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accession, is the Earl of Bute ; and the only speculation into national measures, cannot fail good managers of revenue we have seen are of hastening and completing our ruin. Lord Despenser and Mr. George Grenville ; This author, after having paid his compliand under the description of men of virtue and ment to the shewy appearances of the late war ability, he holds them out to us as the only per- in our favour, is in the utmost haste to tell you sons fit to put our affairs in order. Let not the that these appearances were fallacious, that they reader mistake me: he does not actually name were no more than an imposition.-I fear I these persons; but, having highly applauded must trouble the reader with a pretty long their conduct in all its parts, and heavily cen- quotation, in order to set before him the more sured every other set of men in the kingdom, he clearly this author's peculiar way of conceive then recommends us to his men of virtue and ing and reasoning: ability.
“Happily (the K.) was then advised by Such is the author's scheme. Whether it ministers, who did not suffer them.selves to be will answer his purpose, I know not. But dazzled by the glare of brilliant appearances ; surely that purpose ought to be a wonderfully but, knowing them to be fallacious, they wisely good one, to warrant the methods he has taken resolved to profit of their splendour before our to compass it. If the facts and reasonings in enemies should also discover the imposition.this piece are admitted, it is all over with us. The increase in the exports was found to have The continuance of our tranquillity depends been occasioned chiefly by the demands of our upon the compassion of our rivals. Unable to own fleets and armies, and, instead of bringing secure to ourselves the advantages of peace, we wealth to the nation, was to be paid for by opare at the same time utterly unfit for war. It pressive taxes upon the people of England. is impossible, if this state of things be credited While the British seamen were consuming on abroad, that we can have any alliance; all na- board our men of war and privateers, foreign tions will fly from so dangerous a connection, ships and foreign seamen were employed in lest, instead of being partakers of our strength, the transportation of our merchandize; and they should only become sharers in our ruin. the carrying trade, so great a source of wealth If it is believed at home, all that firmness of and marine, was entirely engrossed by the neumind, and dignified national courage, which tral nations. The number of British ships used to be the great support of this isle against annually arriving in our ports was reduced 1756 the powers of the world, must melt away, and sail, containing 92,559 tons, on a medium of fail within us.
the six years' war, compared with the six years In such a state of things can it be amiss, if I of peace preceding it. The conquest of the aim at holding out some comfort to the nation ; Havannah had, indeed, stopped the remittance another sort of comfort indeed, than that which of specie from Mexico to Spain; but it had this writer provides for it; a comfort, not from not enabled England to seize it: on the conits physician, but from its constitution; if I trary, our merchants suffered by the detention attempt to shew that all the arguments upon of the galleons, as their correspondents in Spain which he founds the decay of that constitution, were disabled from paying them for their goods and the necessity of that physician, are vain sent to America. The loss of the trade to old and frivolous? I will follow the author closely Spain was a farther bar lo an influx of specie ; in his own long career, through the war, the and the attempt upon Portugal had not only peace, the finances, our trade,
and our foreign deprived us of an import of bullion from thence, politics : not for the sake of the particular but the payment of our troops employed in its measures which he discusses; that can be of defence was a fresh drain opened for the dimino use ; they are all decided; their good is all nution of our circulating specie.-The high enjoyed, or their evil incurred: but for the sake premiums given for new loans had sunk the of the principles of war, peace, trade, and price of the old stock near a third of its original finances. These principles are of infinite mo- value, so that the purchasers had an obligation ment. They must come again and again under from the state to re-pay them with an addition consideration; and it imports the public, of all of 33 per cent. to their capital. Every new things, that those of its ministers be enlarged, loan required new taxes to be imposed; new and just, and well confirmed, upon all these taxes must add to the price of our manufactures subjects. What notions this author entertains, and lessen their consumption among foreigners. we shall see presently ; notions in my opinion The decay of our trade must necessarily occavery irrational, and extremely dangerous ; and sion a decrease of the public revenue ; and a dewhich, if they should crawl from pamphlets ficiency of Jur funds must either be made up into counsels, and be realised from private by fresh taxes, which would only add to the
