy
574
Count Molé Minister
575
Fall of the new Ministry and restoration of the old one
576
Flourishing state of Algiers ib 8 First debate on the Address
577
Answer of M Guizot
578
107
579
Marshal Mortier is succeeded by the Duke de Broglie as Prime Minister
580
Cause of this crisis
581
Divergence of Thiers and Guizot
582
Character of the Duke de Broglie
583
Settlement of the question with the Americans
584
Commencement of the treason trials before the Chamber of Peers
585
Ruinous effects of this mode of proceeding
586
Commencement of the trial and contest with the Bar
587
Contest about the choice of defenders
589
Commencement of the proceedings ib 21 Refusal of the accused to plead or answer until they got their own defenders
590
Progress of the trial
591
Continuation of the disorders and letter of Audry de Puyraveau
592
Proceedings in the Chamber of Deputies
593
Trials disjoined and escape of twentyeight prisoners
594
Conclusion of the trials
595
2728 Reflections on these trials 596597
596
Fête of July and conspiracy to murder the King
598
Attempted assassination of the King by Fieschi
599
Arrest of the assassin and discovery of the infernal machine
600
Immense effect produced by this event in Paris
601
Funeral of Marshal Mortier and the other victims
602
Trial and execution of the murderers
603
3538 Speech of M de Broglie on the introduction of the new law of re pression 604607
604
3942 Answer of M Armand Carrel and M de Lamartine 608
608
Proposed laws
610
Which pass both Chambers
612
Improved condition of the Government in spring 1836 ib 46 Increased prosperity in France and beginning of the railway mania
613
Fall of the Duke de Broglie
614
Increasing difficulty of the question of reduction of the interest of the debt
616
Arguments in favour of the reduction of the interest
617
Answer for the stockholders
618
Decision of the Ministers on the subject which is against it at the moment and leads to their overthrow
619
M Thiers Premier ib 5354 Political character of M Thiers 620621
620
Postponement of the question regarding the debt and first trial of strength in the Chamber
622
Thiers profession of faith before the Chamber
623
Declaration of M Guizot
624
Of M Odillon Barrot
625
Nullity of legislative measures
626
Important financial statements
627
Occupation of Cracow by the allied Powers ib 62 Other diplomatic treaties
629
Journey of the Dukes of Orléans and Nemours to Berlin and Vienna
630
Fresh attempt to assassinate the King by Alibaud ib 65 Execution of Alibaud and seclusion of the King
631
Announcement of the seclusion of the King in his palace
632
State of the secret societies in Switzerland
633
Measures of France and Austria against the refugees
634
Reflections on this subject
635
The Spanish Question and its urgent dangers
637
Thiers is for intervention the King against it and the former resigns ib 72 Character of Count Molé
638
Liberation of Prince Polignac and the prisoners in Ham
639
Death of Charles X
640
his early life
642
Preparations for the attempt of Strasburg
643
Breaking out of the conspiracy
644
Its rapid success
646
And ultimate failure
647
Humane conduct of the Government to Louis Napoleon
649
Trial and acquittal of the Strasburg conspirators ib 82 Law for disjunction of trials which is rejected
651
Argument of M Dupin against the law
653
Lamartines reply
654
The bill is thrown out and Ministry still hold on ib 86 Modification of the Ministry
655
Marriage of the Duke of Orléans
656
Preparations for the marriage and general amnesty
657
Marriage of the Prince and consequent catastrophe
659
Inauguration of the palace of Versailles as a palace of the arts ib 91 Fresh political societies
660
Dissolution of the Chamber
661
Affairs of Africa
662
The migratory Arabs and their annual migration
663
The conquests of the Romans and Saracens
664
Death of General Damremont
683
Reason of the rigour of revolutionary governments
687
Lasting ascendant now gained by the Cross over the Crescent
688

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