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will serve to give you some idea of the mise- in the breast of the amildar. Some of the ries brought upon this my devoted country, and children that were somewhat large, he exposed she wretched inhabitants that remain in it, to sale. In short, the violences of the amildar by the oppressive hand of Lord Macartney's are so astonishing, that the people, on seeing management; nor will the embezzlements of their present situation, remember the loss of collections thus obtained, when brought before Hyder with regret. With whomsoever the you in proof, appear less extraordinary, which amildar finds a single measure of natehinee, or shall certainly be done in due time."

rice, he takes it way from him, and appropri

ates it to the expenses of the Sibindy that he Translation of an Arzee, in the Persian Lan- the countries, but from the effects of the poor

keeps up. No revenues are collected from guage, from Uzzeem ul Doen Cawn, the Kila wretched inhabitants. Those ryots (yeomen] lidar of Vellore, to the Nabob, dated 1s Sepa who intended to return to their habitations, tember

, 1783. Inclosed in the Nabob's Letter hearing of those violences, have fled for refuge, to the Court of Directors, September, 1783.

with their wives and children, into Hyder's "I HAVE repeatedly represented to your country. Every day is ushered in closed with highness the violences and oppressions exer

these violences and disturbances. I have no cised by the present amildar (collector of re- power to do any thing; and who will hear renue) of Lord Macartney's appointment, over what I have to say ? My business is to inthe few remaining inhabitants of the district form your highness, who are my master. The of Vellore, Ambore, Saulguda, &c.

people bring their complaints to me, and I “ The outrages and violences now commit- tell them I will write to your highness."* ted, are of that astonishing nature as were never known or heard of during the adminis'ration of the circar. Hyder Naik, the cru

Translation of a Tellinga Letter from Vera ellest of tyrants, used every kind of oppression

Permaul, Head Dubash to Lord Macartney, in the circar countries; but even his mea

in his own hand-writing, to Rajah Ramsures were not like those now pursued. Such

chunda, the renter of Ongole ; dated 25th of of the inhabitants as had escaped the sword and pillage of Hyder Naik, by taking refuge + [The above-recited practices, or practices in the woods, and within the walls of Vellore, similar to them, have prevailed in almost every &c. on the arrival of Lord Macartney's amil

part of the miserable countries on the coast of dar to Vellore, and in consequence of his

Coromandel, for near twenty years past. That

they prevailed as strongly and generally as they cowle of protection and support, most cheer- could prevail, under the administration of the fully returned to the villages, set about the nabob, there can be no question, notwithstancultivation of the lands, and with great pains

ding the assertion in the beginning of the above rebuilt their cottages.—But now the amildar petition; nor will it be otherwise, whilst affairs

are conducted upon the principles which influ. has imprisoned the wives and children of the ence the present system. Whether the particu. inhabitants, seized the few jewels that were lars here asserted are true or false, neither the on the bodies of the women, and then, before thought proper to enquire. If they

are true, in

court of directors nor their ministry have the faces of their husbands, flogged them, in order to bring them to affect Lord Macartney, i order to make them produce other jewels and ought to be proved that the complaint was made effects, which he said they had buried some- to him; and that he had refused redrese. In. where under ground, and to make the inhą to the court of directors. The above is one of

stead of this fair course, the complaint is carries! bitants bring him money, notwithstanding the documents transmitted by the nabob, is there was yet no cultivation in the country. proof of his charge of corruption against Lord Terrified with the flagellations, some of them Macartney. If genuine, it is conclusive, at leas produced their jewels, and wearing apparel of against Lord Macartney's principle agent and iheir women, to the amount of ten or fifteen it is) it is conclusive against the nabob and his pagodas, which they had hidden; others, who evil counsellors ; and fully demonstrates, if any declared they had none, the amildar flogged thing further were necessary to demonstate, th their women severely, tied cords around their necessity of the cause in Mr. Fox's bill prohi breasts, and tore the sucking children from biting the residence of the native princes in the

company's principal settlements which clause their teats, and exposed them to the scorching was for obvious reasons, not admitted into Mr. heat of the sun. Those children died, as did Pills. It shews too the absolute necessity of a the wife of Ramsoamy, an inhabitani vt Bring his English evil counsellors and creditors how

severe and exemplary punishment on certain or poor. Even this could not stir up compassion whom such practices are carried on.)