calamity, or our national credit must be de any, even the most essential points, since vic' stroyed, by shewing the public creditors the tory and defeat, though by different ways, inability of the nation to re-pay them their equally conduct us to our ruin? Subjection principal money.-Bounties had already been to France without a struggle will indeed be given for recruits which exceeded the year's less for our honour, but un every principle of wages of the ploughman and reaper; and as our author it must be more for our advantage. these were exhausted, and husbandry stood still According to his representation of things, the for want of hands, the manufacturers were question is only concerning the most easy fall. next to be tempted to quit the anvil and loom France had not discovered, our statesman tells by higher offers.-France, bankrupt France, had us, at the end of that war, the triumphs of deno such calamities impending over her; her dis-, feat, and the resources which are derived from tresses were great, but they were immediate and bankruptcy. For my poor part, I do not wontemporary; her want of credit preserved her from der at their blindness. But the English minisa great increase of debt, and the loss of her ultra- ters saw further. Our author has at length let marine dominions lessened her expenses. Her foreigners also into the secret, and made them colonies had, indeech put themselves into the hands altogether as wise as ourselves. It is their of the English; but the property of her subjects own fuult if (vulgato imperii arcano) they are had been preserved by capitulations, and a way imposed upon any longer. They now are apopened for making her those remittances, which prised of the sentiments which the great can the war had before suspended, with as much seo didate for the government of this great empire curity as in the time of peace. Her armies in entertains; and they will act accordingly. Germany had been hitherto prevented from They are taught our weakness and their own seizing upon Hanover ; but they continued to advantages. encamp on the same ground on which the first He tells the world, t that if France carries battle was fought; and, as it must ever happen on the war against us in Germany, every loss from the policy of that government, the last she sustains contributes to the achievement of troops she sent into the field were always found to her conquest. If her armies are three years be the best, and her frequent losses only served to unpaid, she is the less exhausted by expense. fill her regiments with better soldiers. The con- If her credit is destroyed, she is the less opquest of Hanover became therefore every cam- pressed with debt. If her troops are cut to paign more probable. It is not to be noted, that pieces, they will by her policy (and a wonderthe French troops received subsistence only, ful policy it is) be improved, and will be supfor the last three years of the war; and that, plied with much better men. If the war is although large arrears were due to them at its carried on in the colonies, he tells them that conclusion, the charge was the less during its the loss of her ultramarine dominions lessens continuance."
her expenses, f and ensures her remittances. If any one be willing to see to how much greater lengths the author carries these ideas, Per damna, per cædes, ab ipso he will recur to the book. This is sufficient Ducic opes animumque ferro. for a specimen of his manner of thinking. I believe one reflection uniformly obtrudes itself If so, what is it we can do to hurt her ?-it upon every reader of these paragraphs. For will be all an imposition, all fallacious. Why what purpose in any cause shall we hereafter the result must be--Occidit
, occidit spes omnis contend with France ? can we ever flatter, oure et fortuna nostri nominis. selves that we shall wage a more successful The only way which the author's principles war? If, on our part, in a war the most pros- leave for our escape, is to reverse our condition perous we ever carried on, by sea and by land, into that of France, and to take her losing and in every part of the globe, attended with cards into our hands. But though his princithe unparalleled circumstance of an immense ples drive him to it, his politics will not suffer increase of trade and augmentation of revenue ; him to walk on this ground. Talking at our u a continued series of disappointments, dis- case and of other countries, we may bear to be graces, and defeats, followed by public bank- diverted with such speculations; but in Engruptcy, on the part of France; if all these still land we shall never be taught to look upon the .eave her a gainer on the whole balance, will it annihilation of our trade, the ruin of our credit, not be downright phrenzy in us ever to look the defeat of our armies, and the loss of our ger in the face again, or to contend with her ultramarine dominions, (whatever the author
* P. 67, 8, 9, 10.
* P. 9
. may think of them,) to be the high road to whole course of the siege of Quebec ; of Geneprosperity and greatness.
ral Monckton, who was shot through the body The reader does not, I hope, imagine that I there, whether France " put her colonies into mean seriously to set about the refutation of the hands of the English." these uningenious paradoxes and reveries with- Though he has made no exception, yet I out imagination. I state them only that we would be liberal to him; perhaps he means to may discern a little in the questions of war confine himself to her colonies in the West and peace, the most weighty of all questions, Indies. But surely it will fare as ill with him what is the wisdom of those men who are held there as in North America, whilst we rememout to us as the only hope of an expiring nation. ber that in our first attempt at Martinico we The present ministry is indeed of a strange were actually defeated; that it was three character: at once indolent and distracted. months before we reduced Guadaloupe ; and But if a ministerial system should be formed, that the conquest of the Havannah was achieved actuated by such maxims as are avowed in this by the highest conduct, aided by circumstances piece, the vices of the present ministry would of the greatest good fortune. He knows the become their virtues; their indolence would be expense both of men and treasure at which we the greatest of all public benefits, and a dis- bought that place. However, if it had so traction that entirely defeated every one of pleased the peacemakers, it was no dear purtheir schemes would be our only security from chase; for it was decisive of the fortune of the destruction.
