fine figure we please; but we never can give it words, which being peculiarly devoted to pase those enlivening touches which it may receive sionate subjects, and always used by those from words. To represent an angel in a pic who are under the influence of any passion, ture, you can only draw a beautiful young man touch and move us more than those which far winged: but what painting can furnish out any more clearly and distinctly express the subject thing so grand as the addition of one word," the matter. We yield to sympathy what we refuse angel of the Lord?" It is true, I have here to description. The truth is, all verbal descrip no clear idea ; but these words affect the mind tion, merely as naked description, though never more than the sensible image did; which is all so exact, conveys so poor and insufficient an I contend for. A picture of Priam dragged to idea of the thing described, that it could the altar's foot, and there murdered, if it were scarcely have the smallest effect, if the speaker well executed, would undoubtedly be very did not call in to his aid those modes of speech moving; but there are very aggravating cir- that mark a strong and lively feeling in himcumstances, which it could never represent: self. Then, by the contagion of our passions, Sanguine fædantem quos ipse sacraderat ignes. we catch a fire already kindled in another, As a further instance, let us consider those lines which probably might never have been struck of Milton, where he describes the travels of the ly conveying the passions, by those means

out by the object described. Words, by strong. fallen angels through their dismal habitation

which we have already mentioned, fully com -O'er many a dark and dreary vale

pensate for their weakness in other respects. They pass'd, and many a region dolorous; O'er many a frozen, many a fiery Alp;

It may be observed, that very polished lan Rocks, caves, lakes, fens, bogs, dens, and guages, and such as are praised for their supe shades of death,

riour clearness and perspicuity, are generally A universe of death.

deficient in strength. The French language Here is displayed the force of union in has that perfection and that defect. Whereas Rocks, caves, lakes,dens, bogs, fens,and shades; the oriental tongues, and in general the lan

guages of most unpolished people, have a great which yet would lose the greatest part of their force and energy of expression; and this is but effect, if they were not the

natural. Uncultivated people are but ordinary Rocks, caves, lakes, dens, bogs, fens, and observers of things, and not critical in distinshades

guishing them; but, for that reason, they admire of Death.

more, and are more affected with what they see, This idea or this affection caused by a word, and therefore express themselves in a warmer which nothing but a word could annex to the and more passionate manner. If the affection others, raises a very great degree of the sub- be well conveyed, it will work its effect without lime, and this sublime is raised yet higher by any clear idea ; often without any idea at all of what follows, a “universe of Death." Here the thing which has originally given rise to it, are again two ideas not presentable but by lan- It might be expected from the fertility of the guage ; and an union of them great and ama- subject, that I should consider poetry as it zing beyond conception; if they may properly regards the sublime and beautiful, more at be called ideas which prosent no distinct image large; but it must be observed that in this to the mind :-—but still it will be difficult to light it has been often and well handled already. conceive how words can move the passions It was not my design to enter into the criticism which belong to real objects, without represent of the sublime and beautiful in any art, but to ing these objects clearly. This is difficult to attempt to lay down such principles as may us, because we do not sufficiently distinguish, tend to ascertain, to distinguish, and to form a in our observations upon language, between a sort of standard for them; which purposes I clear expression, and a strong expression. thought might be best effected by an inquiry These are frequently confounded with each into the properties of such things in nature, as other, though they are in reality extremely dif- raise love and astonishment in us; and by ferent. The former regards the understanding; shewing in what manner they operated to prothe latter belongs to the passions. The one duce these passions. Words were only so far describes a thing as it is; the latter describes to be considered, as to shew upon what princiit as it is felt. Now, as there is a moving - ple they were capable of being the representatone of voice, an impassioned countenance, an tives of these natural things, and by what agitated gesture, which affect independently of powers they were able to affect us often as the things about which they are exerted, so strongly as the things they represent, and there are words, and certain dispositions of sometimes much more strongly.





The late administration came into employ- posed and encouraged public meetings and tree ment, under the mediation of the Duke of consultations of merchants from all parts of the Cumberland, on the tenth day of July 1765; and kingdom; by which means the truest lights was removed, upon a plan settled by the Earl have been received; great benefits have been of Chatham, on the thirtieth day of July 1766, already derived to manufactures and comhaving lasted just one year and twenty days. merce; and the most extensive prospects are In that space of time

opened for further improvement. The distractions of the British empire were Under them, the interests of our northern composed, by the repeal of the American stamp and southern colonies, before that time jarring

and dissonant, were understood, compared, But the constitutional superiority of Great adjusted, and perfectly reconciled. The pasBritain was preserved, by the act for securing sions and animosities of the colonies, by judithe dependence of the colonies.

cious and lenient measures, were allayed and Private houses were relieved from the juris- composed, and the foundation laid for a lasting diction of the excise, by the repeal of the cyder- agreement among them. lawr.

