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killed at the Battle of the Boyne, hale and average duration of life; though there are vigorous, though 83, who used to say that more instances of extreme longevity among “ when he was young he conversed with old the latter than the former. It is said, but men to gain experience, and when old de- we really are not sure about it, that matrilighted in the company of the young to mony is conducive to long life. Hufeland keep up his spirits."
gives a solemn warning to bachelors. He Hippocrates, the leading physician of his says: “There is not one instance of a day, long ago—died at 109, tradition says bachelor having attained a great age.” Now, -advised pure air, cleanliness, moderation while it may be that, by a wise dispensain all things, exercise, and a daily friction of tion of Providence, these comparatively usethe clay. It does not appear that modern less members of the social world die off doctors are able to improve on his prescrip- sooner than their brethren who have contion, and they generally content themselves jugated, yet the assertion of the Prussian with following the divine old man of Cos. authority is altogether too sweeping. Kant Cases are found, however, which show long lived to 80, Swedenborg to 84, Alexander life to be quite compatible with the absence von Humboldt to go, Hobbes to 91 ; beof these conditions. There was the Rev. sides many other single gentlemen who W. Davis, an English clergyman, who reached a most venerable age. But Hufelived to the age of 105; for the last 35 land was evidently prejudiced in favour of years of his life he took no out-door exer- matrimony; for he says further : “All peocise ; daily had his hot buttered rolls for ple who have been very old were married breakfast, and roast beef for supper, with more than once ;” and he instances the case abundance of wine to wash it down. In of one De Longueville, who attained the age the year 1806, there died in London a noted of 110, and had ten wives, the last in his character of her day, Mrs. Lewson, aged 99th year! Poor man! to be thus untimely 106 ; she never washed herself, very seldom cut off in the midst of a career of usefulas much as swept her rooms; her labours at ness! But perhaps if he had not been so the toilet were confined to smearing her matrimonially inclined he might have lived face and neck with hog's lard, with an occa- much longer. sional touch of rouge. We can quite believe Even though we take into consideration the report that her chief companions were the occupation and surrounding circumcats and dogs.
stances of the individual, we do not arrive While these cases and many others show at any satisfactory conclusion as to what is that old age is possible in defiance of all most conducive to longevity. Among clergycommonly-received rules of hygiene, so also men, we find cases like those of Cardinal de the evidences are clear that neither climate, Solis, who live to be 110 ; Dr. Totty, an Engoccupation nor condition of life can be lish rector, of Hastings, 101 ; Bishop More specially depended upon ; more particularly ton of Litchfield, 95. Lawyers have gene in regard to extreme longevity. According rally been long-lived, as witness Lords Lyndto Finlaison's Tables, “Rural districts have hurst, Brougham, Mansfield, Stowell and the advantage of about one in two hundred Eldon, all of whom died in the neighbourdeaths above city districts, and one in five hood of 90. Physicians shew few examples hundred above the town districts.” Country, of longevity; more are to be found among therefore, is not so much better than city; literary men, like Samuel Rogers, living to and hot climates differ but little from cold. 93, and Fontenelle who completed his cen
The female sex seems to have some tury. In the arts, we read of Michael what the advantage of the male in the Angelo, who wore the four crowns of archi
tecture, sculpture, painting and poetry to the preserved him from all personal cares; he age of 90 ; Sir Christopher Wren finding had an abundant supply of self-conceit, rest after a life of 91 years ; Titian dying of which his friends doubtless pampered till he the plague at 99. Kings and princes who began to look on himself as “monarch of have lived active lives, provide us with few all he surveyed;" he had nothing to do, cases of extreme age. So, too, with soldiers, and he did nothing, except to exercise on though one case comes up before us—one himself his favourite hygienic hobby-the who was both soldier and king-blind old only marked feature of his life. From the Dandolo, chosen Doge of Venice at 84, age of thirty-six till his death, at over one storming Constantinople at the head of his hundred, he kept steadily to a diet of troops when 94, refusing to accept the twelve ounces of solid food and fourteen of offered throne of the Eastern Empire, to liquid daily. But what had more effect in which he was elected, at 96, and dying Doge prolonging his life than his regular diet was
the complete control under which he had If, then, extreme old age be possible brought his emotions, so that, to use his under so many and so varying conditions, own confession, “the death of relatives and we may well ask the question, upon what friends could make no impression on him does longevity depend? “Chiefly," replies but for a moment or two, and then it was Sir John Sinclair (Code of Health and Lon- over." zavity), "upon a certain bodily and mental Judging from Cornaro's case, as well as predisposition to longevity." An indefinite from others, we may safely conclude that answer, amounting in effect to little more while temperate and regular habits are conthan this, that certain people live long ducive to long life, the most important because they do not die sooner. And yet elements of all are easy circumstances, a be as good as we can give. For as