war and the terms of the treaty: the duke of To have stated these reasonings is enough, Nivernois thought so; France, England, EuI presume, to do their business. But they are rope, considered it in that light; all the world, accompanied with facts and records, which except the then friends of the then ministry, may seem of a little more weight. I trust how- who wept for our victories, and were in haste ever that the facts of this author will be as far to get rid of the burthen of our conquests. from bearing the touchstone, as his arguments. This author knows that France did not put On a little inquiry, they will be found as great those colonies into the hands of England; but an imposition as the successes they are meant he well knows who did put the most valuable to depreciate ; for they are all either false or of them into the hands of France. fallaciously applied; or not in the least to the In the next place, our authors is pleased to purpose for which they are produced. consider the conques: of those colonies in no
First, the author, in order to support his other light than as a convenience for the remitfavourite paradox, that our possession of the tances to France, which he asserts that the French colonies was of no detriment to France, war had before suspended, but for which a way has thought proper to inform us,* that “they was opened (by our conquest) as secure as in put themselves into the hands of the English.” time of peace. I charitably hope he knows He uses the same assertion, in nearly the same nothing of the subject. I referred him lately words, in another place it “her colonies had to our commanders, for the resistance of the put themselves into our hands.” Now, in French colonies; I now wish he would apply justice not only to fact and common sense, to our custom-house entries, and our merchants, but to the incomparable valour and perseve. for the advantages which we derived from rance of our military and naval forces thus them. unhandsomely traduced, I must tell this au- In 1761, there was no entry of goods from thor, that the French colonies did not “put any of the conquered places but Guadaloupe ; themselves into the hands of the English.” in that year it stood thus: They were compelled to submit; they were subdued by dint of English valour. Will the Imports from Guadaloupe, value, £.482,179 five years' war carried on in Canada, in which fell one of the principal hopes of this nation, In 1762, when we had not yet deliand all the battles lost and gained during that vered up our conquests, the acanxious period, convince this author of his count was mistake ? Let him enquire of Sir Jeffery Guadaloupe,
£.513,244 Amherst, under whose conduct that war was Martinico,
288,425 carried on; of Sir Charles Saunders, whose steadiness and presence of mind saved our Total imports in 1762, value, £.801,669 fleet, and were so eminently serviceable in the • P. 9. + P. 6
In 1763, after we had delivered up
and this corrective ought to be applied to al the sovereignty of these islands,
general balances of our trade, which are formed but kept open a communication
on the ordinary principles. with them, the imports were,
If possible, this was more emphatically true Gaudaloupe,
£.412,303 of the French West India islands, whilst they Martinico,
344,161 continued in our hands. That none, or only a Havannah,
249,386 very contemptible part of the value of this pro
duce, could be remitted to France, the author Total imports in 1763, value, £.1,005,850 will see, perhaps with unwillingness, but with
the clearest conviction, if he considers, that in Besides, I find in the account of bullion im- the year 1763, after we had ceased to export to ported and brought to the bank, that during the isles of Guadaloupe and Martinico, and to that period in which the intercourse with the the Havannah, and after the colonies were free Havannah was open, we received at that one to send all their produce to Old France and shop, in treasure, from that one place, Spain, if they had any remittance to make ; he £.559,810; in the year 1763, £.389,450 ; so
will see, that we imported from those places, that the import from these places in that year in that year, to the amount of £.1,395,300. amounted to £.1,395,300.
So far was the whole annual produce of these On this state the reader will observe, that I islands from being adequate to the payments take the imports from, and not the exports to, of their annual call upon us, that this mighty these conquests, as the measure of the advan- additional importation was necessary, though tages which we derived from them. I do so for
not quite sufficient, to discharge the debts reasons which will be somewhat worthy the contracted in the few years we held them. attention of such readers as are fond of this The property, therefore, of their whole pro species of inquiry. I say therefore I choose duce, was ours ; not only during the
but the import article, as the best, and indeed the
even for more than a year after the peace. The only standard we can have, of the value of the author, I hope, will not again venture upon so West India trade. Our export entry does not rash and discouraging a proposition, concerncomprehend the greatest trade we carry on ing the nature and effect of those conquests, as with any of the West India islands, the sale to call them a convenience to the remittances of negroes: nor does it give any idea of two
of France; he sees by this account, that what other advantages we draw from them; the he asserts is not only without foundation, but remittances for money spent here, and the even impossible to be true. payment of part of the balance of the North
As to our trade at that time, he labours with American trade. It is therefore quite ridicu- all his might to represent it as absolutely lous, to strike a balance merely on the face of ruined, or on the very edge of ruin. Indeed, as an excess of imports and exports, in that com- usual with him, he is often as equivocal in his merce ; though, in most foreign branches, it expression, as he is clear in his design. Someis, on the whole, the best method. If we should times he more than insinuates a decay of our take that standard, it would appear, that the commerce in that war; sometimes he admits an balance with our own islands is, annually, increase of exports ; but it is in order to depreseveral hundred thousand pounds against this ciate the advantages we might appear to derive country.* Such is its aspect on the custom- from that increase, whenever it should come to house entries; but we know the direct con
be proved against him. He tells you,t " that trary to be the fact. We know that the West it was chiefly occasioned by the demands of our Indians are always indebted to our merchants, own fleets and armies, and, instead of bringand that the value of every shilling of West ing wealth to the nation, was to be paid for by India produce is English property. So that oppressive taxes upon the people of England.” our import from them, and not our export, ought Never was any thing more destitute of foundaalways to be considered as their true value ; tion. It might be proved with the greatest
from the nature and quality of the goods * Total imports from the West Indies in 1764,
exported, as well as from the situation of the
places to which our merchandize was sent, and Exports to ditto in ditto,
which the war could no wise affect, that the Excess of imports,
£.2,012,900 supply of our fleets and armies, could not have In this, which is the common way of stating been the cause of this wonderful increase of the balance, it will appear upwards of two
* P. e. millions against us, which is ridiculous.