PRESENT

the Hindoo month Mausay, in the year Pla- this for your satisfaction, and has engaged to
vcnamal, corresponding to 5th March, 1782. me that I shall have this letter returned to me
1
my respects to you, and am very

in the space of twelve days. vell here, wishing to hear frequently of your

The present governour is not like the for. welfare.

mer governours-he is a very great man in Your peasher Vancatroyloo has brought the Europe and all the great men of Europe are Visseel Bakees, and delivered them to me, as

much obliged to him for his condescension in also what you sent him for me to deliver to my accepting the government of this place. It is master, which I have done. My master at first his custom when he makes friendship with any refused to take it, because he is unacquainted

one to continue it always, and if he is at enmiwith your disposition, or what kind of a person ty with any one, he never will desist till he has you are. But after I made encomiums on your

worked his destruction ; he is nou exceedingly goodness and greatness of mind, and took my displeased with the nabob, and you will underoath to the same, and that it would not become

stand by and by that the nabob's business cannot public, but be held as precious as our lives,

be carried on; he (the nabob) will have no my master accepted it. You may remain sa

power to do any thing in his own affairs , you tisfied, that I will get the Ongole business set

have therefore no room to fear him. You may tled in your name ; I will cause the jamau- remain with a contented mind—I desired the bundee to be settled agreeable to your desire. gorernour to write you a letter for your satis It was formerly the nabob's intention to give when the business was settled. This letter

faction; the governour said he would do so this business to you, as the governour knows full well, but did not at that time agree to it, you must peruse as soon as possible, and send which you must be well acquainted with.

it back with all speed by the bearer Ramadoo, Your peasher Vancatroyloo is a very care- accompanied by three or four of your people, ful god man-he is well experienced in busi

to the end that no accident may happen on the ness-he has bound me by an oath to keep all road. These people must be ordered to march this business secret, and that his own, yours, and

in the night only, and to arrive here with the my lives are responsible for it. I write this greatest dispatch. You sent ten mangoes for letter to you with the greatest reluctance, my master, and two for me, all which I have and I signified the same io your peasher, and delivered to my master, thinking that ten was declared that I would not write to you by any

not sufficient to present him with. I write mcans ; to this the peasher urged, iha: if I did this for your information, and salute you with

ten thousand respects. not write to his master, how could he know to whom he (the peasher) delivered the money, and what must his master think of it? therefore I I, Muttu Kistnah, of Madras Patnam, write you this letter, and send it by my ser

dubash, declare, That I perfectly vant Ramanah, accompanied by the peasher's

understand the Gentoo language; servant, and it will come safe to your hands:

and do most solemnly affirm, that the after perusal you will send it back to me im

foregoing is a true translation of the mediately-until I receive it I don't like to

annexed paper writing from the Geneat my victuals, or take any sleep. Your

too language. seasher took his ath, and urged me to write

(Signed) Muttu Kistanh.

Vol. 1,--29

SUBSTANCE OF MR. BURKE'S SPEECH

IN THE DEBATE ON THE ARMY ESTIMATES, IN THE HOUSE OF COM MONS, ON TUESDAY, THE 9TH DAY OF FEBRUARY, 1790. COMPREHENDING A DISCUSSION OF THE PRESENT SITUATION OF AFFAIRS IN FRANCE.

MR. Burke's speech on the report of the balance. If the increase of peace establish army estimates has not been correctly stated ments demanded of parliament agreed with the in some of the public papers. It is of conse- manifest appearance of the balance, confidence quence :0 him not to be misunderstood. The in ministers, as to the particulars, would be matter which incidentally came into discussion very proper. If the increase was not at all is of the most serious importance. It is thoughisapported by any such appearance, he thought that the heads and substance of the speech great jealousy might, and ought to be, enter will answer the purpose sufficiently. If in tained on that subject. making the abstract, through defect of memory, That he did not find, on a review of all in the person who now gives it, any difference Europe, that, politically, we stood in the at a!! should be perceived from the speech as smallest degree of danger from any one state it was spoken, it will not, the editor imagines, or kingdom it contained; nor that any other be found in any thing which may amount to a foreign powers than our own allies were likely retraction of the opinions he then maintained, to obtain a considerable preponderance in the or to any softening in the expressions in which scale. they were conveyed.

That France had hitherto been our first Mr. Burke spoko a considerable time in object, in all considerations concerning the answer to various arguments which had been balance of power. The presence or absence insisted upon by Mr. Grenville and Mr. Pitt, of France totally varied every sort of speculafor keeping an increased peace establishment, tion relative to that balance. and against an improper jealousy of the mi- That France is, at this time, in a political nisters, in whom a full confidence, subject to light, to be considered as expunged out of the responsibility, ought to be placed, on account system of Europe. Whether she could ever of their knowledge of the real situation of appear in it again, as a leading power, was affairs; the exact state of which it frequently not easy to determine: but at present he conhappened, that they could not disclose, with sidered France as not politically existing; and out violating the constitutional and political most assuredly it would take up much time to secrecy, necessary to the well-being of their restore her to her former active existencecountry.

