has in it none of those seasonings that recommend so many of the writings which are in vogue among us.

As, on the one side, my paper has not in it a single word of news, a reflexion in politics, nor a stroke of party; so on the other, there are no fashionable touches of infidelity, no obscene ideas nor satires upon priesthood, marriage, and the like popular topics of ridicule; no private scandal, nor anything that may tend to the defamation of particular persons, families, or societies.

There is not one of these above-mentioned subjects that would not sell a very indifferent paper, could I think of gratifying the public by such mean and base methods. But notwithstanding I have rejected every thing that savours of party, every thing that is loose and immoral, and every thing that might create uneasiness in the minds of particular persons, I find that the demand for my papers has increased every month since their first appearance in the world. This does not perhaps reflect so much honour upon myself, as on my readers, who give a much greater attention to discourses of virtue and morality,

than ever 20 I expected, or indeed could hope.

When I broke loose from that great body of writers who have employed their wit and parts in propagating vice and irreligion », I did not question but I should be treated as an odd kind of fellow that had a mind to appear singular in my way of writing: but the general reception I have found, convinces me that the world is not so corrupt as we are apt to imagine; and that if those men of parts, who have been employed in vitiating the age, had endeavoured to rectify and amend it, they needed not

have sacrificed their good sense and virtue to their fame and 30 reputation. No man is so sunk in vice and ignorance, but

there are still some hidden seeds of goodness and knowledge in him, which give him a relish of such reflexions and speculations as have an aptness to improve the mind, and make the heart better.

I have shewn in a former paper, with how much care I have avoided all such thoughts as are loose, obscene, or immoral ; and I believe my reader would still think the better of me, if he knew the pains I am at in qualifying what I write after such a

manner, that nothing may be interpreted as aimed at private 40 persons. For this reason, when I draw any faulty character, I

consider all those persons to whom the malice of the world may possibly apply it, and take care to dash it with such particular circumstances as may prevent all such ill-natured applications. If I write anything on a black man, I run over in my mind all the eminent persons in the nation who are of that complexion : when I place an imaginary name at the head of a character, I examine every syllable and letter of it, that it may not bear any resemblance to one that is real. I know very well the value

which every man sets upon his reputation, and how painful it 10 is to be exposed to the mirth and derision of the public, and

should therefore scorn to divert my reader at the expence of any private man.

As I have been thus tender of every particular person's reputation, so I have taken more than ordinary care not to give offence to those who appear in the higher figures of life. I would not make myself merry even with a piece of pasteboard that is invested with a public character; for which reason I have never glanced upon the late designed procession of his

Holiness n and his attendants, notwithstanding it might have 20 afforded matter to many ludicrous speculations. Among those

advantages which the public may reap from this paper, it is not the least that it draws men's minds off from the bitterness of party, and furnishes them with subjects of discourse that may be treated without warmth or passion. This is said to have been the first design of those gentlemen who set on foot the Royal Society n, and had then a very good effect, as it turned many of the greatest geniuses of that age to the disquisitions of natural knowledge, who, if they had engaged in politics with the same

parts and application, might have set their country in a flame. 30 The air pump, the barometer, the quadrant, and the like in

ventions, were thrown out to those busy spirits, as tubs and barrels are to a whale n, that he may let the ship sail on without disturbance, while he diverts himself with those innocent amusements.

I have been so very scrupulous in this particular of not hurting any man's reputation, that I have forborne mentioning even such authors as I could not name with honour. This I must confess to have been a piece of very great self-denial : for as the public

relishes nothing better than the ridicule which turns upon a 40 writer of eminence, so there is nothing which a man that has but



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a very ordinary talent in ridicule may execute with greater ease. One might raise laughter for a quarter of a year together upon the works of a person who has published but a very few volumes. For which reason I am astonished, that those who have appeared against this paper have made so very little of it. The criticisms which I have hitherto published have been made with an intention rather to discover beauties and excellencies in the writers of my own time, than to publish any of their faults and imperfections. In the mean while I should o take it for a very great favour from some of my underhand detractors, if they would break all measures with me so far, as to give me a pretence for examining their performances with an impartial eye: nor shall I look upon it as any breach of charity to criticise the author, so long as I keep clear of the person.

In the mean while, till I am provoked to such hostilities, I shall from time to time endeavour to do justice to those who have distinguished themselves in the politer parts of learning, and to point out such beauties in their works as may have escaped the observation of others.