For as philosophic self-complacency, and that very some people are born with a predisposition moderate exercise of bodily and mental to grow tall, while others for no better powers which is oftener found connected reason remain short, so this unexplainable with mediocrity than with genius of a higher "predisposition" may increase or diminish order. All experience teaches that there is by many years the length of a man's life. a close relationship between the intensity
Another element of longevity is also to a and extensity of life. By intensity we mean great extent beyond the control of the indi- the rate of living; by extensity, its duravidual; and that is a complacent, self-satis- tion. The faster we live the sooner we die. fied disposition, an even temper, not easily All over-work, whether mental or physical, ruffled by the excitement of life, a calm whether valuable labour or reckless dissipaindifference to adverse circumstances ; in tion, is a draft on the future ; and the draft other words, that peculiar temperament will have to be paid with heavy interest. In possessed by some people which leads them this very rapid age the mass of mankind is to “ take things easy.” A marked example over-worked, rather than under-worked. And of this is found in the history of Lodowick instead of trying to ease the strain on the Cornaro, Venetian gentleman, whose the machinery, most of us are doing our * Treatise on Temperance” was translated utmost to crowd on more steam. Theoretiinto English as far back as 1678. Signor cally we may acknowledge the risk we run Cornaro had no public cares, for his family but it makes little difference in our practices. had a taint of treason which shut them out Life is short, we say, let us work while we from public life ; he had no domestic cares ; he possessed an ample competence which And, after all the grave lectures of health
reformers, there is some sense in this idea. haps more cast-iron still, we are apt to say In itself old age is not a desirable thing. with the old satirist, “ Longa dies igitur quid There are accessory circumstances which contulit What pleasure even in anticimay render it enviable ; but these do not pating a comparatively vigorous senility, if always exist. The tendency is to esteem we outlive our generation and outlive and honour those over whose heads many our usefulness? The grand-children beyears have passed, because we suppose that come the men and women who govern the with the passing of years wisdom has come. world; and they seldom work harmoniously "Intellect is the essence of age,” says Emer- with the grand-fathers. “Old age for counson. The superficial observer sees the sel !" But the busy workers have little snowy locks and wrinkled brow, and takes time to consult old age, and little inclinathese as the evidences of that ripened intel- tion to follow its advice when adverse. lect which he is prepared to venerate. But Will the mere fact of having lived many the age of the wise man is to be computed years console Old Age for his physical infrom his studies, not from his wrinkles. The conveniences, for his failing powers, for the intensity of a life of two-score years may neglect of his juniors, for the loss of all his have had richer results than the even tenor friends and companions ? Where will the of four-score. This is the idea of the old happiness be for the lonely centenarian, Veda : “He that can discriminate is the
“When the mossy marbles rest father of his father.” And is not the man
On the lips that he has pressed, who has worked with every nerve and mus
In their bloom ; cle till fifty, of as much value to society as he
And the names he loved to hear, who has dawdled out a century? Has he
Have been carved for many a year
On the tomb ?" not done more ? Does he not know more? And can he not then step aside from a busy As he looks on life's busy whirl, so change life to a deserved rest, leaving his memory less in its activity, its energy, and its vigour, enshrined in the affection and esteem of the yet ever changing in its forms and modes, circle where he moved-leaving a name
so different from what it was when he was more honourable far than he whose chief young, will he not cry with him of old : notoriety is from his many years—years “Yet hold me not forever in thine East; which we begin to count, as some one has How can my nature longer mix with thinc? said, when there is nothing else to count? Coldly thy rosy shadows bathe me, cold The legend of Tithonus does not exag
Are all thy lights, and cold my wrinkled feet
Upon thy glimmering thresholds, when the steam gerate the evils of a physical immortality ;
Floats up from those dim fields about the homos and when statistics assure us positively that Of happy men that have the power to die, more than half the people over eighty years And grassy barrows of the happier dead. are totally infirm in mind and body, we
Release me, and restore me to the ground.” scarcely feel tempted to desire a longevity Better far to work while there is strength to that shall take us into the regions of disa- work and when strength fails to cease from bility. When the prophets of hygiene point labour, and enter into rest there, us to our blunders, and lay down rules for “Where beyond these voices there is peace." our guidance like those of Cornaro, or per
GREAT BRITAIN, CANADA AND THE UNITED STATES.