trade; its cause was evident to the whole year 1761, the British shipping amounted to world; the ruin of the trade of France, and 527,557 tons—the foreign to no mora than our possession of her colonies. What wonder- 180,102. The medium of his six years British, ful effects this cause produced, the reader will 2,449,555 tons—foreign only 905,690. This see below ;* and he will form on that account state (his own) demonstrates that the neutral some judgment of the author's candour or in- nations did not entirely engross our navigation. formation.
I am willing from a strain of candour to adAdmit however that a great part of our ex- mit that this author speaks at random ; that he port, though nothing is more remote from fact, is only slovenly and inaccurate, and not fallawas owing to the supply of our fleets and cious. In matters of account, however, this armies; was it not something?-was it not want of care is not excusable; and the differpeculiarly fortunate for a nation, that she was ence between neutral nations entirely engrossable from her own bosom to contribute largely ing our navigation, and being only subsidiary to the supply of her armies militating in so to a vastly augmented trade, makes a most mamany distant countries? The author allows terial difference to his argument. From that that France did not enjoy the same advantages. principle of fairness, though the author speaks But it is remarkable throughout his whole book, otherwise, I am willing to suppose he means that those circumstances which have ever been no more than that our navigation had so de. considered as great benefits, and decisive proofs clined as to alarm us with the probable loss of of national superiority, are, when in our hands, this valuable object. I shall however shew, taken either in diminution of some other appa- that his whole proposition, whatever modifica rent advantage, or even sometimes as positive tions he may please to give it, is without misfortunes. The optics of that politician must foundation; that our navigation was not debe of a strange conformation, who beholds creased ; that, on the contrary, it was greatly every thing in this distorted shape.
increased in the war ; that it was increased by So far as to our trade. With regard to our the war ; and that it was probable the same navigation, he is still more uneasy at our situa- cause would continue to angment it to a still tion, and still more fallacious in his state of it. greater height; to what an height it is hard to In his text, he affirms it “ to have been entirely say, had our success continued. engrossed by the neutral nations.”+ This he But first, I must observe, I am much less asserts roundly and boldly, and without the solicitous whether his fact be true or no, than least concern; although it cost no more than a whether his principle is well established. single glance of the eye upon his own margin Cases are dead things, principles are living and to see the full refutation of this assertion. His productive. I then affirm that, if in time of own account proves against him, that in the war our trade had the good fortune to increase,
£. 8. d. 8,317,506 15 3 2,910,836 14 9 559,435 2 10
1754. * Total export of British goods, value, Dillo of foreign goods in time, Dillo of ditto out of time, Total exports of all kinds, Total imports, Balance in favour of England,
11,787,829 12 10
8,093,472 15 0 £.3,694,355 17 10
1761, Total export of British goods,
10,649,581 126 Ditio of foreign goods in time,
3,553,692 7 1 Ditto of ditto out of time,
355,015 02 Total exports of all kinds,
14,559, 289 199 Totai imports,
9,294,915 1 Balance in favour of England,
£.5, 263,373 18 3 llere is the state of our trade in 1761, compared with a very good year of profound peace : both are taken from the authentic entries at the custom-house. How the author can contrive to make this
increase of the export of English produce agree with his account of the dreadful want of hands in England, p. 9, unless he supposes manufactures to be made without hands, I really do not see It is painful to be so frequently obliged to set this author right in matters of fact. This statemene will fully refute all that he has said or insinuated upon the difficulties and decay of our rade p. 6,7, and
+ P.7. See also p. 18.