Whilst that administration provided for the The personal liberty of the subject was con- liberty and commerce of their country, as the firmed, by the resolution against general warrants. true basis of its power, they consulted its inte

The lawful secrets of business and friend- rests, they asserted its honour abroad, with ship were rendered inviolable, by the resolution temper and with firmness; by making an for condemning the seizure of papers.

advantageous treaty of commerce with Russia; The trade of America was set free from by obtaining a liquidation of the Canada bills, injudicious and ruinous impositions—its reve- to the satisfaction of the proprietors; by revinue was improved, and settled upon a rational ving and raising from its ashes the negotiation foundation-its commerce extended with fo for the Manilla ransom, which had been extinreign countries; while all the advantages were guished and abandoned by their predecessors. secured to Great Britain, by the act for repeal- They treated their sovereign with decency; ing certain duties, and encouraging, regulating, with reverence. They discountenanced, and, and securing the trade of this kingdom, and the it is hoped, for ever abolished, the dangerous British dominions in America.

and unconstitutional practice of removing miliMaterials were provided and insured to our tary officers for their votes in parliament. They manufactures—the sale of these manufactures firmly adhered to those friends of liberty, who was increased the African trade preserved had run all hazards in its cause, and provided and extended—the principles of the act of for them in preference to every other claim. navigation pursued, and the plan improved With the Earl of Bute they had no personal and the trade for bullion rendered free, secure, connection; no correspondence of councils. and permanent, by the act for opening certain They neither courted him nor persecuted him. ports in Dominica and Jamaica.

They practised no corruption; nor were they That administration was the first which pro- even suspected of it. They sold no offices

Vol. 1.-7.


They obtained no reversions or pensions, eithering, nor heightened by the colouring of elo coming in or going out, for themselves, their quence. They are the services of a single year. families, or their dependents.

The removal of that administration from In the prosecution of their measures they power, is not to them premature; since they were traversed by an opposition of a new and were in office long enough to accomplish many singular character; an opposition of place- plans of public utility; and, by their persemen and pensicners. They were supported verance and resolution, rendered the way by the confidence of the nation. And having smooth and easy to their successors; having held their officos under many difficulties and left their king and their country in a much discouragements, they left them at the express better condition than they found them. By command, as they had accepted them at the the temper they manifest, they seem to have earnest request, of their royal master.

now no other wish, than that their successors These are plain facts; of a clear and public may do the public as real and as faithful sernature; neither extended by elaborate reason- vice as they have done.




“ Tite, si quid ego adjuvero curamve levasso,

Quæ nunc te coquit, et versat sub pectore fixa,
Ecquid erit prelii?"

ENN. ap. Cic.


Party divisions, whether on the whole ope- of politics, a continua. fire has been kepating for good or evil, are things inseparable upon them; sometimes from the unwieldly from free government. This is a truth which, column of quartos and octavos; sometimes I believe, admits little dispute, having been from the light squadrons of occasional pamestablished by the uniform experience of all phlets and flying sheets. Every month has ages. The part a good citizen ought to take brought on its periodical calumny. The abuse in these divisions, has been a matter of much has taken every shape which the ability of the deeper controversy. But God forbid, that any writers could give it; plain invective, clumsy controversy relating to our essential morals raillery, misrepresented anecdote.* No meshould admit of no decision. It appears to thod of vilifying the measures, the abilities, me, that this question, like most of the others the intentions, or the persons which compose which regard our duties in life, is to be deter- that body, has been omitted. mined by our station in it. Private men may On their part nothing was opposed but pabe wholly neutral, and entirely innocent; but tience and character. It was a matter of the they who are legally invested with public trust, most serious and indignant affliction to persons, or stand on the high ground of rank and dig. who thought themselves in conscience bound to nity, which is trust implied, can hardly in any oppose a ministry, dangerous from its very case remain indifferent, without the certainty constitution, as well as its measures, to find of sinking into insignificance; and thereby in themselves, whenever they faced their advereffect desertirg that post in which, with the saries, continually attacked on the rear by a fullest authority, and for the wisest purposes, set of men who pretended to be actuated by the laws and institutions of their country have motives similar to theirs. They saw that the fixed them. However, if it be the office of plan long pursued with but too fatal a success, those who are thus circumstanced, to take a was to break the strength of this kingdom; by decided part, it is no less their duty that it frittering down the bodies which compose it; should be a sober one. It ought to be circum- by fomenting bitter and sanguinary animosiscribed by the same laws of decorum, and ties, and by dissolving every tie of social affecm balanced by the same temper, which bound tion and public trust. These virtuous men, and regulate all the virtues. In a word, we such I am warranted by public opinion to call ought to act in party with all the moderation them, were resolved rather to endure every which does not absolutely enervate that vigour, thing, than co-operate in that design. A diand quench that fervency of spirit, without versity of opinion upon almost every principla which the best wishes for the public good must of politics had indeed drawn a strong line of evaporate in empty speculation.

separation between them and some others. It is probably from some such motives that However, they were desirous not to extend tho the friends of a very respectable party in this

* History of the Minority. History of the Re. singdom have been hitherto silent. For these peal of the Stamp.