As the first place among our English poets is due to Milton, and as I have drawn more quotations out of him than from any other, I shall enter into a regular criticism upon his Paradise Lost, which I shall publish every Saturday, till I have given my thoughts upon that poem.

I shall not however presume to impose upon others my own particular judgment on this author, but only deliver it as my private opinion. Criticism is of a very large extent, and every particular master in this art has his favourite passages in an author, which do not equally strike the best judges. It will

be sufficient for me if I discover many beauties or imperfections jo which others have not attended to, and I should be very glad to see any of our eminent writers publish their discoveries on the same subject. In short, I would always be understood to write my papers of criticism in the spirit which Horace has expressed in those two famous lines:

-Si quid novisti rectius istis,
Candidus imperti; si non, his utere mecum.

EPIST. 1. 6. 68. 'If you have made any better remarks of your own, communicate them with candour, if not, make use of these I present you with


No. 445. The penny stamp just imposed obliges the Spectator to raise

his price. He has been charged with making political attacks
through his paper, but his ridicule has never been directed except
against the vicious.
Tanti non es, ais. Sapis Luperce.

Mart. Epig. 11. 118.
You say, Lupercus, what I write

I’n't worth so much : you're in the right. This is the day on which many eminent authors will probably publish their last words. I am afraid that few of our weekly historians, who are men that above all others delight in war, will be able to subsist under the weight of a stamp, and an approaching peace n. A sheet of blank paper that must have this new imprimatur clapt upon it, before it is qualified to communicate any thing to the public, will make its way in the world very heavily. In short, the necessity of carrying a stamp, and the improbability of

notifying a bloody battle, will, I am afraid, both concur to the 10 sinking of those thin folios, which have every other day retailed

to us the history of Europe for several years last past. A facetious friend of mine, who loves a pun, calls this present mortality among authors, The fall of the leaf.

I remember, upon Mr. Baxter's n death, there was published a sheet of very good sayings, inscribed, The last words of Mr. Baxter. The title sold so great a number of these papers, that about a week after there came out a second sheet, inscribed, More last words of Mr. Baxter. In the same manner, I have reason to

think, that several ingenious writers, who have taken their leave 20 of the public, in farewell papers, will not give over so, but intend

to appear again, though perhaps under another form, and with a different title. Be that as it will, it is my business in this place to give an account of my own intentions, and to acquaint my reader with the motives by which I act in this great crisis of the republic of letters.

I have been long debating in my own heart, whether I should throw up my pen, as an author that is cashiered by the act of parliament n, which is to operate within these four and twenty

hours, or whether I should still persist in laying my speculations 30 from day to day before the public. The argument which pre

vails with me most on the first side of the question is, that I am



informed by my bookseller he must raise the price of every single paper to twopence, or that he shall not be able to pay the duty of it. Now, as I am very desirous my readers should have their learning as cheap as possible, it is with great difficulty that I comply with him in this particular.

However, upon laying my reasons together in the balance, I find that those which plead for the continuance of this work have much the greater weight. For, in the first place, in recompence

for the expence to which this will put my readers, it is to be to hoped they may receive from every paper so much instruction

as will be a very good equivalent. And, in order to this, I would not advise any one to take it in, who, after the perusal of it, does not find himself twopence the wiser or the better man for it; or who, upon examination, does not believe that he has had two penny worth of mirth or instruction for his money.

But I must confess there is another motive which prevails with me more than the former. I consider that the tax on paper was given for the support of the government; and as I have enemies, who are apt to pervert every thing I do or say, I fear they would o ascribe the laying down my paper, on such an occasion, to a

spirit of malecontentedness, which I am resolved none shall ever justly upbraid me with. No! I shall glory in contributing my utmost to the weal public; and if my country receives five or six pounds a day by my labours, I shall be very well pleased to find myself so useful a member. It is a received maxim, that no honest man should enrich himself by methods that are prejudicial to the community in which he lives : and by the same rule I think we may pronounce the person to deserve very well of his countrymen, whose labours bring more into the public coffers than into his o own pocket.

Since I have mentioned the word enemies, I must explain myself so far as to acquaint my reader, that I mean only the insignificant party-zealots on both sides; men of such poor narrow souls, that they are not capable of thinking on any thing but with an eye to Whig or Tory. During the course of this paper, I have been accused by these despicable wretches of trimming, time serving, personal reflection, secret satire, and the like. Now though, in these my compositions, it is visible to any reader of common sense that I consider nothing but my subject, which is o always of an indifferent nature; how is it possible for me to

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