HEN our last number went to press own colonies; who, at the Congress of
the question between Great Britain Vienna, while other powers demanded terand the United States was still in a somewhat ritory, demanded nothing but treaties for the undeveloped condition. We now propose, as suppression of the slave trade; and who for the most useful contribution which it is nearly half a century had maintained a conin our power to make to the discussion, to stant crusade against the trade, in which re-state a few facts which have been buried she had met with discouragement and even under ever-increasing piles of fiction, and the with obstruction from the Government of the knowledge of which is necessary to enable United States. us to do justice to the mother country, and Secession was facilitated, and the conduct in some measure also to Canada, whose of its authors was more or less justified in Southern sympathies real or supposed, were the eyes of many Americans and in those of included among the causes of offence. In the world at large by the idea prevalent at the dispute which has arisen about the Treaty the South, and extensively entertained even between the two parties at Ottawa, we have at the North, as to the individual sovereignty no inclination to take part. An occasion of the States, an idea somewhat loosely exfor reviewing their respective policy may pressed by the phrase State Right. Many present itself hereafter.
even of those who did not admit the docSlavery had divided the Union politically trine of State Right, regarded the Union as and socially into two distinct and antagon- a voluntary association, in which the States istic communities. All the world expected could never be held by force. Dr. Chanthat between these two communities a rup- ning, in enforcing the necessity of political ture would some day come. It came at virtue as a bond of cohesion, had said “our last, when, by the triumph of the Republic-Union is not like that of other nations, conan party in the Presidential Election of 1860, firmed by the habits of ages and riveted by the Southerners lost their political control force. It is a recent and still more a volunover the Union, and with it security for the tary union. It is idle to talk of force as maintenance of their own institutions. The binding us together. Nothing can retain a Union then split into two groups of States, member of this confederacy when resolved and the Southern group formed itself into a on separation. The only bonds that can new confederation, having African slavery permanently unite us are moral ones."* The as its distinctive basis.
Declaration of Independence laid it down For this event no one was responsible but as a universal principle that governments the people of the United States themselves, derive their authority from the consent of who had recognized slavery in their constitution, and who continued to recognize it *" Discourse on Spiritual Freedom,” Channing's till a military necessity enforced its aboli- works, People's edition, vol. II, pages 96, 97. tion. Least of all could any blame be said We are informed by the correspondent to whom we
owe the extract, that in an edition of Channing's works to rest on Great Britain, who had abolished published at Boston, during the civil war, this passby a great national sacrifice slavery in her age is suppressed, If so, its significance is increased.
the governed, and to that avowal ex-Presi- state that slavery was in no way threatened, dent Adams had appealed as his justifica- and to reject any sympathy tendered on antition for presenting a petition from some slavery grounds. The recovery of lost tercitizens of Massachusetts for the dissolution ! ritory and power was a natural object, and of the Union. * President Lincoln, himself perhaps as the world goes not immoral ; but had used language in the early part of his it was not one which could be expected to career which reads almost like a vindication excite the unanimous and enthusiastic symof the Southern Revolution. The idea of pathy of the human race, or in favour of secession was not unfamiliar even in New which other nations could be called upon to England, when New England was groaning suspend all ordinary rules of action. Great under the ascendancy of the Democratic Britain especially might be excused for reparty. These things are mentioned not to garding it with comparative coolness, as she prove that secession was right; but to prove was warned from the first, with the usual viothat those who thought coercion wrong lence of vituperation, by leading organs of were not necessarily enemies of mankind or American opinion that as soon as the South even of the American people.
had been crushed, the victorious arms of the The new confederation had from the first re-united republic would be turned against de facto the characteristics of a nation. It her American possessions. had a regular government deriving its power The war was waged from the beginning from popular suffrage and completely com- to the end as a regular war between nations. manding the obedience of the people In no single instance did the North venture throughout the whole of a vast and compact to treat the Southerners or any of them as territory. It was perfectly organized for all rebels. General Butler was lauded for hav. the purposes of legislation, administration ing “hanged a rebel" at New Orleans ; but and public justice. It had on foot arma- the man in question was hanged, not for rements sufficient to defend its territory, and bellion, but under the laws of war, for rising enforce the respect of foreign powers. against the garrison after the surrender of
After a vain attempt to effect a reconcilia- the city. That the Southerners were mere tion by offering fresh guarantees to slavery,t rebels was a fiction which derived some the Northern Confederation proceeded to colour from the circumstance of Secession subjugate the Southern by force of arms. Its and which was very naturally cherished at object in doing so was to restore the Union, the North ; but the conduct of foreign powin other words to recover lost territory and ers was necessarily regulated, and must in power. With the same object George III reason be judged, by facts and not by had attempted to subjugate the seceding fictions. The trophies of which the North colonies ; but George III had not recog- is full are not trophies of a victory over an nized the dependence of government on insurrection; they are trophies of a conquest. the will of the governed. With a small On the continent of Europe the war excited minority the desire to destroy slavery was comparatively little interest. But Great from the first the ruling motive. But on be- Britain was so intimately connected by half of the Government such a motive was origin, language and commercial ties with distinctly disclaimed by Mr. Seward, who the United States that the conflict may be instructed his representative in England to said to have morally extended to her
shores. The first feeling among the British *Congressional Globe, vol. II: p. 168.
was that of alarm at the impending ruin of +See the resolutions of Congress and those of the the cotton trade, and with it of the indusHouse of Representatives. Feb. 1861.
try which supported millions of the peo