Gallos quoque in bellis floruisse audivimus, Mr. Burke said in substance, That confi- might possibly be the language of the rising dence might become a vice, and jealousy a generation. He did not mean to deny that it virtue, according to circumstances. That con- was our duty to keep our eye on that nation, fidence, of all public virtues, was the most and to regulate our preparation by the sympdangerous, and jealousy in a house of commons, toms of her recovery. of all public vices, the most tolerable ; espe- That it was to her strength, not to her form cially where the number and the charge of of government, which we were to attend; beo standing armies, in time of peace, was the cause republics, as well as monarchies, were question.

susceptible of ambition, jealousy, and anger, That in the annual mutiny bill, the annual the usual causes of war. army was declared to be for the purpose of But it, while France continued in this swoon preserving the balance of power in Europe. we should go on increasing our expenses, we The propriety of its being larger or smaller should certainly make ourselves less a match depended, therefore, upon the true state of that for her, when i became our concern to arm

It was said, that as she had speedily fallen, in Europe, and with it a perfect despotism she might speedily rise again. He doubted Though that despotism was proudly arrayed ir. this. That the fall from an height was with manners, gallantry, splendour, magnificence, in accelerated velocity; but to list a weight up and even covered over with the imposing robes to that height again was withcult, and opposed of science, literature, and arts, it was, in by the laws of physicai and political gravitation. government, nothing better than a painted and

In a political visw, France was low indeed. gilded tyranny; in religion, a hard, stern into She had lost every thing, eveu to her name. lerance, the fil companion and auxiliary to the • Jacet ingens littore truncus,

despotic tyranny which prevailed in its governAvolsumque humeris caput, et sine nomine

ment. The same character of desputism insicorpus."

nuated itself into every court of Europe—the He was astonished at it-he was alarmed at

same spirit of disproportioned magnificence: it-he trembled at the uncertainty of all human the same love of standing armies, above these greatness.

ability of the people. In particular, our then Since the house had been prorogued in the sovereigns, King Charles and King James, summer much work was done in France. The fell in love with the government of their neighFrench had shewn themselves the ablest archi- bour, so flattering to the pride of kings. °A tects of ruin that had hitherto existed in the similarity of sentiments brought on connections world. In that very short space of time they equally dangerous to the interests and liberiies had completely pulled down to the ground, their of their country. It were well that the infecmonarchy; their church; their nobility; their

tion had gone no farther than the throne. The law; their revenue ; their army; their navy; successful, unchecked in its operations, and

admiration of a government flourishing and their commerce; their arts; and their manufactures. They had done their business for us

seeming therefore to compass its objects more as rivals, in a way in which twenty Ramillies speedily and effectually, gained something upon or Blenheims could never have done it. Were

all ranks of people. The good patriots of that we absolute conqucrours, and France to lie day, however, struggled against it.

Thcy prostrate at our feet, we should be ashamed to sought nothing more anxiously than to break send a commission to settle their affairs, which

off all communication with France, and to could impose so hard a law upon the French, beget a total alienation from its councils and and so destructive of all their consequence as

its example; which, by the animosity preva

lent between the abettors of their religious sysa nation, as that they had imposed on themselves.

tem and the assertors of ours, was, in some France, by the mere circumstance of its degree, effected. vicinity, had been, and in a degree always

This day the evil totally changeul in must be, an object of our vigilance, either with France; but there is an evil there. The disregard to her actual power, or to her influence

ease is altered; but the vicinity of the two and example. As to the former, he had spoken;

countries remains, and must remain; and the as to the latter, (her example,) he should

natural mental habits of mankind are s.ch,

say a few words: for by this example our friend that the present distemper' of France is fai ship and our intercourse with that nation had

more likely to be contagious than the old one, once been, and might again, become more

for it is not quite easy to spread a passio:: for dangerous to us than their worst hostility.

servitude among the people: but in all eriis of In the last century, Louis the Fourteenth

the opposite kind our natural inclinations are had established a greater and better disciplined flattered. In the case of despotism there is military force than ever had been before seen

the fædum crimen servitutis ; in the last the

falsa species libertatis; and accordingly, as the * Mr. Burke, probably, had in his mind the historian says, promis auribus accipitur. remainder of the passage, and was filled with In the last age we were in danger of being some congenial apprehensions :

entangled by the example of France in the net Hec finis Priami fatorum; hic exitus illum of a relentless despotism. It is not necessary Sose tulit, Trojam incensam, et prolapsa vi.