Act. Considerations on Trado Iwo years past, from one and the same quarter and Finance. Political Register, &c. &r.


misiortune by unnecessary bitterness; they mons is swept into this grand reservoir of par wished to prevent a difference of opinion on litics. the commonwealth from festering into ranco- As to the composition, it bears a striking rous and incurable hostility. Accordingly they and whimsical resemblance to a funeral serendeavoured that all past controversies should mon, not only in the pathetic prayer with be forgotten; and that enough for the day which it concludes, but in the style and tenour should be the evil thereof. There is however of the whole performance. It is piteously dolea limit at which forbearanco ceases to be a ful, nodding every now and then towards dul. virtue. Men may tolerate injuries, whilst they ness; well stored with pious frauds, and, like are only personal to themselves. But it is not most discourses of the sort, much better calcuthe first of virtues to bear with moderation the lated for the private advantage of the preacher indignities that are offered to our country. A than the edification of the hearers. piece has at length appeared, from the quarter The author has indeed so involved his subof all the former attacks, which upon every ject, that it is frequently far from being easy public consideration demands an

io comprehend his meaning. It is happy for Whilst persons more equal to this business the public that it is never difficult to fathom his may be engaged in affairs of greater moment, I design. The apparent intention of this author hope I shall be excused, if, in a few hours of a is to draw the most aggravated, hideous, and time not very important, and from such mate- deformed picture of the state of this country rials as I have by me, (more than enough how- which his querelous eloquence, aided by the ever for this purposo,) I undertake to set the arbitrary dominion he assumes ove: fact, is cafacts and arguments of this wonderful perfor- pable of exhibiting. Had he attributed our mance in a proper light. I will endeavour to misfortunes to their true cause, the injudicious state what this piece is; the purpose for which tampering of bold, improvident, and visionary I take it to have been written ; and the effects ministers at one period, or to their supine nego (supposing it should have any effect at all) it ligence and traitorous dissensions at another, must necessarily produce.

the complaint had been just, and might have This piece is called, The present State of the been useful. But far the greater and much Nation. It may be considered as a sort of the worst part of the state which he exhibits is digest of the avowed maxims of a certain poli- owing, according to his representation, not to tical school, the effects of whose doctrines and accidental and extrinsic mischiefs attendant on practices this country will feel long and severely. the nation, but to its radical weakness and It is made up of a farrago of almost every topic constitutional distempers. All this however is which has been agitated in parliamentary de- not without purpose. The author is in hopes, bate, or private conversation, on national affairs that, when we are fallen into a fanatical terfor these last seven years. The oldest contro- rour for the national salvation, we shall then versies are hauled out of the dust with which be ready to throw ourselves, in a sort of precitime and neglect had covered them. Arguments pitate trust, some strange disposition of the ten times repeated, a thousand times answered mind jumbled up of presumption and despair, before, are here repeated again. Public ac- into the hands of the most pretending and forcounts formerly printed and re-printed revolve ward undertaker. One such undertaker at least opce more, and find their old station in this he has in readiness for our service. But let sober meridian. All the common-place lamen- me assure this generous person, that however tations upon the decay of trade, the increase he may succeed in exciting our fears for the of taxes, and the high price of labour and pro- public danger, he will find it hard indeed to visions, we here retailed again and again in engage us to place any confidence in the system the same tone with which they have drawled he proposes for our security. through columns of Gazetteers and Adverti- His undertaking is great. The purpose of sers for a century together. Paradoxes which this pamphlet, and at which it aims directly or affront common sense, and uninteresting barren obliquely in every page, is to persuade the pubtruths which generate no conclusion, are lic of three or four of the most difficult points thrown in to augment unwieldly bulk, without in the world—that all the advantages of the late adding any thing to weight. Because two ac- war were on the part of the Bourbon alliance, cusations are better than one, contradictions that the peace of Paris perfectly consulted the are set staring one another in the face, without dignity and interest of this country; and that even an attempt to reconcile them. And to give the American stamp-act was a master-piece of the whole a sort of portentous air of labour policy and finance; that the only good minister and information, the table of the house of com- this nation has enjoyed since his majesty's

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