to say any thing upon that example. It exists Pergama; lot quandam populis, terrisque, su.

no longer. Our present danger from the experbum

ample of a people, whose character knows nc Regnatorem Asiæ. Jacet ingens littore iruncus, medium, is, with regard to government, a darArolsumque humeris caput, et sine nomine

ger from anarchy; a danger of being led through corpus. . Al me tum primum sævus circumstetit horror;

an admiration of successful fraud and violence, Obstepui : subiil chari genitoris imago".

to an imitation of the excesses of an irrational,

dentem

unprinciplzd, proscribing, confiscating, plun- wicked persons had shewn a strong disposidering, ferocious, bloody,

and tyrannical demo- tion to recommend an imitation of the French cracy. On the side of religion, the danger of spirit of reform. He was so strongly opposed their example is no longer from intolerance, to any the least tendency towards the means but from atheism ; a foul, unnatural vice, foe of introducing a democracy like theirs, as well to all the dignity and consolation of mankind; as to the end itself

, that much as it would afflict which seems in France, for a long time, to him, if such a thing could be attempted, and have been embodied into a faction, accredited, that any friend of his could concur in such and almost avowed.

measures, (he was far, very far, from believing These are our present dangers from France: they could,) he would abandon his best friends, but, in his opinion, the very worst part of the and join with his worst enemies to oppose example set is, in the late assumption of citi- either the means or the end; and to resist all zenship by the army, and the whole of the ar violent exertions of the spirit of innovation, so rangement, or rather disarrangement of their distant from all principles of true and safe remilitary. He was sorry that his right ho- formation ; a spirit well calculated to overturn nourable friend (Mr. Fox) had dropped even states, but perfectly unfit to amend them. a word expressive of exultation on that cir. That he was no enemy to reformation. Alcumstance; or that he seemed of opinion that most every business in which he was much conthe objection from standing armies was at all cerned, from the first day he sat in that house !cssened by it. He attributed this opinion of to that hour, was a business of reformation ; Mr. Fox entirely to his known zeal for the and when he had not been employed in corbest of all causes, Liberty. That it was with recting, he had been employed in resisting a pain inexpressible he was obliged to have abuses. Some traces of this spirit in him now even the shadow of a difference with his friend, stand on their statute-book. In his opinion, whose authority would be always great with any thing which unnecessarily tore to pieces him, and with all thinking people-Quæ max- the contexture of the state, not only prevented ima semper censetur nobis, et erit que maxima all real reformation, but introduced evils which semper.-His confidence in Mr. Fox was such, would call, but perhaps, call in vain, for new and so ample, as to be almost implicit. That reformation. he was not ashamed to avow that degree of That he thought the French nation very un docility. That when the choice is well made, wise. What they valued themselves on, was

strengthens instead of oppressing our intel- a disgrace to them. They had gloried (and oct. That he who calls in the aid of an equal some people in England had thought fit to take understanding doubles his own. He who pro share in that glory) in making a revolution ; fits of a superiour understanding, raises his as if revolutions were good things in themselves. powers to a level with the height of a superiour All the horrours, and all the crimes of the understanding he unites with. He had found anarchy which led to their revolution, whicn the benefit of such a junction, and would not attend its progress, and which may virtually lightly depart from it. He wished almost, on attend it in its establishment, pass for nothing all occasions, that his sentiments were under- with the lovers of revolutions. The French stood to be conveyed in Mr. Fox's words; and have made their way through the destruction that he wished, as among the greatest benefits of their country, to a bad constitution, when he could wish the country, an eminent share they were absolutely in possession of a good of power to that right honourable gentleman; one. They were in possession of it the day because he knew that, to his great and mas- the states met in separate orders. Their buterly understanding, he had joined the greatest siness, had they been either virtuous, or wise, possible degree of that natural moderation, or had been left to their own judgment, was which is the best corrective of power ; that he to secure the stability and independence of the was of the most artless, candid, open, and be states, according to those orders, under the nevolent disposition; disinterested in the ex- monarch on the throne. It was then their duty treme; of a temper mild and placable, even to to redress grievances. a fault ; without one drop of gall in his whole Instead of redressing grievances, and imconstitution.

proving the fabric of their state, to wliich they That the house must perceive, from his were called by their monarch, and sent by coming forward to mark an expression or two their country, they were made to take a very of his best friend, how anxious he was to different course. They first destroyed all the the distemper of France from the least counte balances and counterpoises which serve to fis nance in England, where he wus sure some the state, and to give it a steady direction; and

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